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2015 / . 01 / . 13

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Steven Hoober / Twitter

1. Material Design

First, naturally, the over-referenced Flat Design. But I hope we start calling it something else because a few codified versions of it have started exposing it for what it is.

Even if you are not working in mobile app development, everyone should check out what Google is doing in it’s Material Design standards. Aside from allowing all sorts of neat control to the designer, it also is embracing the materials in which digital devices are built.

That was always the problem with skeuomorphism; that it was not following the principles of Good Design (in the 1950 MoMA manner) by embracing, contexualizing and building on the forms and materials we have, but pretending they are something else.

Now, we’re using pixels for what they are, building layers of interaction and meaning that reflect the way the browser or OS builds the site or application, and building for the way people interact with digital devices instead of emulating machine-era controls for faux familiarity.

2. Design First

There are some trends I have seen talked about regarding more in-house design and UX, and that converting to design thinking, but I detect an even more interesting trend sneaking in from the sidelines: Design first.

I work many projects where we first get together with the client and design the solution. Sure, it’s the right way, but some of these are revisions to projects where just a year before they gave it to the engineers to build first, and asked for a pretty skin.

The value of design is starting to get to the point even these organizations are starting with design. I have even encountered startups that are design first, founded by designers, and design principles.

LittleHoots is just one that is local to me—and where I heard the story recently. Despite being an otherwise traditional-looking, pitches and crowdsourcing digital startup they had to hire the developer as the whole founder team is design centric.

3. Uniqueness

Related to this for those who cannot afford their own designers, or who continue to not value the contribution of design per se will be the IKEAization of many digital properties by using the built-in solutions, or easy-to-access libraries of icons and widgets that now exist.

I have, recently, hired visual designers who used icon libraries instead of drawing their own and I am not sure what I think of that yet. Designers will have to decide if and how we wish to fight for what is unique about being designers.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Bady / Twitter

I see some patterns that I think will grow in the upcoming years:

1. Light, thin, hollow design

This trend maybe started when apple introducing the updates to its iOS where it uses flat, thin & hollow pattern in most of their interface. This pattern then emerged to web and inevitably graphic design.

I’m talking about the pattern where it uses thin lines as the basic form. It happens in illustrations, iconography as well as the web & of course mobile apps. I think this pattern will still be popular in 2015.

2. Minimal & flatty design

We’ve seen lot of major brands change to be more minimal or flat design. This trend I think will still continue in 2015. We might see more brands come in simpler form and minimal looks to align their brand to the current trends.

The use of mono colour, mute colour, uneven layout, and the film’ish photography also will still be here.

3. Mix art

What I mean by mix art is the combination between physical objects and illustrations/ visual graphics to form an appealing art. I don’t know if the term is correct but we can see this trend in many paper art/ illustrations that look like 3D renders.

Many illustrators also try to combine photo’s with their illustrations. This kind of trend has really catched my attention and I believe there will be more in 2015.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Shaun Uthup / Twitter

1. Greater use of animation

The old school Flash intro has died a death but is being resurrected in the form of HTML5 animated movies. Gone are the days where designers created pointless animations of a logo in order to impress their clients. However, I think intelligent use of animation to tell a story has a big role to play over the coming year.

I’ve seen some great examples recently of well scripted, thoughtful animations which have a real purpose. When done well, animation can truly enhance a website and convey a message in more effective way than standard scrolling banners or static images.

We will see greater adoption of SVG animations which are vector based so load quickly and do not pixelate on high resolution screens. At SOZO we are embracing this technology and using it a lot in our newer websites.

2. A growing divide between templated and bespoke websites

The DIY website builders and web design template world has continued to grow and improve. For some clients with a small budget these can be a good start to online marketing at a very low cost.

DIY web builders will inevitably always have considerable limitations. Clients are beginning to realise that to create a truly outstanding website which doesn’t look like everyone else’s, they need to go down the bespoke route.

I think in 2015 both the DIY and bespoke approach to web design will continue to grow but the bespoke design agencies will move further away from the templated ones in order to differentiate themselves further.

3. Better ways of showing products on ecommerce sites

For the past decade most ecommerce sites have relied on a few still images alongside a product description in small text. Even the likes of Amazon have not evolved from this standard convention.

This is a far cry from the experience of actually seeing a product in a physical shop. There are much more interesting and interactive ways of showing products online.

Videos, 360 degree photos and animations all help to better inform the customer. However, next year may see the advent of 3D rendered interactive images which allow the user to see inside a product and view it in much greater detail than a standard 2D photo.

This approach uses technology typically used in hollywood animated movies but will soon be feasible for the web.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Chris Torres / Twitter

1. Large, full backgrounds and videos

2014 started to see the trend in large images, but more so video backgrounds. This is only going to continue.

Background video can help engage a user more, showcasing your projects, products, or services and to show off your company’s culture. It also helps make your website feel alive.

2. Card Design/Layouts

Whilst not a new trend, it has proven to be a great method for responsive sites. It keeps the content modular, in columns, without making teh layout look clumsy. Its a great method for tour sites for example. Clean and simple method for delivering lots of content.

3. Death of ‘above the fold’

This is one area that does annoy me as a designer. There is no fold in web design. With the rise of smartphones and tablets, users prefer to scroll down a page than rather click page after page. People like to scroll.

How you position your content is important but displaying that content is a logical and story like manner, whilst the user scrolls down the page, is the direction the web is heading.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Florian Kutschera / Twitter

1. Material design

Google’s new design language is a natural evolution of Apple’s flat design. Apple overshot the goal of a minimalistic appearance and removed almost any hints to actionable elements.

Google however goes with the idea of a very reduced design but still leaves some visual hints (like shadow) to help create a natural stack of elements and actions.

Their style guide makes it super easy for designers to adopt. I created a less css mixin to easily apply drop shadows to elements according to Google’s Material Design language.

2. Enhanced interaction design

Changing the state (adding an entry to a list, jumping to a certain point in a text) of an element should not be something that happens instantly. A smooth transition from one state to another is a good way to show a user what happened.

This is even more important when the action has not been triggered by the user himself but e.g. by other users in a collaborative app or a system event.

The foundations are already there (CSS Transitions, JS animation libraries, etc.) and browser support is growing with unsupported browsers dying.

What is currently missing are tools to help designers implement these transitions. I expect to see more libraries and tools in 2015 and thus more implementations.

3. Cards, cards, cards

Cards are small contained pieces of information, visually delimited by their card like appearance: A border around or a drop shadow, often with a white background on a grayish site background. They hit right in the spot of users wanting small information bites before digging through the real – possibly lengthly – content.

I understand them as an entry point. After a click/touch the user gets more information about the displayed content.

Twitter uses them, Google (Google now), Facebook – just to name some. What makes them so great for designers is that they are universally applicable: On mobile show one column with separate cards under each other, show multiple columns on desktop.

They minify general design problems into smaller easy to handle pieces. Definitely a trend for 2015!

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Kyee / Twitter

1. Apps

Websites are slowly losing relevance thanks to mobile / desktop application dominance. It’s hard to accurately predict where ‘the web’ will go because it’s such a relentlessly volatile beast. Responsive Websites are clunky.

Apps allow a lot more design freedom in my opinion, and allow you to narrow down the chunkiness. ‘Responsive’ is an umbrella term for making the web Mobile Device Ready.

Debates about how to implement changes to your site that comply with arbitrary ‘standards’ seem so pointless to me, and they rage on via blog comments daily.

I’ve never been one for following standards set by self appointed people – we all have our own goals and methods of achieving them which is far more important than ideas laid out in any random conference talk.

2. Google’s ‘Material Design

After the ugly turnout of iOS7, iOS8 and now Yosemite, Apple have lost a lot of credibility amongst designers that previously looked to them for inspiration.

For years, it seemed as though apple dominated the UI style trends of the design community. For the first time in a long time we saw huge visual design flaws and even janky UX issues on the worlds favourite OS.

Because of this, the flow of design ‘trends’ has been largely going through an unusual stage right now. I think we are likely to see even more imitation of Google’s ‘Material Design’ fill the void, since the majority of the design community likes to follow and currently, this is the most talked about style.

3. New Systems

‘Coding’ or rather, hand crafted code is in a slow decline thanks to innovative and more intelligent design tools. Whether we like it or not, web code is becoming less and less hand written.

New tools are cropping up every day that are getting better and better at writing code in real time, in the background of design for the designer. There was a time when I hated these things. But after seeing apps like Macaw, I have been thrown into conflict.

I’ve always been fascinated by the divide of ‘designers and developers’ and I think it’s great that both are being slowly pushed together. There are also a lot of people who are singing the praise of Sketch, though considering the above it seems a lot less likely apps like Sketch have a future.

Code is important, and apps that ignore that are only delaying the inevitable. The tools that do it for us will only get better. Every industry gets replaced by new automated technologies eventually.

Fortunately, an eye for design can not be automated, so we will likely still have jobs 10 years from now. Doomsday aside, it might be It a good thing to have less time arguing over who should be doing what, and more time focusing on designing better user experiences.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Alexander Ryan / Twitter

1. Design Languages / Guidelines

With their release of Material Design, Google is raising the bar on design across platforms, but they’re also showing that design is more than static visual treatment.

The Material Design guidelines tell a designer how something looks, how it moves, how it should be structured and how common interface elements should work.

These kind of constraints make for more consistent user experiences, but can also free the designer to focus on expressing the brand, through the user experience. I think we will see more and more companies defining complex design and interaction languages.

2. Style Tiles

Style Tiles can be like a light version of design guidelines, and are really the best way to design for the responsive web.

Rather than designing a bunch of individual screens in Photoshop, with Style Tiles, you focus on designing visual style separate from structure and layout. This makes it easier to create wireframes in parallel, and marry the style and structure later.

3. Microinteractions / Widgets

As businesses increasingly see their website as a central touchpoint of their business, more and more functionality is being added to their sites, but its too expensive for everyone to build these features custom.

There are new companies like Sumome and Filament that are offering plug and play tools to help business get more leads, emails, and shares of their content. I think we will be seeing more people utilizing these kinds of services on their websites.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Buatoom / Twitter

1. Skeuomorph Design

Firstly I hope to see some skeuomorph design again in the market, I love that style and really miss it.

2. More Pixels

As we know now, we need more pixels. All devices go with retina resolution so I hope in 2015 we have no need for those old devices with poor resolution.

3. Simple Colors

Simple colors must be popular for sure, would be great with some skeuomorph icons.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Saijo George / Twitter

Aside from Google’s Material Design taking over the web and the over use of Marsala in the coming months. There are a few other things, that I think we all will see more of in 2015.

1. Animation

Ever since the decline of flash we have seen technologies like HTML5 / WebGL bring websites to life with animations.

This can be something as simple as subtle animation on scrollas seen in the iPhone6 page, to something that makes your customer go wow when they fill in the password – as seen on ReadME.io. IMHO we will be seeing a lot more of that in 2015.

2. Personalization

As a marketer, I love websites that really enables users to connect with the product or service. If I can enable custom experience to users based on their interests / situations then it’s a big win for me.

As an Android user this article on TheVerge looked pretty cool, that does not mean iOSand Microsoft fan will not like it. Did you notice what they did there? Depending on what mobile device was used, they personalized that experience for that user.

Don’t you hate it when you pick up the phone after you wake up, only to find that websites’s white background is burning your retina. What if you could personalize the experience for the user based on the lighting around them.

You can also look at WebSockets to offer multi-screen experience to engage with users.

3. AI & Non Designers

With the rise of site builders and AI that will design your site for you we can see many more non-designers taking a stab at web design.

Personally I don’t think this will replace designers, but we can see a lot more people who are not that good at coding jumping in and designing websites. How good will these web sites be from a usability point of view, only time can say.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Angela Baker / Twitter

1. Video/Social Interaction

Over the past 12 months, large background imagery has been very popular. Going into 2015 we believe video is going to take over the prime spot. Everybody’s going nuts for movement! And we don’t think it will stop there.

Content plays a massive part in SEO (another hot topic)which is why we’re always on the search for new ways to keep content fresh and updated frequently, without the client having to do it, after all, let’s face it, who has time for that!

While social media feed integration has been around for quite a while, the possibilities for design are now endless with advanced customisation now possible.

So how will video and social media interact? Vine. Vine integration is the perfect answer to bring video into websites, while ensuring the content is always fresh.

2. Minimalistic

2014 was all about parallax. In fact, every second client’s first word has been parallax so far! The explosion of movement and interactivity wowed people and became the most important thing to have on your site. Granted this is fun, but only for a while, since it can also distract the user from the content on the page.

When was the last time you looked at a website with huge amounts of parallax, and actually read anything? Let’s face it, you only looked at the site to scroll through, ooohing and aaahing at the cool stuff on the page. So going forward, subtlety is key.

Content needs to take prime position, while interactivity should be used to support and enhance the key information on the page, not detract from it. Tasteful movement is the way forward.

3. Typography

As an extension to minimalistic, we have also seen a change in typography. Gone is anything even remotely chunky, slim and delicate is the new thing. San serif, light fonts will become even more popular next year.

Didot is no longer the only style to ooze elegance and class. This also extends into logo designs. Keep them simple and timeless. Typographic fonts stand the test of time.

Refresh your branding by updating the collateral that goes with the logo rather than gimmicky symbols sitting beside your logo that add no real value and look dated after 6 months.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Matt Vergotis / Twitter

1. Water colours

Whether it’s lettering or logo mark design, I have seen a steady number of designers (including myself) experimenting with picking up the paint brush and dipping it in water and ink. I think we’ll see plenty of pale washed out colours with that random organic blotchy aesthetic in 2015.

2. Lettering

You probably could have said this for 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 & 2014. Lettering. Lettering has been on the rise and rise for the best part of a decade now and I still think we may be riding the peak of that obsession.

If we are on the other side of that peak, I still can’t see it backing off anytime soon. So expect in 2015 to see plenty more beautifully hand drawn, unique and wonderful typography pieces. Long live the brush pen.

3. Fonts

In particular, brush pen style and hand lettered fonts. I think we’re going to see more and more lettering guys coming out with their signature style fonts complete with all the bells and whistles of ligature options in 2015.

Could this be the death of brush pen lettering?

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Nathan Ryan / Twitter

1. Long-Scroll

Users are now used to scrolling more than they click. We think the long-scroll website trend will continue to become more and more popular in 2015, meaning companies will needing to continue simplifying their content—at least on marketing and sales sites. Oh, and don’t forget the parallax (use sparingly, please)!

2. More Video

People may read less, but they’re open to watch more. Video will continue to play a more and more integral part of the online storytelling and brand experience, both as a background element, and as the most prominent piece of content on any site.

The kicker is that the videos need to be both visually stunning, and concise in terms of the content being presented. Don’t skimp on your video production.

3. Interactive Storytelling

People want to be able to “choose their own adventure” when it comes to how their content is presented to them. And obviously the web offers the unique ability for content producers to present data in an interactive and engaging way, so why not take advantage of it?

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Matt Powell / Twitter

1. Dribbblisation

I’ve noticed an increasing movement away from the ‘dribbblisation’ of design – so I’m hopeful that web design is going to become more contextual and less of a hunt for the love of your peers.

2. SVG’s

I think we’re going to see more and more use of SVGs, as people are starting to really appreciate what can be achieved.

3. ‘Less is more’

Designers are really starting to realise the profound importance of load speed to their success of their sites, so i think we’re going to see cleverer and more interesting ways of tackling the design vs load speed problem.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Kenn Fine / Twitter

1. More Frank. Less Fluff.

The average attention span’s reportedly plunged below 4 seconds. So content strategies will, of necessity, need to continue to focus and simplify. Clear, bold talk that might earn you all of, say, 12 seconds of someone’s time in the over-saturated webscape is what’s required. Design will play a role in driving toward that.

2. Love Of Lo-Fi.

Wearable tech, the Internet of things, and the growing popularity of devices with design or resolution limitations will inspire a “low-fi” movement where minimal design is embraced more readily. Contextual relevance and simple communication will win over high production values and aesthetic overkill.

3. Digital Natives Get Restless.

That generation born into an Internet world is rapidly coming of age, bringing with them a new sensibility unencumbered by old media analogies and trust for big brands.

They’ll expect more digital craft, hold a higher bar for intuitive design, and carry a “mobile first” mentality. They are not only primed for, but anxious to see how design and digital can disrupt, do better, and earn their trust.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Verity Kent / Twitter

1. Snackable Motion.

The world has embraced very short form video and motion graphics, from Vine to Instagram and, of course, GIFs. You’ll continue to see more in editorial and commercial campaigns, whether quick hit Harry Potter newspaper style or HTML5 video.

2. SVG Expansion.

The use of SVGs (Scalable Vector Graphics) will become more widespread as the need grows for crisp and clean images across browsers, and more use of retina, exposes the limitations of other formats.

3. Responsive By Nature.

As responsive becomes the rule, rather than the exception, the term may become less relevant as a descriptor, and more simply rolled up into the generally accepted definition of the nature of “good web design”.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Michael Parks / Twitter

1. Linear Navigation

Navigation is already being replaced by the immortal “burger” icon and will continue to disappear. User flow is dictated by the body of the website, as nav items fall into discrete locations, while large content blocks with simple calls-to-action dominate our viewports. Less is more—one CTA, where appropriate, is the goal.

2. Interaction Animations

As the front end of the web gets more slick, a whole world of interactions, animations and transitions are possible. Having gotten over the initial wow value that this sort of fluff provides, we are starting to use these tools to enhance the usability of the site.

For example, a webform that shakes (like a headshake) to indicate an invalid input, immediately tells the user something is wrong. These sort of interactions aren’t just window dressing, they’re another means of rich communication with the user. Your brand is experienced in how your website looks and, now, how it behaves.

3. Content First

No two businesses are the same, yet the web is filled with millions of templated sites that all resemble the same ugly grandmother. With the addition of intelligent tools that adapt to content, we are going to start to see websites designed by content, rather that content designed to fit a website.

Tools such as Contentful will free web designers to develop schemas appropriate to the content being presented and then render that content beautifully across devices and viewports. As the web evolves, so too, can the experience.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Jeffrey Lim / Twitter

1. Bigger Text & Bigger Image Driven websites

With the increased usage of Retina and HD screens, it’s now essential for designers to serve large copy-driven text and high-resolution images that will resize and optimize for both server load and screen sizes.

2. Responsive Design

The high penetration rate of smartphones, phablets, tablets and even larger desktop screen sizes, responsive websites are no longer just an enhancement, it’s a hygiene factor now.

3. Flat Design

With the high emphasis in the UI of Apple, Google and Microsoft, the minimalist approach to flat design will continue to take centre stage in 2015. This trend will help adapt across, desktops. mobile devices and even wearable techs.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Danny Wajcman / Twitter

1. Polling

Everything customized to better help user experience. Polling is a feature that has been around for a while, but under utliized. We like to say polling should be “high value/ low friction”. In that it is a great way to instantly get user feedback, without driving them mad or away from the site.

Plus it makes the user more engaged with the site, which leads to better click-throughs and higher conversions. Users trust sites who are willing and responsive to capture user feedback.

2. Deeper Sites

A breakaway from the current “template” model that most new sites are using. You have seen it 100 times with general links on top, that when clicked, instant scroll down to the bottom of that same page where that article can be found. I think we will start to see deeper sites being built out.

3. Mobile Specific Sites

Mobile specific sites that have shallower conversions. This sounds like a given, but you would be surprised how many lead gen/ e-comm companies just go with a “mobile optimized” site.

People don’t want to fill out long forms on their phone, or try to navigate from product, enter their CC information, etc. Smaller forms that capture bare minimums, and easier payment options will help make mobile experiences truly optimized.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Michael Mahaffey / Twitter

1. Typography

My background is mainly in print design. Same with my business partner, Matt Adams. I think what sets Tiny Giant aside from most design/development studios is that we’re print designers turned developers, so we tend look at web projects from a more traditional graphic design perspective.

In that vein, what I’d really like to see in websites is more attention to typography. Not just bigger letters on top of full-width images, but using typographic hierarchy to drive how we read the page instead of using flashing buttons as calls to action.

The internet is about sharing information and without the words, what are we saying? With free type kits like Google Fonts, designers and developers really have no excuse when it comes to using well designed web fonts that look great on all screens.

2. More Focus

People’s attention spans are quickly diminishing, so I think another focus should be set on stripping down the frills and getting the appropriate information to the website’s audience as quickly and easily as possible. Less clicking / more scrolling.

I don’t want to have to dig to find out what I need to know about your company. You should be offering it to me like a drive-thru restaurant. Quickly.

3. Improvements with Video

I used to work with a really great group of people at a video production agency called Fancy Rhino and one thing I thought about often when I was there was finding a better way to integrate video into traditional websites.

Video headers and backgrounds are a nice step, but they’re a little clunky and not at all mobile friendly. Video production, graphic design and web development all have a common thread of conveying a message through storytelling.

The three working together could be a very powerful tool. I’ve seen a few marketing sites touch on this, but nothing I’ve seen so far has quite taken full advantage of all three disciplines.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Mostaque Ahammed (maq) / Twitter

1. Design will embrace more humanity

Design is all about solving human problems. Not just web/graphics design, in industrial / everyday product design too will embrace design to come up with best human usable design solution.

So, beside esthetic aspect, usable & useful design will get boost in 2015. People will ask for right amount of information at right moment, more then the bold design itself.

2. Content itself will design the layout

We have numerous data. By combination of typography, grid, bold color and realistic big images, we will see only the needed information in a design is provided.

Content itself will design the layout. Placeholder images will be forgotten day by day. The laws of human psychology / human factors will be more considered in the design.

3. Responsive, contextual and personalized

Design have to have responsiveness, same information and service have to access from various type of devices and the design have to adopt the context in extreme level.

Flat, clean design will continue it’s journey, less options, instant feedback, speed, interactiveness will get priority in the design. Design will try to adopt the power of personalization for it’s user, particularly for contents and information.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

David Kovalev / Twitter

1. AppleWatch / Wearables

I know this is already starting to emerge but now that apple has officially hopped on board with the Apple Watch, there will be lots of new opportunities here for companies to put their app on a wrist.

2. Android L “Material Design”

After years of same ol’ Android OS, they’ve finally revamped the whole thing from the ground up.

Now that they are at a greater aesthetic level and fresh UX, lots designers are mimicing the new design guidelines onto the web/iOS. I don’t think that will stop anytime soon.

3. No More Pixel Perfection?

With the rise of 4k resolution screens (5k Apple iMac), retina displays (macbooks), denser mobile screens (500+), the new 3x resolution for iPhone 6 Plus (and awkward conversion to 2x)… I have a feeling that the hours we designers spend perfecting pixels, will be a thing of the past.

At that kind of dense resolution, the half-pixel blurry line is practically non-visible.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Ryan Anderson / Twitter

1. Full-Screen Media will Continue it’s Rise

People love websites with big, full-screen displays of images, type and video – it’s simply more immersive and engaging. In 2015 we will see an even greater use of large background images and full-screen video as a way to connect with visitors and communicate a brands personality.

This approach to web design will slowly kill the traditional brochure as a means of selling a service. Bandwidth, typography and modern browsers have all evolved to create an environment that can now rival that of print and we expect companies to put more of their dollars into these digital canvases.

2. Responsive Design Is a Must

A trend that started a few years back is now the new normal. With the ever increasing rate of mobile browsing, and new device sizes being released on what seems like a daily basis, it’s critical that every website adopt a responsive framework.

Not only does it deliver a better experience for the user, it also provides a single code-base for companies to manage and evolve their websites from.

3. Flat Design will Evolve

While flat design took over the world in the last few years, I expect to see it evolve a bit in 2015. Certainly flat design ushered in a cleaner, clutter-free design approach that was a welcome departure from skeuomorphism and other heavy-handed design trends, but it’s now time to bring in a bit of personality.

Flat design is maybe too flat and designers love to put their own spin on things. I expect to see flat design evolve in subtle ways with the introduction of very subtle gradients and a greater use of patterns for texture and depth.

These elements should keep what’s good about flat design while injecting a needed dose of personality.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Victor Thomas / Twitter

1. Flat Design/Simplicity/Minimalism/Authenticity

Avoiding clutter and design elements. Removing useless information. Involves getting rid of 3-D graphics and gradients and basically just using flat shapes and indicators to help the user have a more accessible experience.

Reject skeuomorphism and excessive visuals for simpler, cleaner, content-focused design.

2. Content First

Better content presentation. Getting the message across by getting rid of distracting design elements. It is about telling the message effectively, not about looking pretty.

Beauty of form depends on the content, with the style being a natural outcome of a creative solution. Typography focussed.

3. Responsive Design/Mobile First

Not about squishing content to make it fit onto a different-sized screen. It is about transforming your website in order to tell the message effectively.

Light and fast loading websites that take the lower memory and processing power of mobile devices into consideration.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Denis Sazhin / Twitter

1. Stickers

They’re in the bloom right now, people prefer sending emotional pictures instead of typing, and modern devices made possible to display quite complex animated images instead of small icons/smileys. I expect this trend to stay for the next year at least.

2. Icon rebound back to 3D

Introduction of flat icon design, its apparent simplicity and vague quality criteria (in contrast with skeuomorphismic icons) encouraged lots of people to try themselves in creating icons and be competitive in this field.

As a result, this phase has been pretty extensive but has passed pretty fast, so now I’m expecting a rebound to more refined and complex icons, playing with shapes and dimensions. Not like former skeuomorphismic design though, but more like upcoming material design concept.

3. Interactive icons

Instead of creating a different static icon for every other action, or creating an animated icon attracting user’s attention, a concept of interactive icons can get into view.

That means icon look and animation scenario would be responsive and dependent on what’s happening right now in the app or website.

Simple examples:

- The app is displaying a throbber showing some time consuming process going on. A user wants to stop it or rethink some actions taken before, and instead of clicking “Cancel” button, he/she touches the throbber icon and unwinds it back.

- Instead of a pair of Undo/Redo icons, an app can display one interactive icon/arrow that changes it’s direction depending on user swipe action (back or forward).

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Daniel Mcleay / Twitter

1. Blurred Designer Lines

I see 2015 being the year the lines get blurred between graphics designer and front-end developers, there are so many amazing tools out there now, but my personal favourite would have to be webflow as it produces beautiful CODE ready for any web developer, its nearly too good to be true. Check them out.

2. Web Apps

2015 will see web apps explode with Foundation for apps just being released, I can see designers pushing animation and web apps to the next level, bringing amazing & beautiful user experiences to the desktop and mobile devices, working across all medias and platforms.

3. Podcasting

I see podcasting taking off in a big way in 2015 with http://gimletmedia.com/ and the people that are backing this idea. Podcasting is not new, but making money from it has been very hard since its conception. I see this changing in 2015. ITS THE YEAR OF THE PODCASTER.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Jason Carne / Dribbble

1. Vector Lettering

The main trend which I feel will be in full swing by Spring 2015 is a departure from hand-drawn lettering transitioning to more of a focus on vector lettering or perfected and polished custom lettering.

Rough and gritty letter-forms seem to have had their day and in its place is a more refined, sleeker, and slightly modernized version of their former selves.

Speaking from personal experience, the demand for elaborate, ornate lettering has gone significantly down over the last quarter and I’ve been booking projects that are much more straightforward and simplistic in nature.

That’s bad news for analog types like myself, but good news to anyone who is a diehard Illustrator user. I’ve noticed less texture, brighter colors, and cleaner lines being the prevailing style recently, which leads me to my next point…

2. Linework

After the launch of the new Apple iOS and the flood of flat design it spawned (along with the brief stint of absurdly long drop shadows), the trend has shifted from the super simple, to the semi elaborate.

People seemed to resonate well with the stripped down, flat aesthetic; however they also seemed to appreciate when the design work became more involved and detailed while maintaining that minimal feel.

Icons and websites are still shying away from skeuomorphism and gradients but there’s a higher degree of linework and detail emerging that wasn’t first seen when this trend started and I think it will continue over the next year and even overstay its welcome into 2016 if it retains that same degree of popularity.

3. Vibrant Colors

Lastly – vibrant colors will make a comeback. The last few years have championed muted, dulled-down palettes in an attempt to convey a rugged display of Americana and vintage, dusty history.

I feel like it’s time is up though, from underground music artists to home goods packaging, to large scale branding projects, color is alive again in a big way – maybe not as much in an obnoxious 80′s way, but it’s certainly back.

Plaid and and flannel will out after winter and the brightly colored t-shirt and polo shirt will reign supreme once again (much to my dismay). At least it’s in a different direction than what we had 5 years ago where everything was neon green, hot pink, and electric burn-your-eyes blue – the color comeback has been tasteful so far in my book.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Steve Wolf / Dribbble

1. Handwritten Logotypes

One design trend I think will be popular in 2015 is the use of clean handwritten logotypes. This is a great way to be more creative and original rather than using a stock font. This is especially true when doing a handwritten script.

You can find some subtle handwritten logotype scripts in the app design world. There was a surge of rough handwritten scripts for a while, but it seems more designers are starting to make their own scripts in a more clean modern style.

2. Monoline Style

Another trend that I except to see gain popularity in 2015 is the “monoline” style. This is using one line thickness throughout the design. This style can be used in typography and in illustrations. It has a very graphic and clean look to it.

When combining typography and illustration together with this style, everything seems unified because of the same line thickness used throughout.

Many designers are starting to use this style in icon design, illustrations, and apparel design. Also, this style lends great to using just one color with the design.

3. Typography and Illustrations 3D Effects

The last trend I think will be popular in 2015 is using 3D effects to typography and illustrations. This would include gradients, shadows, and color overlays.

There are a lot of designers who are pushing the 3D effects typography can have and they are starting to bring subtle gradients back and using multiple colors to create depth.

There are also a lot of type designs with various forms of shadows added to create a sense of depth. Using strong shadows and gradients in illustrations makes the work as a whole more dimensional. This style lends itself well to making designs more modern looking.

 

分享自50多为设计师的 Top3 设计趋势预测(三)

Gabriele Manasse /
Twitter

2015 will be an interesting year for design, as a few conflicting concepts that have been gaining momentum during 2014 will not only have to coexist, but also combine intelligently in order to provide a pleasant experience for users while staying coherent across platforms.

1. Strong Visuals

On one hand the visuals seem to be still very strong, with large, beautiful images or videos used as background. Surely a powerful and elegant way to convey messages, especially emotional ones. Image predominance seems to be reinforced by additional elements in the page, like minimal, stylish ghost buttons.

2. Material Design

On the other hand material design, although still an emerging trend, seems to have a quite powerful influence. While not all of its concepts are being adopted outside of mobile, the web is definitely feeling its presence.

First of all there is a much greater attention to typography, which is becoming a central element in UX. Also shadows and parallax scrolling are increasingly present, and in my opinion they are a pleasant change from the flat design we have been seeing much of lately.

3. Responsive Design

Lastly, as responsive design and coherent cross-platform UX become a must, scrolling will continue to take over clicking in order to provide a pleasant experience on increasingly touch-enabled devices.

 

 

 

2015 / . 01 / . 13

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)


分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Reagan Ray / Twitter

1. Vector Images

As the pixel density of screens increases (Apple just released a retina iMac), image scalability is becoming a major issue. Large bitmap files are harder to optimize and SVG files are becoming more attractive from both a scalability and file size standpoint.

2. Design Standards

Who would have ever thought that Google would be at the forefront of design? With their Material Design standards released this year, I foresee companies putting a greater emphasis on design standards and consistency.

3. Prototyping

With the increasing proliferation of devices and screen sizes, the designer/developer relationship is becoming blurred. Prototyping designs in the browser is becoming necessary and I am already seeing less dependability on programs likes Photoshop as a web design tool.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Matteo Spinelli / Twitter

2015 will be a consolidation of what already started this last few months, I don’t think we will see anything terribly new.

1. SVG

Simple, flat, colorful design, with hopefully more (and better) support for SVG.

2. Mobile

“Mobile first” is already old news, we’ll have more devices, more screen resolutions and very different UXs. I’m not convinced that responsive design is the panacea. Wearables, TVs, smartphones, tablets and finally desktops, very hard to support everything with just one codebase.

3. Applications

We will probably see more tools (both for designer and for coder) to help release applications on multiple platforms and resolutions, because it is becoming exponentially more difficult to handle everything on the text editor.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Daniela Meyer / Twitter

1. Skeuomorphism

I think designers will move away from a flat UI obsession and begin to reincorporate skeuomorphism for interactive elements. The all-flat aesthetic — a reactionary swing away from web 2.0′s bubble gradients and drop shadows is often stark, unintuitive for users and sin of all design sins, boring.

Unless it’s married in the right way to transparency. Although transparency guzzles memory like a cyber hummer. Which is why OSX Yosemite with wall-to-wall transparency, is causing the first real iMac freezes since 1999. Of course, the ability to see a blurry wallpaper of Jude Law as Watson through my FTP app does take a girl’s UX to a whole new level.

2. More Standard Elements

As mobile usage continues to grow and as css transitions/animations are more and more standard for browsers, I expect we’ll see less conventional navigation components in designs and we’ll see more standard elements hidden in drawers and hovers.

3. Hand-drawn Elements

More a preference than a forecast, I would love to see the resurrection of illustration and hand-drawn elements that has ignited branding design move into web design as well.

That kind of spectacular typography and organic details used in subtle, intentional ways would be very exciting for the web.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Firat Parlak / Twitter

1. Flat Design

It will continue in 2015 as well. However, template looking flat designs will be replaced by more customized and personalized flat designs.

2. Typography

We will see more original custom web fonts in 2015 as majority of designers were already using fonts like Proxima Nova, Open Sans, Source Sans, Futura but now the cost of web fonts has decreased and became more available, we will see different web fonts being used in UI along with font pairing.

3. Scrolling over Clicking

This was really popular in 2014 and we don’t think it’s going to change because scrolling allows designers to place and present great amount of content for users. However, we believe design of content will be more simplified in 2015 and will be more as user focused.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Christopher Cashdollar / Twitter

1. Focus on site performance & users

I expect and hope to continue to see more designers and developers collaboratively talking about site performance and how being judicious about the inclusions of assets (videos, images, web fonts, etc.) can positively effect the experience for users.

For example, I recently worked on a mobile e-commerce experience and by being cognizant of page load times, we were able to see a 22% increase in conversion. Less can be more.

2. Motion

Continued experimentation with motion in web UI is a trend that will continue. Just because Flash died, it doesn’t mean the idea of websites including design-through-time died with it. As Google’s material design mantra suggests, motion can provide meaning.

3.Responsive typography

Responsive typography will start to become the norm. Being aware of the varying reading distances and viewport sizes content might be employed on means that one type scale won’t necessarily work for all experiences.

Designers need to be aware that their text-on-screen might be consumed at arms length or at room length. More care and time will be put into ensuring reading on-screen is always painless.

Keep an eye on those type foundries that are putting the additional time and consideration into creating typefaces that are screen-ready.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Ian Mills / Twitter

The biggest trend we’ve seen grow over the past year is a focus on continuous scrolling websites; however we believe these aren’t for everyone and are just the start of what’s to come.

We expect that trends will become more refined around the value that continuous scrolling and parallax websites actually offer. Over the next 12 months web design trends will evolve from this to focus on responsive web design, incorporating video and establishing emotional connections through storytelling.

Responsive web design

It is common knowledge that mobile device use has increase over the last 1-2 years, and the majority of new websites that we build have mobile friendly design as a core requirement.

Responsive websites over mobile websites are gaining significant ground in popularity and we now consider them as best practice for all of our websites. As web design companies becoming more experienced with mobile first approaches to design, we are starting to see some really exciting concepts in the industry.

Responsive web design will continue to evolve and will be much more than a solution to the problem of mobile optimisation over the next 12 months.

A focus on video

The use of video and YouTube is becoming much more mainstream in marketing strategies, particularly within social media campaigns. The engagement that is offered by the use of video as not only website content, but as a design element is really valuable.

We’ve seen a lot of HTML5 being used in design elements of websites, particularly with continuous scrolling websites. Not only does HTML5 allow things like video to load and display easily on mobiles, but videos allow brands to incorporate storytelling and interactivity into their website design.

Interactive story telling

There has been a lot of debate that digital marketing strategy and websites in particular need to refocus on the art of storytelling for brands.

Continuous scrolling and parallax websites lend themselves well to this, but we believe that is only the start of how websites will be able to articulate a story through their design. Interactivity and an immersive design that is able to elicit an emotional reaction from the visitor will be a major driver of web design trends in the next 12 months.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Tracy Osborn / Twitter

1. Hand lettering

Hand lettering has been slowly getting bigger and bigger and we’re going to see a ton of websites either using custom hand typography or a font that mimics it. Really great way to get a custom, hand-done feel to a website.

2. Big Images

Big images are here to stay, but now they’re getting color overlays — good example I saw today: https://mirrorx.com/ The overlays help them match with the color scheme of the website as well as making sure elements on top pop and don’t get overwhelmed by the photo background.

3. Web Fronts

Web fonts (with the popularity of Google Fonts, Typekit, and others) are replacing the usual Georgia/Verdana/Arial/etc. web font landscape. Not a moment too soon, too. Websites are finally getting better and more beautiful type.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

James Bearsley / Twitter

1. Responsive

Responsive will continue to be a necessity for any website. We’ll see a continuation in the move from standard breakpoints to more fluid designs.

I think the real change will be a move away from the standard ‘large image banners, 3 modules’ layout that has become some prevalent.

As CSS theme-packaged templates become more advanced in terms of functionality offered, and variety of designs, larger companies will want to push beyond familiar layouts, and we’ll see more bespoke and tailored work.

Personally I’m hoping to see the back of incredibly long pages too – I’d prefer to see more of an ‘interface’ approach, or innovative use of navigation and tiling.

2. Minimalism

There’s on ongoing trend for flat-design. I think we’ll see more brands opting for single colour executions of their logos.

On the web, this minimalist movement will mean simple bold type and large cinematic imagery – a kind of ‘print’ approach to web design. We’ll see more linear shapes and key lines, simple navigation bars and more ‘ghost buttons’.

3. Patterns

The last few years has seen a complete abandonment of skeuomorphism, in favour of solid block colour. I think soon enough we’ll see a few more patterns being introduced. Think more ‘geometric’, rather than complex textures, that will compliment minimalist design.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Michael Aleo / Twitter

1. Code Automation

It might not be a popular sentiment with development purists, but automating coding is happening. Tools like Macaw that encourage you to “draw code” instead of writing it make HTML and CSS available to a much broader audience.

Macaw has made more strides in the automation of coding in the last 12 months than the entire industry did in the past ten years — and I’m all for anything that gets more designers out of Photoshop and into the code.

2. User Experience

We’re seeing a real uptick in awareness of user experience. For instance, I think we’re witnessing the fall of the carousel. This year was the first time non-technical clients were saying things like, “We could do a slider as a catch-all, but those are bad, right?” Hallelujah.

3. Personalized Sharing

Social sharing is changing, and the way the experience is designed and executed is too. Instead of a Tweet This Article button, we’re seeing two or three takes on a piece of content that you can click to share. It’s a more personalized sharing that makes the share feel more genuine instead of just the Article Title – URL scheme.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Rob McCarthy / Twitter

1. Mobile optimised email marketing

We have seen fantastic results for our clients when adopting Email Marketing as part of their overall marketing strategy, often out-performing any other form of marketing.

With the constantly growing need for mobile adoption in all areas of a businesses digital presence, I see Email Marketing as an area for further mobile expansion. Currently there are a number of email senders (e.g. Campaign Monitor) that cater for mobile optimised emails, specifically with some fantastic testing tools to ensure emails are tested across a huge range of email clients.

However, as with all email design, the main constraint is on the capabilities of the email clients themselves (e.g. Gmail, Outlook) and whether they process the @media query correctly. Many do, but there’s a way to go before all tow the line by default. Let’s hope 2015 is this year for change.

2. Personalised UX

Services such as Siri, Ok Google and Google Now have changed how people think about interacting with technology. Most websites however haven’t rethought the way they deliver content to users.

Increasingly, user experience is becoming more than just ease of navigation, strong calls to action and accessibility. With advances in Google’s Knowledge Graph increasingly pulling through information directly to search results, it is going to become exponentially hard for many businesses to acquire users organically through traditional means.

It is therefore imperative that websites can match or surpass Google for a tailored user experience, allowing people to instantly access the content they need, or may want to see.

Leveraging cookie and user account information as a basis for personalised navigation, the way leading eCommerce and social media sites already do, will allow many websites to take the next step in achieving a sleek & modern user experience, while the search driven websites that have seen success within the travel industry may start to see success further afield.

3. Mobile focussed eCommerce websites

Mobile optimised websites have boomed over the last few years and this has been driven by the expansion of the smart phone market and the technical capabilities brought with it.

The web industry has adapted quickly and responded fantastically but many eCommerce websites are still lagging behind. This is due to the complexity and size of these sites, along with elaborate payment and security requirements.

For a while users have been content with browsing products on their mobile devices and then migrating to a larger device to carry out the more complex process of payment but the consumer market demands that eCommerce websites catch up as figures are suggesting mobile purchases are drastically increasing.

There has been an emergence of mobile optimised payment workflows that can be integrated into websites to allow for easy purchasing so this is a start, but 2015 is the year for agencies, and eCommerce system designers, to wake up and listen to consumers. Let’s hope they do.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Maria Seidman / Twitter

1. Design for mobile first (Death of the website – Part I)

Given the eclipsing usage of connected mobile devices, everything will go mobile first. And I’m not just talking about responsive design. I’m talking about the death of the website as we knew it.

Gone will be UI optimized for clicking, top bar navigation, site maps, and the like. Increasingly, we see sites that we visit on the desktop web looking like mobile sites – with hamburger menus, infinite scrolling, simplicity and feature focus.

2. The appification of the web (Death of the website – Part II)

The growth of modern MVC frameworks (e.g. Ember.js) have enabled developers to create single page applications in the browser formerly only possible in a native or desktop client. That combined with the growth of SAAS products means that websites that go beyond marketing, function and feel like desktop software.

As these frameworks continue to grow and mature, we’ll see a larger percentage of the web “appified.”

3. Movement in “flat” design

Flat design is growing up. Increasingly, designers are adding depth to the minimalist aesthetic and relying increasingly on movement to convey emotion, direction, and clarity.

Whether it’s Google’s Material Design movement or the increasing use of GIFs or micro-animations, “flat” is not so flat anymore.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Shelley Gruendler / Twitter

My predictions for typographic 2015:

1. Hand Lettering

The rise of the script, both with hand lettering and typefaces, will continue. They fell out of favour for several decades after their ubiquitous use in the 1950s and seem to be back with a vengeance.

We have the curly, the structured, the slanted, the geometric, the swoopy, and all of them will find a purpose or a place — some more successful than others, of course.

2. Craft Movement

The ‘crafty’ movement is certainly expanding in both size and scope, so it seems likely that this will also apply for hand-generated letterforms.

Those that have mastered it will be inundated with requests from calligraphy to sign painting, but be warned! They’re notoriously tricky to do well so you’ll see many poorly executed examples used in general graphic design applications.

3. Rustic

I believe that the rustic look, as in less-refined and more alluding to either the creator or the tool, will also grow. With every move forward in technology, there is always a strong swing back of the pendulum towards retro.

I’m not predicting a return to the grunge of the early 90s, but rather a move away from the perfect renderings and towards the more humanist look.

The great thing about typography is that there are thousands of approaches to the thousands of situations that need it. I’m sure that 2015 will bring even more new situations where we encounter the letterform.

 

分享自50多位设计师的TOP3设计趋势(二)

Alex Tass / Twitter

I find it more difficult to imagine future trends than to identify current ones, but for 2015 I consider that at least 3 trends from the ones that have gained more and more success and popularity in 2014 (and in the past years) will continue to find adepts.

1. Flat Design

First of them and perhaps the most popular is the flat design style. Embraced by big and popular brands like Apple, Microsoft, Google, both for their main identities but especially for their products, it will be more and more visible in the next year and perhaps years.

Viewed and considered as a proof of success this style is already more often mentioned in various projects briefs and specifications. So I think we are going to see even more famous brands translating their logos into flat style and also start-ups and various level business adopting this visual line.

2. Geometric Approach

The second one that I expect to see in the near future of 2015 is the geometric approach: symmetric constructions, pattern based icons and symbols, rigorously measured and constructed marks.

I am not sure if this can be considered a trend since the geometric construction approach feels like a logical and expected one, but with this transition and visual translation to the flat style I feel that rigid geometry will be more and more involved.

3. Low Poly Style

 

Talking about geometry I would name the third trend that I expect to see more and more: the low poly style. I think that 2014 was a prolific year for this visual style with many original visual interpretations and implementations of it, but I expect to see even more projects designed using this technique.

To conclude I would like to say that I imagine these 3 trends to be more and more visible in the near future not only in the logo design field, but also on the online, mobile and digital mediums, part of the extended implemented identity designs or approached as stand alone styles.

 

2015 / . 01 / . 13

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

站长:

这是来自 http://foundersgrid.com/design-trends-2015 的文章.

2015年开始了, 很多文章都会作各种判断...太长了,.知道大意就好,懒得翻了...

各位未来的设计师们, 如果你们发现哪些词没有见过,赶紧去Google吧.....

The world of web/graphic design has seen huge growth over the past few years, with VC’s employing full-time design partners to many apps and startups focusing on design first.

some trends sticking around while other fading away quicker than they are coded.

We wanted to learn what design trends we will see more off during 2015, so we reached out to some of the most respected designers out there to ask what design trends they expect will continue to gain traction during 2015.

Popular design trends below include typography, responsive design, material design and a focus on speed and users. Let us know what design trends you think we’ll see more of during 2015 in the comments below.

A special thanks to our friends at CloudCannon, who offer static sites clients can edit, for sponsoring this group interview.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Mark Ford / Twitter

1. Material Design

Material design was released by Google back in June. Some websites have started to implement its material design principles on the web and mobile sites, particularly Google, and seems to be growing quite rapidly.

2. Full Width Video Backgrounds

Full width videos at the top of websites give a clear message about what the site has to offer. Most popular with portfolios and startups, they tend to have bold typography and parallax scrolling.

3. Card Design

This has been around for some time but it is often used in a lot of google products. The cards UI seems to have been popular in 2014 and seems to be growing on a number of sites with its clean and minimal look.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Chris Coyier / Twitter

1. SVG

The powers are great. The advantages are many. The browser support is good. The time is now.

2. Performance

The evangelism for fast websites has been good. Our tolerance for slow sites is lessening.

3. Animation

We’re starting to see at lot more interaction design on the web. Small bits of transitions and animations for pretty much any action we take. It’s effective if not it’s not overdone.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Trent Walton / Twitter

1. Resolution Independence & Minimal Raster Graphics

Page speed & performance in general are key to any web project. The more graphics we can build with SVG or squish using optimization tools like Image Alpha, the quicker lighter our pages will be.

For example, we chose the 2-color look for the content illustrations on a recent The Many Faces Of post because we knew it’d result in faster load times.

2. Systems, Not Pages

Dave Rupert has a great post about Responsive Deliverables that has paved the way for the types of projects we’ve been doing recently. Our clients need systems of reusable components that make up pages. Fixating on pages in a multi-device world can be absolutely maddening.

3. Code Prototypes, Not JPGs

The best way to evaluate a website is in a web browser. Prototypes save time long-term, and prevent meetings from devolving into discussions about how a layout could change or how an interaction might feel.

With prototypes, collaborators can see those layout changes and assess how an interaction feels realtime.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Lubos Volkov / Twitter

1. The gap between the code and the design is going to be thinner

It all started with frameworks like Twitter Bootstrap, but things are rapidly advancing. We have developed highly sophisticated tools that allow us to “design” stuff and export clean and organised code without any struggle.

It is still a challenge to use these tools on a more complex projects, but they will certainly grow more next year.

2. Interaction and Design

Dynamic user interaction and the design are now separate processes. Designers are creating static pages and adding interaction using additional tools like Pixate, Marvel or Framerjs.

Designers are using more and more interactions,so tools will have to follow the trend as well. I believe that we are going to see tools that unite static and the dynamic elements of the design in one place.

3. Not enough great Designers

High quality talent pool in US and EU is very limited. We are very close to the point when it is very hard to find and engage talented/experienced designer. As design standards are growing rapidly, we should expect even greater demand for great designers.

So, as long as designers are working hard to be the best and assure their visibility on the market, they should not worry about getting their dream job.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Nick Miede / Twitter

1. Modular Design

There are a few major design trends we’re excited about in the next year. We are looking at more modular design for content like infographics, wherein sections can be viewed individually or as part of the larger whole.

This provides more flexibility to extract portions for sharing on social, helping to extend the content’s reach.

2. Interactivity

As interactivity becomes more prevalent, destination storytelling will also become more common. Whether through a microsite or landing page, isolating the storytelling experience helps viewers immerse themselves more and engage with only the content at hand.

3. Divisible Content

We will also see brands designing more Divisible Content, repurposing existing content in various formats. A single quote may be extracted from a white paper and designed for Instagram. An e-book chapter may become an infographic.

It’s flexible visual storytelling that extends the shelf-life of everything you create.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Richard Rutter / Twitter

1. Typography

Bigger, bolder, more proficient, better differentiated typography I hope. Web typography has come on in leaps and bounds over the past 5 years, as designers have been able to use more fonts and learn how to use them better.

However homogeneity and conservatism in use of type is rife. This needs to change in order for websites and brands to stand out. Be bolder with your type choices – still be legible – but be different.

2. Improvements – By All

Information-based sites including public bodies such as a local councils and district boroughs will become better. The Government Digital Service in the UK has done wonderful things in terms of ease of use and a digital-first mentality. Expect the rest of the world to follow the patterns it is setting.

3. Commoditisation

The commoditisation of design will continue unabated, as more rivals to Shopify and SquareSpace enter the market.

This is great for very small businesses looking for a neat, cheap web presence, but harmful to the design profession and our potential clients as a whole, as it removes the whole design process and replaces it with a one-size-fits-all, design is skin deep, approach.

This is despite the rise of the designer as a boardroom presence.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Marc Edwards / Twitter

1. Animation

Animation already plays a large role in software design, and I think the trend will continue and grow as better, more creative tools are developed, and as animation abilities extend on the web, iOS, Android and other platforms.

2. Material Design

Google’s Material Design celebrates a clean, modern look, but it also includes a lot of depth. That’s a good thing. Good use of shadows can help describe an interface, and I think we’ll see more use of shadows in 2015.

3. GPU

GPU fragment shaders will play an increasing role, too. It’s now possible to use blending modes, blur, colour processing and other GPU shader-based effects in realtime on many platforms. This will likely extend to realistic realtime lighting effects over time.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Alex Mathias / Twitter

1. Interactivity

The Internet is interactive and incorporating interactivity into website products is a critical trend. Having the user be more involved in the actual experience really enhances the emotional involvement.

Our analysis shows there is a direct correlation between increased levels of participation and user engagement. It’s not only enjoyable but more memorable, and has a direct impact on the amount of time visitors spend browsing a website.

2. Story telling

Story telling is another trend that seems to be on the rise and it’s a terrific way for potential customers to connect with a brand. It provides insight and perspective that consumers relate to.

Many businesses suffer in the ability to truly connect with customers and story telling is a simple and straightforward solution to this concern.

3. Custom videos

We also expect to see a greater use of custom videos to communicate directly with customers on topics ranging from value proposition to social cause marketing.

Many of our clients are already investing in creating videos to help market the brand. The blend of video and audio is a recipe for irresistible content. It’s no wonder Americans are increasing how much time they spend watching online videos.

Undoubtedly industry leaders will waste no time establishing a dominant position in the customer’s mind. Combining the three trends above is not only a great strategy for a website, but also an obvious blueprint for a powerful online marketing tool.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Mike Rohde / Twitter

1. Clean & Light Design

With moves by both Apple and Google on their mobile devices to a lighter, cleaner look, websites are starting to move this direction as well, and I like this trend.

The web is maturing, so it makes sense to move away from heavilly gilded faux gradations and shadows to a clean, light designs and user interfaces.

2. Friendly, Human Language

I see websites using friendlier, more human language with web content, and especially dialogs. I strongly believe language and text are part of the design.

Web users are comfortable with the medium so that sites can speak to us with a human voice in the ways we talk. Well, except for terms of service and other lawyerly stuff.

3. Responsive Sites & Blurred App/Web Integration

Momentum is shifting to mobile devices more every day. We love our apps, so sites are offering responsive versions of their sites designed to work on phones and tablets.

More apps are being tied to backend web services as well, so there is a blurring happening – where does the app end and the web start?

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Francisco Inchauste / Twitter

1. Material design language

We’ll see design inspired from Google’s Material design language. Not just flat for the sake of being flat; a design based on classic principles and digital design patterns.

It’s a richer approach to flat interfaces using touches from the physical world and leaving it open to what’s possible with digital interfaces.

Designers will build more layered interfaces and utilize animation as affordance. Purposeful movement, flexible design components, and a graphical, user action-based approach to design.

2. Responsive Typography

Content scaled for a better reading experience. Today we find ourselves dealing with an ever-expanding list of devices and display resolutions. Using responsive relative scale designers can adjust type proportions appropriately for the device or resolution.

Designers will also consider the user’s reading distance (from the screen), so that font sizes are “perspectively proportional” to reading a printed piece.

3. Depth

With every update to Web standards, it’s becoming easier to achieve beautiful graphic effects with a little CSS/JavaScript magic.

We’ll continue to see more depth in designs, using fullscreen background imagery, blurs, overlays, gradients and movement. Designers are getting bolder with their layering of imagery and graphics that take nods from the rich graphic design found in print publications.

We’ll see more of this approach in Websites and Web apps as designers push the latest devices and browsers, and gracefully degrade for older ones.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Stéphanie Walter / Twitter

1. Transitions & Animations

For 2015 I except to see more and more sites and applications (native, mobile or web) that will use beautiful transitions and animation to enhance user experience.

With the growing support of CSS3, we can now do amazing stuff in the browser. Android is showing the path with the new “material design” and iOS already takes great care of the UI animations.

2. SVG Graphics

The other big trend I see more and more is the use of SVG graphics. This vector format works pretty well on most browsers now and solved one of the mobile problem: retina.

With SVG all your assets are crisp whatever screen resolution you are on. SVG format has other nice things among which the ability to embed media-queries to create for example responsive logos that would nicely adapt to screen size and also the ability to be animated as well.

3. Mobile Optimization

I hope the last trend will be mobile optimization with a better understanding of user needs and performances. Responsive Webdesign detractors say that it’s bad for performances, but that’s mostly the case when it’s poorly done, when people try to make a 1900px 10MB site fit into a 320 mobile phone.

I see more and more articles and talk trying to make performance a “must have” for sites, so I really hope to see more mobile optimized sites loading fast in 2015

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

John Ince / Twitter

1. Websockets

A second permanent connection from browser to web server making it possible for a ‘true’ application architecture. A useful addition to conventional transient http connections, AJAX and long polling. Data can now be ‘pushed’ from server to browser. B

uilding on this concept it’s possible to split web application architecture hosting only UX in-browser, pushing native business logic code safely on the server and communicating using application messaging. UX JavaScript that runs native code via messages.

This split architecture paradigm adds true ‘state’ to web applications which is ideal for collaborative working, shared data models, live push message updating everything you’d expect from a true native application but hosted in a browser.

The end result; a live, real-time updating, incredibly smooth user experience without the sense of round trip or page movement delay.

2. A Website Resize is a mobile app

A web application with split browser UX / Server native code removes the need for andriod / iOS apps. No more duplication of coding effort. One source for all devices.

Your mobile solution is a simple resize of your website. No more installations, no more updating apps! We’ve coupled responsive design with a split UX/server application architecture.

3. Collaborative Remote Working in Browser

Working with colleagues remotely using a true collaborative, multiuser browser web applications. Working the same data without collision using live, real-time multiuser controls and forms.

Watch colleagues live changes ‘as they type’. Interactive live using webRTC for in-browser VoIP. Interact live via private social media. Interact live using private instant messaging. A convergence of separate technologies into a single web application solution.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Bastian Allgeier / Twitter

1. Design As One

For years design on the web was discussed only on a visual level. Fortunately this has come to an end. The term design is finally widely seen as a combination of various aspects that must fit together.

2. Community

Buzzwords like content-first, mobile-first, offline-first, etc. belong to a greater knowledge we start to collect as a community about what good design for the web really is.

3. Lessons learned together

In my opinion visual trends don’t play a big role anymore — they come and go. But what is going to last are the next lessons we are going to learn together.

It’s very hard to predict those as they are closely connected to the evolution of the web and the mobile world in general.

 

来自50多为设计师 Top3 设计趋势(一)

Andrew Wilkinson / Twitter

1. Minimalistic Design

I think we are going to see a lot less clutter in 2015. Websites will make use of negative space, strong typography and striking images.

Flat design, which has been the rage of 2014 will be enhanced by Google’s Material Design specs, which places more structure and coherence on the process. With this, websites will start highlighting important content and directing traffic through their sales funnel.

2. Hero Images

Animated sliders don’t work, they slow down a website and confuse the user. Stats have shown that they generate very low click through rates.

Where large background images above the fold can create equal visual impact, set the tone for your site and put a focus on your sites main product, service or goal.

3. Microinteractions

Subtle animation can have a big impact on the user experience. Whether it’s a button that grows or wiggles when you hover over it or an image that moves into place as you scroll down the page, these draw the users eye without being overpowering. This is a great way to highlight calls-to-actions on your site.

2014 / . 05 / . 24

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

上期通过分享《浅谈矢量图形前景》,简单地从设计趋势、技术、以及现有应用环境等角度讲述了矢量技术应用的可行性。这期我们将把阿里妈妈MUX这两年在矢量图标制作上积累的经验也分享给大家;

大 家可能在网上看过很多关于矢量图标制作的教程,而且大多是技术同学分享的技术贴。整个过程也相对比较简单。在这里我们将深入地向大家讲述字体图标制作的规 范流程和注意事项,很多内容是现在网上没有的,纯粹是阿里妈妈MUX这两年摸索出来的。阿里妈妈MUX在国内首家推出了在线生成字体图标平台,省去了设计师不太擅长的字体制作过程,所以在本教程中我们就不再详细介绍如何使用字体制作工具制作字体图标的过程,更多的是介绍如何在AI工具中制作一个规范的字体图标。

相关推荐:
《适应网页设计新趋势:CSS3、字体以及图标》
《未来大趋势——响应式图标》

 

那废话不多说我们开始介绍吧;

 

一、制作前基础知识普及

1、在制作图标前请下载由阿里妈妈MUX提供的矢量图标制作模板;立即下载

2、尽量使用illustrator制作矢量图标;有些设计师在ps中使用路径绘制图标再导成SVG,这种方式也是可以的,但是有时会出现一些奇怪的现象,如图形的路径混乱了,图标倾斜了等不可预知的情况,所以还是建议大家在illustrator中绘制矢量图标;

3、将illustrator中绘制的图形另存为SVG格式;最初iconfont平台是支持EPS文件上传的,但是考虑到EPS文件在平台生成过程的不稳定性,所以现在统一采用SVG格式;illustrator中SVG格式导出具体教程>> iconfont

4、在绘制图标的过程中不要使用AI图形模块的旋转、镜像等功能,整个绘制过程最好使用钢笔工具绘制;^^

5、避免出现图形绘制过中断点的现象。

6、不可以用色彩叠加的方式来达到模块造型;

 

二、图标栅格

数字形态下,字符是用抽象化的图案绘制成的。当文本显示在屏幕上时,位置非常精确,理想的字体形状需要用一定数量的像素栅格显示。图标设计师常用栅格来控制图标组成元素的比例关系;但是我们在矢量图标制作过程中引入栅格概念主要目的是模拟字体图标在不同尺寸下的展现效果,以达到优化的作用;也就是说图标设计的时候我们用栅格来模拟像素,一个格子就是一个像素,一个图标需要一定数量的像素组成。

举个例子:一个16X16图标,在16X16个像素中通过像素着色的方式把图形表达出来;

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

 

那有同学就要问了,通过这样的栅格能达到什么样的优化效果呢?首先我们来了解一下文字的渲染策略,看组图:

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

 

(从左到右依次)理想的渲染状态、黑白渲染、灰度渲染、次像素渲染

上图左侧第一张是我们认为一种比较理想的渲染效果,但是通过刚才我们介绍栅格我们可以了解到这种状态是不可能的,因为第一代黑白渲染和第二代灰度渲染是不可能做到显示半格像素或一个像素中显示弧度的。

黑白渲染和灰度渲染在渲染图形遇到半格像素或则弧度的时候,他们会有各自不同的处理方式;举个例子:

如上图红点处像素,我们理解他是有弧度的,且不占满一个像素;各个渲染方式的处理办法如下:

黑白渲染

黑白渲染相对来说比较粗暴,直接通过四舍五入的形式把这里要描绘的图形不显示了;(黑白渲染的形式主要应用于打印机渲染,但是打印机本身的精度非常高,所以打印出来的图形还是很细腻的)

灰度渲染

灰度渲染显得就智能一些了,他通过灰度降级的方式来表达,如果占不到一个像素那就根据他占的面积来降低这个像素的灰度;占的面积越小灰度就越低;

次像素渲染

次像素渲染是第三代渲染方式,相对来说比较高级,他从从左至右将一个像素分成三份;用不同的色彩值来显示图形,这样图形看起来就更加细腻;

通过了解刚才三种渲染模式对不满一个像素的处理方式,我们就会发现,当我们绘制图标的时候,如果没有把控好图标边缘线在真实场景下渲染的情况,就会被系统进行降级渲染。所以我们更希望能饱满完整的显示一个像素。我们来看一组效果:

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

 

从 上组图中我们可以看出左侧图形的边都刚好落在完成的像素中,未出现不足一个像素的现象(圆角除外),右侧则未考虑像素栅格的问题;图标在16X16像素大 小的应用中很明显感觉到左侧的小图标比右侧的小图标要清晰很多;这是因为右侧的图标的边本来是需要2个像素显示的,但是却落在了3个像素上,渲染的时候出 现了一个像素是未降级灰度显示,其他两个像素进行了不同级别的灰度降级。这样我们就会觉得右侧的小图标有点模糊且变粗了。所以在制作图标的时候我们需要引 入栅格,去模拟像素点,然后避免图标的线或边不要出现落在半个像素上的情况;

了解到了栅格对于图标优化的重要性,那怎么制作一个能模拟真实像素环境下的栅格呢?

首 先我们得了解一下基准框;基准框的作用是为字体矢量图标提供一个大小参考,如:在16px像素大小的一个逗号“,”和一个文字“图”的大小和所处的位子是 不一样的,这就是因为他们都是在同一套基准框中绘制的图形,才得到相对大小的概念,不然大家同时矢量图标,怎么区别大小呢?

每套字体都有自己不同的基准框,要根据实际设计需要设定,没有严格规定;阿里巴巴矢量图标库在制定基准框的时候考虑到图标展现的标准尺寸:16X16、32X32、64X64、128X128;特设置了一个可以整除他们的尺寸:1024X1024(大家可以通过下载我们制作好的“图标制作模板”获得已经设置好基准框的模板)

根据实际应用的像素大小选择栅格;

如: 你要制作一套16X16像素大小的字体图标应用于网站或app,那么我们建议您在16X16的栅格中绘制,那么16像素2的n倍都能应用,这样图标的边框 就不会落在半个像素上,避免出现虚边、加粗等现象。(在retina屏下不用担心图标的虚边问题,由于显示精度非常高,图标表现得非常细腻。)

那如果要制作一个非标尺寸的图标,如:18X18大小的图标怎么办呢?

我们可以通过在AI中修改栅格来实现模拟,如下图:

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

在AI设置中调出参考线和网格设置设置项,然后拿出你的计算机:1024/X=?把算出来的值尽可能精确的填入网格线间隔这项中,这样你可以模拟在实际应用大小场景中要显示的图形像素点了。

三、实例操作

step1、下载模板

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

step2:在AI中删除模板的示例图,根据栅格绘制图形;

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

step3:将AI中绘制好的图形另存为SVG

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

step4:打开iconfont.cn网站并把保存好的SVG文件拖入上传框中

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

step5:完成上传,这样就获得了一个矢量的字体图标

再不知道字体图标就落伍啦!字体图标制作详解

本文转自:http://ux.etao.com/posts/1025

2014 / . 05 / . 21

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

[核心提示]前苹果工业设计总监、锤子手机工业设计的缔造者RobertBrunner是怎样的传奇人物?有哪些代表作品?

  昨夜的锤子科技2014新品发布会上,SmartisanT1手机对称简洁的工业设计引发了普遍的好评。而作为这一工业设计的主导者,其设计团 队Ammunition的创始人RobertBrunner(罗伯特·布伦纳)也在视频中亮相,开始为设计界之外的普通中国观众所认知。

  极客公园对RobertBrunner的主要履历、作品和对部分产品的评论进行了整理如下:

  履历

  RobertBrunner的主要求学与工作经历为:

  1976年至1981年,就读于美国圣何塞州立大学工业设计专业

  1980年至1983年,咨询公司GVOInc设计师和产品经理

  1983年至1990年,在加州帕洛阿图创建设计咨询公司LunarDesign,专注于为科技公司提供新产品的设计研发服务

  1989年至1996年,担任苹果公司工业设计总监。期间将苹果公司内部的绝大部分工业设计人员重组为独立的工业设计部门,统一为全公司各产品线提供设计解决方案,这一做法被长期沿用。

  1996年至2007年,加入设计公司PentagramDesign,并担任加州旧金山团队主管。期间为耐克、微软摩托罗拉、戴尔、惠普等多家行业巨头提供设计服务。

  2007年至今:设计公司AmmunitionLLC创始人。也就是此次SmartisanT1工业设计的承办公司。

  同时,RobertBrunner还担任著名音乐设备公司BeatsbyDr.Dre总设计师,以及户外烤架设备公司FuegoElement总设计师。

  主要作品

  由RobertBrunner主导和执行的设计作品数量巨大,好评众多。以下为其中最重要和知名的部分产品:

  进入MoMA现代艺术博物馆的作品

  RobertBrunner有至少两件具名作品被MoMA现代艺术博物馆收藏。它们是:

  Mindset个人电脑。1983年作品。是RobertBrunner为Mindset公司设计的高端个人工作站。

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  Stowaway便携式折叠键盘。1999年作品。

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  供职苹果期间的代表性作品

  九十年代RobertBrunner曾长期领导苹果的工业设计部门,促成了九十年代前半期绝大部分苹果设备的设计和执行。而在其著作DoYouMatter(《至关重要的设计》)的作者信息页上,提到了下面三款代表性作品:

  第一代PowerBook笔记本,1989年发布作品;

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  第一代Newton(牛顿)掌上电脑,1997年发布作品;

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  二十周年纪念版Macintosh电脑,1997年发布作品:

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  Kindle和Nook阅读器

  RobertBrunner是早期Kindle阅读器的主要设计者:

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  有趣的是,他同时也是Kindle当时的主要对手Barns&Nook早期数代阅读器的主要设计者,在尽量取消按钮的同时赋予消费者最大操控自由的理念广受好评:

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  BeatsbyDr.Dre系列作品

 

  RobertBrunner目前仍然是耳机和音乐产品品牌BeatsbyDr.Dre的总设计师:

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  同时,他也是户外烤架公司Fuego的总设计师,下面这台就是被誉为「烤架中的iPhone」的作品:

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  观点与评论

  「生活中最珍爱的产品是什么?」

  在一次接受采访中,RobertBrunner曾经表示,他当前最珍爱的产品是奥迪S5,因为它「达到了情感、功能、性能和细节的精巧结合」

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  「最希望自己参与设计的经典设备是哪一款?」

  RobertBrunner的回答是OlivettiDivisumma18计算器,并表示这是一个持续为他带来灵感的经典设备,它「达到了形式、功能、材质、可用性和制造工艺的和谐」

锤子手机工业设计缔造者Robert Brunner: 履历、作品与观点

  「对iOS7有什么看法?」

  RobertBrunner在2013年9月的一次视频采访中谈及其对iOS7的看法,要点如下:

  iOS7的视觉变革并不代表苹果发现了未来趋势--扁平、干净、简洁的视觉风格已经存在了很多年。

  iOS7的视觉变革显示出业界在数码产品界面设计的观念上变得更加成熟--不再执着于在电子设备上复刻生活中的物品,而是重新审视产品的功能重心--不再只是「看上去怎么样」,而更多的是「怎样高效地完成日常操作」

  iOS诞生后的五年,其高度拟物的界面风格,导致了在界面上泛滥轰炸的「多余元素」,iOS7的出现改变了这样的窘境。

  「苹果公司在设计界的地位?」

  在同一个采访中,RobertBrunner也提到了其对苹果在设计界地位和前景的看法。其观点如下:

  苹果仍然是并将继续成为设计界的领袖,是罕见的真正设计驱动的公司。这是一个深深植根于公司文化的传统。

  但是苹果同时也面临重大挑战,一方面,是因为苹果自身在长期成功之后可能会变得保守和墨守陈规;另一方面,是因为竞争对手们学得很快,已经领悟到设计并不只是表面的装饰,而是外观与功能的和谐统一,它们与苹果的差距正在缩小。

  因此,接下来的三年对苹果来说至关重要,目前,苹果的各代产品已经小幅迭代了很长时间,在接下来的数代产品和数年时间里中必须有大的惊人突破。

2014 / . 05 / . 15

如何选择正确的产品驱动模式?

根据产品所处的阶段,以及改进的粒度与方向,互联网产品团队的工作可以分为产品的功能性改进,非功能性改进,以及新产品孵化三类。

一、“功能性改进”:

1)抄袭与模仿:

 

互联网产品的抄袭与模仿往往被人诟病,但中国互联网环境的特殊性,已经使得它们成为中国产品改进中最重要的方式。诸多互联网团队都像狼一样紧紧盯着对手与国内外同仁,拷贝产品模式,快速复制新产品,借鉴已有的产品改进经验与思路。成功的案例已经多不胜举;

2)产品功能的“微创新”

 

即通过对用户需求与行为的深入理解,在不改动产品的整体思路与定位的前提下,主动创造,改进产品的局部功能。“微创新”也是中国互联网产品的主要改进方向,以求以每一步微小的加分形成大的加分,并在某一点或几点改进上抓住用户的痛点需求,使得用户体验进一步提升。例如360安全卫士,通过操作简化将杀毒软件的使用门槛大大降低,成功攻克中国完全红海的安全软件领域,例如QQ通过表情、QQ秀、好友印象等功能改进压倒MSN,例如百度通过直达优化,服务引入等改进使得TOP词效果优于技术领先的谷歌等等;

二、“非功能性改进”:

1)与功能性需求无关的改进

 

例如产品的运行效率、流畅性与稳定性等等。它们与用户需求无直接关系,但会直接影响其满足情况,是用户体验中必不可少的一部分,甚至可以说是产品成功的基础。这一类改进,可以独立于产品经理,由技术人员直接负责;

2)功能性需求的效果改进

 

例如搜索引擎的排序效果,广告系统、推荐引擎的展示效果等等。它们与用户需求的满足情况有直接关系,历来都是兵家必争之地。在《产品经理模式之弊论》中,阐述了这一类改进被产品经理完全主导的问题。

三、“新产品孵化”:

1)设计主导型新产品

 

例如Facebook,Twitter等。这些新产品的涌现与互联网用户环境有关,但与技术无直接关系。它们往往来源于创始人的奇思妙想,来源于一个小构思的不断深化。很多时候,这一类产品的衍生不像是一门科学,而更像艺术,没有规律可循,只能事后被戴上“社交网络”、“社交媒体”等帽子;

2)技术驱动型新产品

 

例如初创搜索引擎、推荐系统、风靡当下语音类应用等等。这些产品的理念往往很早就存在于科幻小说、电影、论文与原型系统中,但是一直等待基础技术成熟后,才达到应用层面。这里的“技术”是广义的,包含理论方法与数据等;

非抄袭的“新产品孵化”并不会频繁出现,每次出现都将是一次产品的波澜,甚至导致产业革命。如上的两个分类,其实也并没有完全的界限。部分新产品的衍生本身就融合了设计与技术驱动,例如谷歌眼镜。新产品孵化还有如下一种:

3)抄袭主导型新产品

 

在中国互联网环境下,新产品的独立创造并不多见,更多的是更改某些特质后的复制,或者对竞争对手的直接模仿;

那么,互联网团队的参与者又有哪些?一般而言,经典互联网团队成员通过职能分工,可以分为产品经理与技术人员两类,前者负责产品设计,后者负责功能实现。从能力方面,产品经理更接近用户需求,更具备社会化思维,而技术人员则专于工程实现。

由上文不难得出,产品经理适合驱动广泛存在的产品功能性改进,包括抄袭模仿与微创新,以及抄袭主导型新产品孵化。“功能性需求无关的改进”本身即可以独立于产品经理职能。而“功能性需求的效果改进”,原创性新产品的孵化,尤其是技术驱动型新产品的孵化,则并不适合由传统产品经理主导。这些工作必须要主导者兼备产品与技术两方面的能力,即所谓“产品型技术”。具备技术背景的产品经理也比较适合承担这些工作,但一旦职能转化为产品经理,就即意味着不能接触技术平台,不能看到原始数据,这将大大降低其能动性。

在产品驱动模式的选择上,首先要考虑自己产品的特点,如果产品的改进方式仅仅涵盖其中的某部分,例如技术已经完全成熟,或者技术本身与产品需求割裂,那么采用产品经理模式完全没有问题。如果是个性化广告系统等用户需求满足情况完全可以被CTR等指标量化的产品,由技术人员(研究人员)主导也没有问题。但搜索引擎、推荐引擎等产品,既包含有产品功能性改进也包含与需求直接相关的效果改进,在模式选择上则并不那么简单,直接完全由产品经理主导,很多情况下并不合适。

团队分工架构是非此即彼的选择,多数情况下,由产品经理主导也更加合适。但工程师关于产品层的推动作用往往暗含巨大的力量,那么有没有可能兼容两种模式呢?个人认为是完全有可能的。首先需要一个兼备技术与产品能力的整体负责人,能够正确的判断工作由何种职能主导更加合适,并能够统筹技术人员关于产品的改进构思;其次,团队要小,只有小团队,才有足够的灵活性,灵活调配分工,也才能够使得技术人员产生产品层面的构思。产品经理与技术人员更加应该通力合作,相互理解,深刻认知自己的职能、能力与特质,在不同情况下,主导不同的改进方向。

然后,还有一个问题:“产品型技术人员”应该如何定位,如何发挥自己的作用?我看过很多怀揣产品梦的技术人员,在现代精细分工导致的大团队中郁郁不得志,甚至为了实现自己的产品梦想,转型当产品经理。而对于明确分工的大中型公司而言,这一类兼备两种能力的人的确难以用好。另一方面,我又看到无数产品的改进工作以及新产品的孵化工作,没有选择对产品驱动模式,甚至因为没有“产品型技术人员”,退而求次,直接导致了产品质量不佳,延期,甚至失败。这形成了令人扼腕叹息的对比。当前的“大数据”时代,其实是一个由数据与理论方法驱动技术成熟的时代,由工程师驱动产品改进将更加重要,这类人用在合适的点上,将起到画龙点睛的作用,互联网公司,更应该重视此类人员。对于“产品型技术”自身,也要挑选好职能,领导与团队,才不至于放弃自己的梦想。

2014 / . 04 / . 20

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

美国著名程序员、风险投资家、畅销技术书作家。哈佛大学博士。当今美国互联网界如日中天的教父级人物。被《福布斯》杂志喻为“撼动硅谷的人”。他是Lisp专家,是第一个互联网应用程序Viaweb的发明人之一,该程序后被雅虎以5000万美元收购,这个程序后来成为如雷贯耳的Yahoo!Store。2005年,他创办了Y Combinator,如今该公司已成为美国著名的创业孵化器。截至2012年7月,共孵化380家创业公司,这些公司累计获得投资额超过10亿美元,估值已超100亿美元。

哥白尼不认同托勒密的体系,一个极其重要的原因是,他觉得托勒密提出的偏心等距点(equant)毫无美感……

——托马斯 · 库恩,《哥白尼革命》

我们所有人都受到凯利 · 约翰逊1的影响,狂热地相信外观优美的飞机一定会飞得同样漂亮。

——本 · 里奇,《臭鼬计划》

1 Kelly Johnson(1910—1990),美国传奇飞机设计师,供职于洛克希德公司,主导设计的机型达40余种。——译者注

美感是第一道关卡。丑陋的数学在世界上无法生存。

——G. H. 哈代,《一个数学家的道歉》

品味。如今很少听到这个词了,人们往往使用别的叫法,但它却的的确确是我们离不开的基本概念。我的朋友的意思是,他想要的学生不仅应该技术过硬,还应当能够使用技术做出优美的产品。

数学家会把出色的工作称赞为“优美的”。无论古今,科学家、工程师、音乐家、建筑师、设计师、作家、画家都是这样做的,他们都使用同一个词。这仅仅是巧合吗,还是他们之间有共识?如果真的有共识,那么我们能不能将某一个领域发现的“美”的规律运用于另一个领域呢?

对于我们设计师来说,美就不仅仅是一个理论问题了。如果世界上真有“美”存在,我们需要能够认出它。设计产品时,我们需要良好的品味。与其把“美”说成一个虚无缥缈的抽象概念,还不如让我们考虑一个实际的问题(这样就能避免喋喋不休的空谈):如何才能做出优美的产品?

如果你在当今社会提到“品味”,很多人会对你说“品味是主观的”。他们真的就是这么认为的。喜欢一件东西,却不知道为什么自己喜欢它,原因可能是这件东西是美的,但也可能因为他们的母亲也拥有同样的东西,或者杂志上某个明星使用它,或者仅仅因为它的价格很昂贵。人类的思想就是没有经过整理的无数杂念的混合。

我们大多数人从孩提时代起就被鼓励不要去分析清楚自己的头脑。如果你的小弟弟画图时把人都涂成绿色,你想取笑他,你妈妈很可能会对你说:“你有你喜欢的方式,他有他喜欢的方式。”

你妈妈这时不是教给你什么是美学,而只是想阻止你们两个争吵。

就像大人哄小孩的其他话一样,这句话也是模棱两可的,与其他话会发生冲突。大人教导你说品味只是每个人的偏好而已。但是来到博物馆,他们却对你说,仔细观赏达 · 芬奇的作品,因为他是伟大的艺术家,品味超凡。

小孩子受到这样的教导会怎么想?他会怎么理解“伟大的艺术家”?这么多年来,别人无数遍地告诉他,品味就是一种偏好,是每个人自己的事情,所以他不可能直接就明白,所谓“伟大的艺术家”就是这个人的作品要比其他人的杰出。他更可能觉得,所谓“伟大的艺术家”只是针对我个人世界而言的,就是很符合我自己口味的艺术家,好比某本书上说食用西兰花对我的健康有利,所以我就应该喜欢吃西兰花一样。

把品味说成个人的偏好可以有效地杜绝争论,防止人们争执哪一种品味更好。但是问题是,这种说法是不正确的。只要你自己开始动手设计东西,就能明白这一点。

不管每个人的工作是什么,他们内心里都有一种愿望——把自己的工作做好。足球运动员想赢得比赛,CEO想增加利润。做好自己的工作会真正令人感到自豪和愉快。但是,如果你是一个设计师,并且你不承认有一种人们共同认可的东西叫做“美”,那么你就没有办法做好工作。如果品味只是一种个人偏好,那么每个人都是完美无缺的:你喜欢自己看上的东西,那就足够了。

就像别的工作一样,只要你不断地从事设计工作,你就会做得越来越好。你的品味会出现变化,你会像别人一样有所提高。如果这样的话,那么你以前的品味就不只是与现在不同,而是不如现在的好。因此,所谓的“品味没有好坏之分”的公理也就顿时见鬼去了。

现在流行“相对主义”,即认为真理是相对的。即使你已经从小孩变成了成年人,这种观点依然可能妨碍你思考“品味”。但是,只要你走出狭隘的自我,至少在心里对自己说,确实存在比其他设计更好的杰出设计,那么你就能开始仔细研究了。你的品味是如何变化的?什么原因使你做出不好的设计?其他人对设计是什么观点?

只要你开始思考这些问题,你就会发现,众多不同学科对“美”的认识有着惊人的相似度。优秀设计的原则是许多学科的共同原则,一再反复地出现。

好设计是简单的设计。从数学领域到绘画领域,你都可以听到这种说法。在数学中,它表示简短的证明往往是更好的证明。特别是对于数学公理来说,少即是多。在编程中,这种说法也基本适用。对于建筑师和设计者,它意味着美依赖于一些精心选择的结构性元素,而不依赖于表面装饰品的堆砌。(装饰品本身并不是坏事,只有当它被用来掩盖结构的苍白时,才变成了一件坏事。)绘画也是类似的,认真观察的、非常有代表性的静物作品往往要比表面极尽华美、但是实质上只是无意义重复的“巨作”(比如再现非常复杂的花边的绘画作品)更有价值。在写作上,这种说法意味着只说必须要说的话,并且说得简短。

这样强调简单似乎有点奇怪。有人会说,简单就是事物本来的样子,装饰反而意味着更多的工作。但是,当人们自己从事创造性工作的时候,好像就会忘了保持简单这个原则。刚开始写作的人喜欢用浮夸的语调,根本不像他们平时说话的样子。设计师喜欢用波浪式卷曲表现他们的艺术感。画家发现自己都是表现主义者(expressionist)。这些装饰都是花架子,在作家的长句、画家“表现主义”的画笔之下,根本就是空洞无物,表面的装饰掩盖了内部的空虚,太可怕了。

当你被迫把东西做得很简单时,你就被迫直接面对真正的问题。当你不能用表面的装饰交差时,你就不得不做好真正的本质部分。

好设计是永不过时的设计。只要没有错误,每一个数学证明都是永不过时的。所以,数学家哈代才会说:“丑陋的数学在世界上无法生存。”他的意思与飞机设计师凯利 · 约翰逊的观点是一样的:如果解决方法是丑陋的,那就肯定还有更好的解决方法,只是还没有发现而已。

以永不过时作为目标是一种帮助自己找到最佳答案的方法:如果你不愿别人的答案取代你的答案,你就只好自己做出最佳答案。某些大师的作品太过杰出,永不过时,使得后人几乎难以在该领域立足。自从16世纪出现了德国雕刻大师杜勒(Dürer),后世的雕刻家都因为自己的作品被拿来与他的作品作比较而苦不堪言。

以永不过时作为目标也是一种避开时代风潮的影响的方法。“风潮”这个词,从字面上就可以看出,它就是一阵风似的,随着时间经常改变。如果一件东西长盛不衰,那么它的吸引力一定来自本身的魅力,而不是来自风潮的影响。

说来奇怪,如果你希望自己的作品对未来的人们有吸引力,方法之一就是让你的作品对上几代人有吸引力。我们很难猜想未来是什么样子,但是可以肯定,未来的人们不会在乎今天流行的风潮,这一点与上几代人是相同的。所以,如果你的作品对今天的人们以及1500年的人都有吸引力,那么它极有可能也会吸引2500年的人。

好设计是解决主要问题的设计。厨房的煤气灶有四个出火口,排成一个正方形。每个出火口都由一个调节器控制,四个出火口就有四个调节器。请问应该如何摆放调节器?最简单的摆放方法当然是把四个调节器排成一列,但要是这样做,人们使用起来就很不方便,每次都要停下来想一下到底每个调节器对应的是哪个出火口。如果直接把调节器排成与出火口一样的正方形,就不会有这个问题了。

许多坏设计做得很辛苦,但是从一开始方向就错了。20世纪中期,有一股使用无衬线(sans-serif)字体的潮流。这一类字体接近于纯手写的样式,但是它无助于解决最主要的问题。印刷出来的文字首先应该是易于辨认的,所以能够清晰地分辨字母就是最主要的问题。传统的新罗马(Times Roman)字体是一种有衬线的字体,虽然看上去古老得就像维多利亚女王时代的风格,但是它的小写g就是可以很轻易地与小写y区分。

答案可以不断改进,同样,问题本身也可以不断改进。软件的难题通常可以被改成等价的较易解决的形式。历史上,物理学的主要难题曾经一度是如何诠释经典著作,后来逐渐变成对可观测到的行为进行预测,这种转变使得物理学的发展速度大大加快。

好设计是启发性的设计。英国女作家简 · 奥斯汀的作品几乎不带有任何描述。她不告诉读者每件东西看上去是什么样子,只是把故事讲得非常生动,让读者自己把一切都想象出来。同样,绘画作品也分为描述性绘画和启发性绘画,后者往往比前者更引人入胜。每个人看到《蒙娜丽莎》都有自己的理解。

在建筑学和设计学中,这条原则意味着,一幢建筑或一个物品应该允许你按照自己的愿望来使用。举例来说,一幢好的建筑物应该可以充当平台,让你想怎么布置就可以怎么布置,过上自己想过的家庭生活,而不是使得你像执行程序一样只能过上建筑师为你安排的生活。

在软件业中,这条原则意味着,你应该为用户提供一些基本模块,使得他们可以随心所欲自由组合,就像玩乐高积木那样。在数学中,这条原则意味着,一个可以成为许多新工作基础的证明要优于一个难度很高、但无助于未来学科发展的证明。在科学领域中,总体上可以把引用次数看作对他人启发性大小的粗略指标。

好设计通常是有点趣味性的设计。这条原则可能不是所有情况下都成立。但是,杜勒的雕刻、芬兰设计师沙里宁(Saarinen)的子宫椅(Womb Chair)、意大利罗马的万神殿(Pantheon)、保时捷911型汽车的原型设计(图1),在我看来都很有趣。逻辑学家哥德尔(Gödel)的不完备定理就好像一个玩笑那样有意思。

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

图1 保时捷911E,1973年产

我想,这是因为幽默一定程度上反映了力量。幽默感是强壮的一种表现,始终拥有幽默感就代表你对厄运一笑了之,而丧失幽默感则表示你被厄运深深伤到。所以,强壮的标志(或者至少是特点)就是轻松面对自己的人生。充满自信的人常常像燕子一样,以一种居高临下的姿态轻盈地看待周围的一切,比如希区柯克拍摄的电影、16世纪画家布勒哲尔(Bruegel)的绘画(甚至莎士比亚也是一个这方面的例子)。

好的设计并非一定要有趣,但是很难想象完全无趣的设计会是好的设计。

好设计是艰苦的设计。如果观察那些做出伟大作品的人,你会发现他们的共同点就是工作得非常艰苦。如果你工作得不艰苦,你可能正在浪费时间。

困难的问题需要艰巨的付出才能解决,高难度的数学证明需要结构非常精细的解决方法(它们往往做起来很有趣),工程学也是如此。

当你攀登高山时,必须扔掉一切不必要的装备。在困难地点或预算不足的条件下,建筑师就只能做出很简练的设计。当解决难题成为压倒一切的任务时,那些流行样式与华丽装饰就被抛到一边去了。

并非所有的艰苦都是值得的。世界上有有益的痛苦,也有无益的痛苦。你需要的是咬牙向前冲刺的痛苦,而不是脚被钉子扎破的痛苦。解决难题的痛苦对设计师有好处,但是对付挑剔的客户的痛苦或者对付质量低劣的建材的痛苦就是另外一回事了。

在绘画上,肖像画通常占据最高地位。这不是偶然的,原因不仅是面部肖像比其他题材更能打动人,还因为我们太擅长观察脸,所以肖像画家不得不加倍努力才能达到我们的要求。如果画的是树,树枝画偏了五度也不会有人发现。但是,如果你把别人的眼睛画偏了五度,人们一眼就能看出来。

德国包豪斯(Bauhaus)学派的设计师采纳了美国建筑师路易斯 · 沙利文(Louis Sullivan)的观点“功能决定形式”(form follows function),但是他们实际上的理解是“功能应当决定形式”。2真实情况是,如果开发“功能”非常艰难,那么“形式”将不得不全部都由“功能”决定,因为没有多余的精力再来单独开发“形式”了。人们常常觉得野生动物非常优美,原因就是它们的生活非常艰苦,在外形上不可能有多余的部分了。

2 沙利文的原话是“功能总是决定形式”(form ever follows function),所以如今的引用形式实际上不准确,但是我觉得误读后的形式更接近于现代主义建筑师的观点。

好设计是看似容易的设计。优秀运动员比赛时,让人觉得他轻轻松松就获胜了,优秀设计师也是如此,他们的工作看上去很容易。大多数时候,这是一种错觉。作家的文章读起来流畅自如,但是背后其实经过了反复修改。

科学和工程学的一些最重大的发现在形式上往往很简单,会使得你觉得自己也想到过。可是,如果它真的那么简单,为什么发现人不是你呢?

达 · 芬奇的有些肖像画只是几根线条。看着它们,你会想只要把这十根八根线条放对位置,你也能画出如此优美的肖像画。说的没错,可是难就难在找出正确的位置。只要位置偏移一点点,整幅作品就会一溃千里。

白描其实是最难画的视觉媒介,因为它们要求几近完美的再现。用数学语言说,线条属于闭合解(closed-form solution),水平不够的艺术家没有办法直接解决问题,只能通过不断逼近来求解。许多孩子在十岁左右放弃了绘画,原因之一就是这时他们开始学习成年人的绘画技法,首先练习用线条勾勒出人脸。

在大多数领域,看上去容易的事情,背后都需要大量的练习。练习的作用也许是训练你把刻意为之的事情变成一种自觉的行为。有时,我们的训练只是为了让身体养成下意识的反应。优秀钢琴家弹奏名曲可以不经过大脑直接完成,艺术家也是这样,熟练以后,脑海中的艺术形象会自动从手上流淌出来,仿佛有人在一旁为他打节奏一样。

人们有时会说自己有了“状态”,我的理解是,他们这时可以控制自己的脊髓。脊髓是更本能的反应,面对难题时,它能释放你的直觉。

好设计是对称的设计。对称也许只是简洁性的一种表现,但是它十分重要,值得单独列为一点。自然界的对称大量存在,这就说明了对称的重要性。

对称有两种:重复性对称和递归性对称。递归性对称就是指子元素的重复,比如树叶上叶脉的纹路。

历史上,对称曾经泛滥一时,导致现在它在某些领域已经不流行了。从维多利亚女王时代开始,建筑师就有意多建造不对称的建筑。20世纪20年代,不对称成了现代主义建筑的一个明确的前提条件。但是即使如此,这些建筑物往往也只是在主轴上不对称,细节部分依然大量使用对称。

在写作中,你会发现对称无处不在,短语、句子、小说的情节都是如此。音乐和美术也大量使用对称。拼接式的美术作品(还有塞尚的一部分作品)有非常强烈的视觉感染力,原因就是整幅作品由相同的作图元素构成,这也属于对称。对称性构图产生了一些最让人难忘的绘画作品,尤其是那些两个半边互相呼应的作品,比如米开朗基罗的壁画《创世纪》和格兰特 · 伍德的油画《美国式哥特》。

在数学和工程学中,递归尤其有用。归纳式证明方法既简洁又美妙。在软件中,能用递归解决的问题通常代表已经找到了最佳解法。巴黎的埃菲尔铁塔如此引人注目,部分原因就是它的外形是递归的,大塔上面还有小塔(图2)。

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

图2 埃菲尔铁塔,1889。大塔上面有小塔

对称的危险在于它可以用来取代思考,在大量使用重复的时候这种危险性更大。

好设计是模仿大自然的设计。我不是说模仿大自然这种行为本身有多么好,而是说大自然在长期的演化中已经解决了很多设计问题。所以,如果你的设计与大自然很接近,那么它基本上不会很差。

模仿与剽窃并不相同。如果一部小说写得好像真实生活的再现,没人会提出异议。虽然写实的价值常常被误解,但它也是绘画的一个重要工具。写实的目的不是为了给生活留下一模一样的记录,而是为你的思想提供一个咀嚼点:你的眼睛看着某样东西,你的手就代表你的思想,画出一些比较有意思的内容。

模仿大自然也是工程学的有效方法。长久以来,船只就像动物一样有龙骨和肋骨。不过,前提条件是技术水平要达到,只有这样才有可能模仿大自然。早期的飞机设计师按照鸟的形状设计飞机,这样做其实是错的,因为那时还没有足以模拟鸟类行为的轻型材料和能源,也做不出高度复杂的控制系统,所以飞机还不可能像鸟类那样飞。3但是,我能想象五十年后,小型的无人侦察飞机可以做得完全像鸟一样。

3 莱特兄弟的飞机引擎大约重70公斤,动力为12马力。F-18战斗机的F414-GE-400引擎重1.1吨,推动力接近10吨。换算后可知,两者的单位重量引擎产生的动力相差114倍。如今英特尔处理器的计算能力大约是30年前的1700倍。

现在的计算机已经很强大了,不仅能模拟出大自然的环境,还能模拟大自然发展演变的结果。遗传算法可能会创造出正常条件下难以设计的复杂事物。

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

图3 达·芬奇,《一匹直立的马的研究》,1481~1499

好设计是一种再设计。很少有人一次就把事情做对。专家的做法是先完成一个早期原型,然后提出修改计划,最后把早期原型扔掉。

扔掉早期原型是需要信心的,你必须有本事看出什么地方还可以改进。举例来说,刚刚开始学画的人往往不愿意重画画错的地方。他们觉得能画成现在这样已经很不错了,如果重画某些部分,结果可能还不如现在。所以,他们就说服自己,我的画已经过得去了,没准别人也会这么看。

这想法很危险。你应该培养对自己的不满。达·芬奇为了把一根线画对,经常要画五六次。保时捷911型汽车的原型很粗糙,只有在重新设计后它的背部轮廓才变成现在这样独特的曲线。建筑师莱特设计的古根海姆博物馆,最早的时候,右半边有点像古代的塔庙(ziggurat),他后来把它倒过来,就成了现在的样子。

犯错误是很正常的事情。你不要把犯错看成灾难,要勇于承认、勇于改正。达 · 芬奇实际上重新发明了素描这种艺术形式,把它当作一种探索更多可能的方式。开源软件因为公开承认自己会有bug,反而使得代码的bug比较少。

做修改的时候,有一个合适的工具会使得改动更容易。美术史上,15世纪油彩取代蛋彩4(tempera)就是一个重大突破,油彩使得画家更方便地处理那些困难的主题(比如人体),因为油彩可以调制,还可以重画,蛋彩就做不到这些。

4 蛋彩画是15世纪的欧洲绘画方式,盛行于文艺复兴初期,主要是将鸡蛋和水作为溶剂,溶解绘画颜料,使之可以用来绘画。——译者注

好设计是能够复制的设计。我们对待复制的态度经常是一个否定之否定的过程。刚入门的新手不知不觉地模仿他人,逐渐熟练之后才开始创作原创性作品。最后他会意识到,把事情做对比原创更重要。

不知不觉的模仿几乎必然将导致坏设计。如果你不知道自己的想法从何而来,那么你可能就是在模仿另一个模仿者。19世纪中期,拉斐尔画派主导了整个画坛,几乎每个学画的人都在模仿拉斐尔,可是经常谬以千里。有一些艺术家实在看不下去了,被如此之多模仿拉斐尔的人搞烦了,于是成立了前拉斐尔画派5

5 前拉斐尔画派是1848年由三个年轻的英国画家创立的。他们认为,学院派的方法已经腐化了米开朗基罗和拉斐尔的风格,因此艺术发展的正确道路应该回到拉斐尔之前的古典时代。——译者注

等到你逐渐对一件事产生热情的时候,就不会满足于模仿了。你的品味就进入了第二阶段,开始自觉地进行原创。

我想,最伟大的大师最终会达到一种超脱自我的境界。他们一心想找到正确答案,如果别人已经回答出了一部分,那就没理由不拿来用。他们足够自信地使用他人的成果,完全不担心因此丧失个人的特点。

好设计常常是奇特的设计。某些最出色的作品堪称不可思议:欧拉公式、16世纪画家布勒哲尔的《雪中猎人》(图4)、SR-71“黑鸟”超音速侦察机(图5)、计算机的Lisp语言等。它们不仅优美,而且美得很奇特。

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

图4 布勒哲尔的《雪中猎人》,1565年

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

图5 洛克希德公司的SR-71“黑鸟”超音速侦察机,1964年

我不太确定原因,可能是因为我不够聪明,才会觉得它们看上去很奇特。一条狗看到开罐器也会认为那是一个奇迹。如果我是天才的话,可能会觉得e= -1是再平常不过的事情,它又没有说错,有什么好奇怪的。

我在前文提到的好设计的大多数特点都是可以培育出来的,但是我觉得“奇特”这个特点是无法培育的。你最多就是在它开始显现时不要把它扼杀掉。爱因斯坦并不想让相对论变得很奇特,他只想找出真理,是真理本身显得很奇特。

我曾在一家美术学校学习绘画,那里的学生最想做的就是发展出一种自己的风格。但是,如果你想做出好作品,不可避免地会采用一种独特的方式,就好像每个人走路的姿势其实都不尽相同。米开朗基罗并没想过要树立米开朗基罗风格,他只是想画好作品,结果不由自主地创造出了米开朗基罗风格。

你最后发展出来的风格是自然而然形成的。“奇特”这个特点尤其如此,没有其他路可走。它就像连接大西洋和太平洋的“西北航道”,无数人希望找到这条捷径。16世纪的风格主义者、19世纪的浪漫主义者、一代代的美国高中生都在寻找,但就是找不到。唯一达到“奇特”的方法,就是追求做出好作品,完成之后再回过头看。

好设计是成批出现的。15世纪住在佛罗伦萨的伟大艺术家有建筑师布鲁内莱斯基、画家吉贝尔蒂、雕塑家多纳泰洛、画家马萨乔、画家菲利普里皮、画家弗拉安吉利科、雕塑家韦罗基奥、画家波提切利、达 · 芬奇和米开朗基罗。当时,米兰也是同等的大城市,请问你能说出15世纪米兰城有什么伟大艺术家吗?

15世纪的佛罗伦萨有一些独特的条件,它们是不可延续的,因为今天的佛罗伦萨已经不是如此了。我们还必须假设达 · 芬奇和米开朗基罗拥有的天赋,在米兰城里一定也有人拥有。那么为什么没有出现米兰的达 · 芬奇呢?

今天,生活在美国的人口大概是15世纪佛罗伦萨的一千倍。那么按照比例推算,在我们之中存在着一千个达 · 芬奇和一千个米开朗基罗。如果这种推算成立,我们应该每天都看到令人惊叹的艺术奇迹。但是,事实并非如此,原因就是达 · 芬奇的出现除了他本身的天赋以外,还有赖于1450年的佛罗伦萨。

推动人才成批涌现的最大因素就是,让有天赋的人聚在一起,共同解决某个难题。互相激励比天赋更重要,达 · 芬奇之所以成为达 · 芬奇,主要原因不仅仅是他的天赋,更重要的是他生活在当时的佛罗伦萨,而不是米兰。今天,人类生活的流动性高得多,但是伟大的项目依然不成比例地集中在少数几个热点上:德国包豪斯建筑学院、曼哈顿计划、《纽约人》杂志、洛克希德公司的臭鼬工作室、施乐公司的帕洛阿尔托研究中心。

在历史的任何时刻都有一些热点项目,一些团体在这些项目上做出伟大的成绩。如果你远离这些中心,几乎不可能单靠自己就取得伟大成果。某种程度上,你个人最多可以对趋势产生一定的影响,但是你不可能决定趋势,实际上是趋势决定了你。(或许有人办得到,但是米兰的达 · 芬奇显然没有办到。)

好设计常常是大胆的设计。在任何一段历史中,人们都会把某些荒谬的东西当作正确的,并且深信不疑,以至于一旦你出言质疑,就有被排挤或者被暴力伤害的危险。

我们自己的这个时代要是不同以往,当然令人欢欣鼓舞。但是就我所知,它并没有任何不同。

这个问题不仅存在于每个年代,还或多或少存在于每个领域。许多文艺复兴时期的艺术作品在当时都被认为极其大逆不道。根据意大利画家瓦萨里的记载,波提切利因此向教会忏悔并且放弃绘画,巴尔托洛梅奥和洛伦索迪克雷迪则是把自己的作品烧掉。爱因斯坦的相对论触犯了许多同时代的物理学家,许多年后还没有被完全接受,法国物理学家直到20世纪50年代才接受相对论。6

6 参见Stephen G. Brush.所著的“为什么相对论被接受了?”,Physics in Perspective,1999年第1期。

今天的实验性错误就是明天的新理论。如果你想做出伟大的新成果,那就不能对常识与真理不相吻合之处视而不见,反而应该特别注意才对。

实际上,我觉得发现丑陋的东西要比你想象出一个优美的东西更容易。大多数做出优美成果的人好像只是为了修正他们眼中丑陋的东西。伟大成果的出现常常来源于某人看到一样东西后,心想我能做得比这更好。拜占庭帝国的《圣母像》最早是根据某个公认的模板画的,非常机械呆板。几百年后的14世纪,意大利画家乔托看到以后,深感不满,决定动手改进,他因此成为文艺复兴的先行者。哥白尼对地心说无法解释的事情深感困扰,他的同时代人都觉得这可以忍受,他却认为一定能找到一种更好的解释。

单单是无法容忍丑陋的东西还不够,只有对这个领域非常熟悉,你才可能发现哪些地方可以动手改进。你必须锻炼自己。只有在成为某个领域的专家之后,你才会听到心里有一个细微的声音说:“这样解决太糟糕了!一定有更好的选择。”不要忽视这种声音,要培育它们。优秀作品的秘诀就是:非常严格的品味,再加上实现这种品味的能力。

 

设计者的品味:如何做出优秀的东西?

原文摘自《黑客与画家:硅谷创业之父Paul Graham文集》

2014 / . 04 / . 06

设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码

        这一个多月,我像孩子蹒跚学步一样重头开始学习编程。终于完成了第一个商城项目,虽然项目不是很完善,但是从程序员的角度,体验了一把产品从无到有的过程。似乎寻找了失去已久的匠人精神.已经有很长的一段时间没有体验这种感觉……
   这 么久以来我一直在探寻一个问题,什么是真正的设计?当经历过无数个设计项目后,我越来越觉得的困惑.做为一个设计师,我们通常把我的工作止步于方案:一打 行云流水的草图,一张漂亮的图片,一个有说服力的PPT……而很少去真正的研究这些方案在转交出去后发生了什么、产生了怎么样的变化、原来的设想实现了多 少、反馈是怎么样的。在忙碌奔波的过程中,我们的心态开始与这个社会一样的浮躁。终于有一天我停了下来,我终于领悟到"产品不止于设计,设计不止于方 案".我给我自己设定一个目标--重拾一百多年前手工艺者的精神,让自己拥有造物的能力。
    于是我报了一个编程班,学习如何敲代码。“兄弟 连”安排的给我们的任务是用两个星期左右的时间模仿一个商城的网站.而且这个网站的全部代码都必须是"原生态"的敲出来。我作为一个初学者,刚开始无从下 手,但在凯哥手把手做了一段时间后,我已经找到了编程的感觉。当凯哥完全放手后,我担心的并不是功能做不出来,而是时间不够。到项目演示结束后的这一天我 又深刻的体会到是"产品不止于代码"。原因如下:
     1、实现功能需求没有问题,但是你能保证没有错误?

     因 为,要实现一个功能,无非就是把你的想法通过计算机能懂的方式表达出来。编程背后的难点不是你怎么去敲代码,是怎么去设计功能背后逻辑。在整个编程的过程 中,我们将尽有一半的时间在找bug。很多时候程序执行的错误可以用机器检测出来,但是逻辑错误很多时候隐藏得很深,万一有一天被抖落出来足够让你致命。 例如,让用户能够输入要买物品的数量,如果购买者输入的数量为负数,商品的总价为负,那你这是要陪多少钱?


设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码

    编程的语句和函数的用法就是那些,如果你不熟悉,通过找资料,查手册就能够解决。但是要如何实现功能逻辑却因人而异。很多时候这决定了程序员的好坏。编程和设计一样,考验的是你对事务的观察和理解,而不只是你敲代码的速度和你敲代码种类。
   2、爽的是程序员还是用户?
   程 序员和设计师很像,很喜欢体验创造产品的感觉。但是无论程序员还是设计师都喜欢迷失在这种自得其乐的状态中。用户觉得你的东西好,不是因为的功能多强大, 而是因为你提供的体验周到。他们除了不愿意看到丑陋的错误警告以外,也不愿意在一张页面上毫无意义的点个不停。而程序员容易在沉迷于堆叠功能和炫技中忽视 了对用户的思考。例如,如果你要在产品页中添加评论框的时候,你需要考虑不是要给评论框放上多少附加功能,而是需要考虑到用户在什么时候看到这个评论框, 因此,与其你给这 个评论框多加功能,还不如为其多添加一些逻辑判断来提升体验。很多时候我们应该多问问自己,你的杰作是用户想要的吗?

设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码

设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码

设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码

      3、谁为产品的存在负责?
      如 果一切运作良好,我们首先想到的是产品经理为产品的存在而负责。但当网站报一个大bug出来,第一个倒霉的就是程序员。因为大家都觉得产品经理提供的是需 求,设计提供的是图片。程序出bug当然找程序员算账。但是作为一个项目开发团队,程序员是唯一个在开发的最后阶段冲锋陷阵的角色。为产品的存在而负责的 不仅仅是程序员,而是整个项目开发团队。在团队中的每一个人都应该尽可能对合作者的工作多了解一些。程序员应该多了解一些设计与用户体验的知识,就能意识 到业务逻辑应该怎么写会比较合理。产品经理和设计师多了解一些编程的知识,你们对设计和产品够合理实现会有深刻体会。这样,很可能团队沟通起来就不那么费 劲,许多错误也能够更早的避免掉。
   设计不止于方案,产品不止于代码。
   最后我要感谢的不仅仅是凯哥这一个月来的教学上的指导,更重要是你作为过来人的指点,让我对自己也充满了信心。知音难觅,听闻你这次去北京真有点舍不得。

   转载请注明来源,谢谢!微博链接:www.weibo.com/gold3bear

 

2014 / . 03 / . 30

Design Thinking is created not only because Tim Brown coined the word that became a buzzword. There is a logical reason why.

Design thinking is created not only because Tim Brown coined the word that became a buzzword(流行词). There's a logical reason to it.

Design thinking is created because big corporation lack the ability to be creative and on extreme(极端的) cases, aren't able to create new products and services that meet unmet needs of their customers. Because of 20th century education system that fostered(培养) dominant(显性的) logic and disregard(忽视) creativity, people grew up with an overpowered(压倒的) mindset and skill-set of managing value. Hence, defines the corporations today that are run by boomers and Gen X. Because how they are bred, a majority of corporations operate with analytical thinking where they are constantly being disrupted by changing trends and consumer values rendering their business obsolete(过时). Think of Kodak’s film camera business. This happens because organizations lack value creation capability that would allow them to respond in time. To respond to external change is to innovate. To innovate, businesses must have the capacity to design. To design they need to fuse(融合) design internally within the organization to create a culture that fosters creative thinking and actions with design methods and tools designers use.

Pioneers like Tim Brown and Roger Martin have spearheaded(带头) the shifting(移动的) role of design in business from noun to verb, where design can be used as a differentiator(微分器) to respond to changing trends and consumer behaviours, while gaining competitive advantage that ultimately impacts bottom-line and drives business growth. Businesses are beginning to realize the necessity of design as a value creation capability to complement(补足) its existing value management capability. 

In its purest context, value creation typically comes from designers because they are naturally inclined(趋向) in creative thinking, trained in the methods and tools to produce new values. However, designers seem to be able to produce new values in ambiguity(含糊) where there was never a concrete set of predictable(可预言的) process. This is a big problem for organizations because executives(经理) initially cannot comprehend(理解) the nature of creatives. Designer's creative process and mindset are too ambiguous(模糊不清的), messy and unpredictable(不可预知的) for businesses to follow and embed(嵌入) as part of their organizational process. This is because businesses seek to replicate the creative outcome from design process. Hence, the desire to synthesize design process into a step-by-step process. Thus, design thinking as process is born. However, the risk of having a defined process that become standardized may lead to a predictable and less creative outcome.

Design thinking is now known as a creative-problem solving approach designers use to create new values that are different and create positive impact. In essence design thinking has gain popularity as the approach to innovate. When design thinking is applied to business by making creativity logical, the results are tremendous(极大的). Companies that have successfully implemen design thinking have seen their bottom-line increases with a healthy growth rate.

As design thinking gained global traction(牵引), so has the hype(大肆宣传) and illusion. People jump on the bandwagon(流行) without really knowing what design thinking is, how it works, and why it’s needed in the first place. Even worse, when they begin to call themselves “Design Thinkers” after learning about the standard methods and tools of design thinking process. Many claim that they can implement design thinking in organizations to achieve an outcome they do not truly understand or a misdirected outcome that disappoints businesses. Thus, design thinking is treated as a step-by-step process trained by trainers or strategists who cannot design, but advise companies on design merely because they have taken short training courses trained by other trainers. This is all too common especially in developing nations where many design thinking engagements are run through one-off workshops which usually ends at prototyping with roleplay or pitching session(会议), without regards on following through to execute ideas created. Because of these illusion, misdirection and one-off engagements the value of design becomes diluted(稀释), and ROI(利润率) of design thinking can't be realized. This may lead to society at large perceiving design as a failure, which I address 13 reasons on why design thinking will fail if these problems are not solved here. They will not understand because they do not realize that with thinking, the act of designing is necessary too. The art of craftsmanship, idealism(唯心主义) and perfectionism are the traits that define such creatives. Guess who possess these traits that has brought his company to cultish success? Steve Jobs and his Apple.

All in all, design thinking has become a buzzword with certain expectations and assumptions. If design thinking is used as an organizational approach to creativity, it should not be different from logic - as creativity is the ability to make sense of new logic.

2014 / . 02 / . 27

Move Over Product Design, UX Is The Future。。

Rick Wise, CEO of Lippincott, says experience innovation is the next design imperative. Here are five things you can do this year to make that happen.


For decades, the most successful businesses thrived on product innovation as the natural strategy to increase revenues, market share, and loyalty. Fast forward to 2014: today’s product innovations, and the growth they create, are often incremental, narrow, and fleeting. Take TVs or PCs--every competitor quickly matches the latest features, speed, brightness. As a result, companies are finding that returns from product efforts are harder to rely on. Among the Global Innovation 1000, R&D spending rose 5.8% last year, yet revenue for those companies increased less than 1%. Global competition and technological diffusion mean that competitors quickly catch up with most improvements, while the transparency of digital and social media also prompts consumers to quickly switch allegiance with each new alluring offer.


Enter: the experience.

Today's enlightened leaders are achieving success by crafting the entire customer experience--shaping, innovating, branding, and measuring it. They are mastering a new discipline we refer to as “experience innovation” by going beyond the discrete product or service to reimagine the customer journey. The result yields new, unexpected, signature moments that delight customers and create significant opportunities for new growth.

 

We believe that experience innovation will be a crucial component for companies seeking to remain relevant and retain customer loyalty in 2014. But the process of designing a truly innovative experience cannot simply rest on the process excellence of classic customer experience-improvement efforts or the creative brilliance of the marketing team. Drawing on our recent work, here are a few key principles for success.

 

LOOK BEYOND THE PRODUCT

Move Over Product Design, UX Is The Future。。

Experience innovation isn’t driven by specific product features or design, but by reimagining the broader experience of how customers might use the product or service. By looking beyond the product to take a broader view of customer issues and activities around the product, companies can find new ways to address unmet needs, create talk-worthiness, and fuel differentiation.

Take Uber, the car service. Uber didn’t change the vehicle or retrain drivers, but fundamentally changed how you order, meet, and pay for a car. By taking a broader view of what a car service could be, Uber was able to reimagine the entire experience--offering “relentless reliability,” and a seamless system that addresses many hassles such as long wait time, not having cash, losing recipients, etc. The company is growing like wildfire--adding almost 80,000 new customers a week and is able to charge a lot more than the typical cab. Looking beyond the product to the broader experiences surrounding it also creates new horizons for growth. At Nike, for instance, shifting from sneakers to enabling fitness has spurred clothing sales, the Fuel band, and other integrated digital solutions, and fitness-oriented social media sharing and gamification.

 

BE CUSTOMER FOCUSED, NOT CUSTOMER LED

Move Over Product Design, UX Is The Future。。

Experience innovators recognize that consumers can’t tell you about the things they need or want but haven’t yet imagined. Nor can consumers articulate how they will do things differently in the future. For instance, customers will tell an airline they really want quick boarding and on-time departures.

That’s fairly obvious. But Delta came up with an approach they call "delocation" as a way of taking services out of their typical location and improving the travel experience in unexpected ways. Delta brought the lounge directly to the gate, creating an enhanced experience among travelers who had never thought of the gate past its function as a waiting area and were often too rushed to visit the airline lounge. The Delta concourses at LaGuardia and Minneapolis have banquette seating, embedded iPads, gate side ordering, and specially curated shops and restaurants to create new levels of service and ambiance. The space takes advantage of Delta’s ability to partner and deliver on its essence of “making flying better” in a way consumers might never have articulated in a focus group--and provides an opportunity for a new revenue stream. Delta is an example of a brand that has committed to enhancing the experience on an ongoing basis and Delta’s stock price more than doubled in 2013.

 

Build long-term vision

Great experience innovation isn’t about a series of one-off moments, but a holistic vision for a transformed brand experience that evolves over time. A customer-experience map is, therefore, a bold, integrated vision for the future of your brand experience. Start with a broad and detailed exploration of the customer journey--and how it could be different. Don’t ask customers what they need, but observe how they behave and what makes them happy or sad. Then assess what people could do. Think about what they will notice, and what they will remember. Look for the big moves--can you take entire steps out of the process, change the sequence, add new value in unexpected places? Disney, for example, unexpectedly opens the park gates five minutes in advance fueling the “I’m about to be at Disney world!” thrill. In developing such a map, think in terms of a portfolio approach to execution, by balancing simple changes that build momentum with longer-term investments that require more radical changes and resourcing.

 

Engage all of the senses

Move Over Product Design, UX Is The Future。。

Today’s dramatically expanding set of touch points, shorter attention spans, and shrinking lifecycles all heighten the need for an experience that breaks through with increased vitality and dimension. In that vein, a great brand experience often engage all the senses. It considers the environmental, physical, digital, and even behavioral expression of brand--the way employees interact with both customers and each other.

 

Make it real from the inside first

Products are usually managed by one person, whereas an experience must be curated by several different owners with separate goals and metrics. Drawing on expertise across functions is essential to push thinking, discover what is possible, and forge connections across operational silos. And, before an experience will come across as real to the outside world, dozens, hundreds or thousands of employees need to be educated and empowered to deliver the vision.

 

The concept of innovating the experience isn’t new. Virgin’s airport clubs, Nike’s flagship stores, Starbucks restaurants, and Disney’s Parks set the standard many years ago. These innovators show us that the experience isn’t just about the planes, the shoes, the coffee or the even the rides--it’s about how we feel when we use the product or service. The stakes for getting the experience right, and continually enhancing it, have never been higher.

2014 / . 02 / . 25

如何做产品决策

这是我今年的毕业设计,总结了这两年实践所得。虽然研究的是一套OEM转型过程中的产品决策,但是我发现其实在其他的产品实践中也可以用,甚至能够延伸到对企业或自身发展决策上面。不管怎么样,我要感谢这两年一直合作的盾驰公司的钟总和黄金,是他们给我提供了研究的机会和素材,让我有此收获。还要感谢我的导师林剑放老师,当我遇到困难与困惑的时候,总是能够给我注入足够多的正能量。
这是我今年的毕业设计,总结了这两年实践所得。虽然研究的是一套OEM转型过程中的产品决策,但是我发现其实在其他的产品实践中也可以用,甚至能够延伸到对企业或自身发展决策上面。不管怎么样,我要感谢这两年一直合作的盾驰公司的钟总和黄金,是他们给我提供了研究的机会和素材,让我有此收获。还要感谢我的导师林剑放老师,当我遇到困难与困惑的时候,总是能够给我注入足够多的正能量。
消费者诉求方向决定了产品销售
产品开发选择方向决定了做哪类产品
企业组织方向决定了产品策略可执行度
消费者诉求方向决定了产品销售 产品开发选择方向决定了做哪类产品 企业组织方向决定了产品策略可执行度
针对OEM企业所设计的产品开发决策工具
信息整理的工具,立体化的思考
可视化思考,比书面文档直观
团队决策交流的平台
增强团队成员对项目的认知
针对OEM企业所设计的产品开发决策工具 信息整理的工具,立体化的思考 可视化思考,比书面文档直观 团队决策交流的平台 增强团队成员对项目的认知
如何做产品决策
如何做产品决策
如何做产品决策
如何做产品决策
如何做产品决策
多方参与下的共同决策:用户、客户、部门、团队、合作伙伴
为决策者和开发团队提供直观有效的信息沟通交流汇总分析的平台
产品策略的方向在迭代的过程中会随着信息流的改变而会产生动态的改变
可以敏捷应对产品开发环境的变化
多方参与下的共同决策:用户、客户、部门、团队、合作伙伴 为决策者和开发团队提供直观有效的信息沟通交流汇总分析的平台 产品策略的方向在迭代的过程中会随着信息流的改变而会产生动态的改变 可以敏捷应对产品开发环境的变化
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欢迎加站长的公众微信:企业创新(微信ID:qiyecx)欢迎加入qq群55130915,完整文档下载链接:http://vdisk.weibo.com/s/AD8eBC5wdIBo
2014 / . 01 / . 12

MIT vs. IDEO: Opposing Approaches Design the Internet of Things

Designing for the Internet of Things (IoT) may seem like it is technology driven, but there is another approach worth consideration. Keep humanity at the heart of IoT design.

I learned this approach at the Royal College of Art’s Computer Related Design MA course, which has always been at the forefront of designing for technology trends. One could argue, in fact, that the course is ahead of such trends. I remember Philips Research coming along in 2000, asking us to design services and products around a thing called Bluetooth. The course is now called Design Interactions. Common areas of interest are nano- and bio-technology-driven services, products, etc.

This course has been successfully running for over 20 years. It took most of its approach towards innovation from a company called IDEO. IDEO had made its name as a product design innovator, but has since been expanding its expertise into service design and other areas of culture. The company’s most outstanding achievement is its cross-disciplinary and anthropological approach to design and new technology. IDEO did what Apple does, before Apple was doing it: making technology accessible and easy to use and keeping authenticity, utility, and humanity at the heart of anything it does.

I encountered the other approach after graduating from RCA in 2002. I was hired to work in Dublin, at Medialab Europe, MIT’s European branch at the time. Despite an obvious European influence on the atmosphere, Medialab had a MIT-driven approach to technology and science: Push what’s possible and create some magic.

To understand the level of how technology was pushed there, a little anecdote might elaborate on MIT’s philosophy. Just after I had left, Nikolas Necroponte visited to see how every department was doing. There were two departments focusing on social and human aspects of technology. My department had done some investigation into the merging of non-human and bio-based data, e.g., your credit card behavior and your heart rate as a mash-up. The other department was essentially doing social media research ahead of its time. When Necroponte left, he had scrapped both departments, claiming that those social aspects had no real impact on technological advance. It was 2002 and Facebook had only just started to become a thing.

I have worked in various other places since, but those two experiences showed me the key opposing attitudes towards technology when designing with or for it. The first approach is actively looking at culture, using humanity’s core principles as guidelines for a conscious decision about where technology could take us, and seeing where it could solve problems that couldn’t be addressed otherwise. The second approach is more focused on pushing the features of technologies and creating new things by exceeding previously impossible tasks — and by that creation, change the part of culture that a technology is occupying. This philosophy is best described by the phenomenon that if something is passing the threshold of a certain low price or a certain speed, it will become something else entirely.

Both approaches have their merit. Personally, I am drawn to the first one. Maybe that’s because I discovered it first. Or maybe it is because I am more of a skateboarder type of guy than a 100-m dash kind of guy. I like to recognize my environment and be creative about it, rather than wanting to break a world record.

If you are working on an Internet of Things projects, I am sure you are already part of the forefront of technology. Your MIT-style philosophy is already evident. In that case, why not take a minute or two to explore the human and cultural narrative side of your idea?

Regardless if you do or don’t explore that side, here is the kicker: Being great and leading at the craft it takes to create a service or product will make you confident about scaling it towards an audience of millions of people. But those people will only buy into your idea if they can get emotionally involved in what you have to offer. Martin Luther King said “I have a dream.” He did not say, “I have a bunch of new features.” Apple did good technology back in the 90s, but it was the colored computer casings and a love for music that made everyone buy their products.

In my job as Innovation Director for RAPP, I come across many clients and creatives that focus on technology first. Most solutions and expectations they bring along tend to be mere copies of what’s already out there. Yet once we start talking about why they like what they saw and about what they are trying to achieve, the conversation tends to shift back to human experiences. It is then, usually, that an idea starts becoming unique, richer, and essentially an actual product or service.

There are many times during the development of an idea that things could go either way. Having understood the “why” or “who for” of what you are trying to achieve tends to help make those decisions.

So now go back and create some more magic.

Marcus Kirsch is Innovation Director at RAPP UK.

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2013 / . 12 / . 27

消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#

 

   写完《关注产品开发中的浪费》后,就有朋友提了几个问题:
   1、做产品开发关注的创造价值,而不是降低成本.
   2、这是普遍现象的,老子有的是钱和资源,请得起最好的人员配置,用得到最好的渠道,那些鸡毛蒜皮的浪费不算什么?我就不能成功么?
   怪我上一篇文章没有说清楚,这一期我们来讨论一下。
 

     1、开发活动最重要的浪费,不是实体的浪费而是知识的浪费。
我们来看一张《精益产品和流程开发》的图:

消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#

   说明了一个道理:当知识总量越高的时候,你的成本越低、创造的价值就越高,那么你的利润空间就越大。在传统的关注点,往往是想尽办法降低实体的成本,比如采购价格。但是如果把关注点放在知识的积累上面,能够产生更大的价值。
   举个例子吧:如果你要定制一套“超级茶具”(我就不举“超级电锯”的栗子了),看下图如图:

消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#


    首先你会拿着你的设计图询价,同时与A、B、C三个供应商谈判。通常到最后阶段,你要做的并不是拼命压价而是如何稳定质量和提供保障。而你选择的供应商很 可能不是价格最低的,更可能是提供服务较完善的。因为你有顾虑,如果把价格压得太低供应商就可能会想办法偷工减料,其实你也不希望产品出质量问题。一家优 质的工厂除了自身有良好的生产管理状态,还会给你以下服务,沟通技术与工艺问题、及时的更新时间进度、准时出货以及售后保障。这个道理就是用到了第一张图 所说的原理。
    供应商提供的服务就是知识的共享,你和供应商把问题讨论得越清楚,那么产品出现问题的情况就低,事情就在你可控的范围之内,你们第二次合作也会更快捷和顺畅。因为你很清楚,让你的客户不抱怨是一件很有价值的事情。
    而什么叫做浪费?你以最低的价格搞定了供应商,结果供应商不能及时的沟通问题、生产过程中以次充好、拖延交期,当你把产品卖给你的客户以后,老客户不再登门,新客户不再拜访。不关注知识传递的节省成本的方式就一种浪费。
    因此,我们应该改变一下以价格为中心的成本观念了。
    如果你们的企业是工厂,希望以上的文字内容对你也有帮组。

   2、有钱有资源可能做得不错,但不能保证一定成功。
    我相信你也遇到过有钱有资源却做不活项目。上帝的天平如果不愿意稍稍向你倾斜一下的话,实现愿景概率还是50%。上帝是谁?复杂多变的市场、复杂多变的社 会、复杂多变的环境、复杂多变的时代、复杂多变的用户……具体的内容我的第一篇文章已经讨论过了(回复“创新”可以查看Bear聊创新1)。
    那应该怎么办呢?回答就是,我们不可能每次都成功,但是我们能有效吸收知识才是重点。

 

消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#
    就和树叶一样,虽然产品开发流程差不多,但世界上也没有两个产品开发项目是完全一样的,因为每一个项目产生的问题都是不一样的,而且开发的每一个环节产生问题也是各有不同。

 

 消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#

     

 

   因此一个轮回下来你获得的知识量是巨大而且更加成熟:用户的认知、技术的认知、市场的认知、项目合作的认知、商业模式的认知……这些知识往往比书本上的知识更加有用,因为书本上的内容都是通识性的,但通过项目产生的独家知识能够构建你的竞争力。请不要浪费掉掌握这些知识的机会

 

   毛主席说过:“失败是成功之母。”有许多多人会在同一个地方失败好多次,然后终于成功了,这叫屡败屡战,皇天不负有心人。看起来很励志,但实际上是一件愚蠢的事情。好吧,你会说:这叫要愚公移山的精神!但我们的现实总是这样的:

 消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#

 

    我们不知道玉皇大帝派大力神下来是要帮我们移山,还是要把我们一巴掌拍死。因此“失败是成功之母”这句话还不够具体,确切的说是失败产生的知识才是成功之母。失败产生的知识量也是巨大而又深刻的,我们要善于从失败中获取知识,才能够离成功更接近一些。这就是柳传志提倡的“试错”和“复盘”思想。如果把“试错”“复盘”再加上“持续优化”的动作的话,放在产品开发上面,这就叫做“迭代升级”。

    另外就是要加快获取知识的速度。这是一个快鱼吃慢鱼的时代。不管你们是否有足够资源和资金,谁能更快的从项目学习到独有的知识谁就可能胜出。加 快迭代的频率,能够让“好运”更快的找到你。有些时候会比花重金请来的人员更有效果。因为有许多聘请来的专家和工程师都是有丰富的传统经验,而他们也往往 喜欢从经验作出决策,但现在很多经验已经不能用了。当传统企业刚刚知道什么叫B2B和B2C的时候,现在又冒出了O2O、SOLOMO、大数据、云计算、 自媒体、第三次工业革命。一听上去就晕,更要命的是人们都各说各话,其实没有人知道这些东西到底怎么样才是真正正确的。

消灭产品开发中的浪费之Why?【#听Bear聊创新#3】#设计管理##产品开发#

 

    在产品开发上也是如此,5年前做产品开发的人都以诺基亚、摩托罗拉、索尼为典范,而现在他们几乎变成了人们心目中的反例。许多东西一再颠覆,好像已经没有人知道什么是绝对的。

 

    但正是因为这些飞快变化给了我们更大的机遇。

 

    我们应当拥抱变化,在项目中去获取知识而不是拘泥于经验。因此,我们必须加快整个开发过程的循环迭代周期。以最合理的方式,优先于我们的竞争对手,获取独有的知识。这才是最切实际的事情。这也是我坚持的观点:“Learn by doing,Learn form users.
    最后总结一下,
    知识改变命运,请不要浪费知识。

 

 

    下一期我们来讨论一下,如何消灭产品开发中浪费。

 

 

 

参考文献:

 

MBA智库 精益生产

 

《精益产品和流程开发》

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

欢迎关注Bear的微博:http://weibo.com/gold3bear/

 

微信公众号:企业创新(ID:qiyecx):每周只来一次,只更新原创精华。

 

 

2013 / . 12 / . 24

“大师”是“过去式”【#听Bear聊创新# 番外篇1】#设计管理##用户体验#

 “大师”是“过去式”【#听Bear聊创新# 番外篇1】#设计管理##用户体验#

      由于这篇文章之前产品开发的内容显得不是那么连贯因此称之为“番外篇”。

      上周由于参加“德稻”的“移动用户体验设计课程”导致没有及时更新现在补上。经过5天的培训,我的感想可以用下图来表达:

“大师”是“过去式”【#听Bear聊创新# 番外篇1】#设计管理##用户体验#

       好吧,我并没有嘲讽的意思,Aaron Marcus教授六十多岁还不远万里来到中国开拓事业让我深深敬佩。我也能够理解短时间培训不可能传授太多东西。但是这次培训让我又一次深深地感受到了,世界已经改变太多,大师代表的是过去的辉煌。


   为什么这样说?
      因为这次培训让我回想起一年前的项目,那时我们摸着石头过河,做出了一个东西。当时用了一些方法和套路:角色原型、用户场景、信息构架,线框图、视觉 稿……现在的大师培训也是讲这些方法和套路。但我们当时没有任何大师的指点,所做的事情就是就是买一两本产品经理和用户体验的书,上网找找资料,边做边思 考。结果和大师传授的内容八九不离十。大师班的这门课价值5000元/人,不过是德稻帮忙付的,深表感谢。


   为什么会是这样?
      因为,当今的世界信息传播是扁平化的,它们正飞速的渗透到世界的每一个角落。只要你有一台能够上网电脑,你就能够获得世界上最前沿的信息;只要你有兴趣,你就能去研究那些连专家也看不懂的书籍;只要你有精力,你就能搞出自己的一套理论体系。《盗墓笔记》的作者是做外贸生意的南派三叔、《小时代》的导演是写书的郭敬明、写明史的当年明月是公务员、在微博上练书法的是德艺双馨的苍老师……

“大师”是“过去式”【#听Bear聊创新# 番外篇1】#设计管理##用户体验#

 

   你一定想问,这世界还能有点谱么?
      其实有没有谱已经不重要了。因为人们总是习惯于从工业化大生产的角度解释个人与社会的联系:系统管理、组织化分工。但在这个时代,知识传播渠道不再是被少部分人掌控,每一个人在知识面前都是平等的。只要我们愿意,我们可以从任何渠道了解到我们的想要了解东西。也因此,学生懂得的东西比老师还多已经不是什 么稀奇的事情。或许在不远的未来,评价学生的标准并不在于这位学生考试成绩有多么好,而在于这位学生教会了多少的老师(许多院校学生能够毕业标准就是有没 有帮导师发够论文,好像也不用等到将来了。)。


   那大师为什么要叫大师?
       我的个人理解就是“大师”是一种“过去式”。他们曾经牛逼过,他们趁大部分人觉醒之前做了一件在当时看来极其牛逼的事情,于是他们就变成大师了。然后他们又开始做另外一件事情——研究自己为什么很牛逼,开始总结自己的经验与方法,从“术”的层面提升到“道”的层面。最后他们通过各种传播路径把知识传播出去,例如互联网。越来越多特有的知识,变成了通识性的知识。而那些牛逼事情落我们这一代人身上,也变得很普通了。例如,十几年前,没几个人会用ps。而现在设计师会玩PS,这就是一件已经极其普通的事情,抓个程序过来或许都比许多人玩得好。如果大师这门知识不是独有的,那么就很有可能让人觉得没有那么新 鲜。乃至于有人问我这个培训怎么样时,我的回答就是:“多关注我的设计管理研究的小站,你也会懂的。”(很贱的给自己的小站做了一个广告)。但正因为有大师的总结与传播才能够推动时代的发展。不管怎么样,我们还是要感谢这些大师的分享,正是有他们的付出,才有我们后人的收获。


   既然这样,我们这一代应该怎么样做?

1、向大师学道。虽然时代在发展,但是有许多东西是亘古不变的,比如做人做事的道理。而大师的经历比我们丰富,向他们学习必有所获;

2、以同龄人为参照。以前和人辩论的时候,人们总是喜欢拿大师来做参照:“你看xx大师,他不会用电脑不会打字但也一样牛逼。”的确,大师们有大师的生存方式。但我们年轻一代的大师必然是从我们这一代人崛起的,我们参照对象应该是我们心目中那些牛逼的年轻人。

3、干中学(Learn by doing,Learn from users):从套路的学习转移到实践的学习。套路是前人经验的总结与提炼,懂套路上手快,但时代变化的很快,十几年前的产品开发套路在今天就已经不适用。你多关注设计管理研究小站就能发现,现在这些研究方法和套路网上有许多。但真正能让产品修成正果的不是假把式,干中学才是真谛,要善于学习与总结,但不要痴迷于套路。

4、找到自己的兴趣点专研进去,不要去管周围人评论。在这个时代,做一件自己想要做的事情,比做一件大家都觉得好事情更重要。大多数人在没有做这件事之前都是通过经验去评估事情好坏,而真正懂的人是那些做的人。兴趣才是你最好的导师,Learn by doing 才能胜人一筹。

5、做传播。在你坚持自己兴趣的过程中,你会发现你很孤独。因为周围没有人可以理解你,因为你与这个世界沟通是通过互联网产生的。那要做的事情就是通过互联网传播把你做东西传播出去,找到真正与你志同道合的人。

 

最后总结一下:长江后浪推前浪,浪呀嘛浪打浪~

“大师”是“过去式”【#听Bear聊创新# 番外篇1】#设计管理##用户体验#

-------------------------------------------

   如果您能够把这篇文章分享给您的朋友就是对我写作最大的鼓励!

   请把我的微信公众号:企业创新(ID:qiyecx)推荐给你朋友们谢谢!


2013 / . 12 / . 17

What is User Scenario

      场景是用来描述帮助用户解决问题的过程,即系统未来预期的使用过程。它就像一个剧本,描述用户使用系统的过程。场景可以看作是用户需求的内容,完全站在用户的视角来描述用户与系统的交互。之后的功能需求说明,则是用户需求分解的结果,定义了开发人员必须实现的软件功能。

       场景描述也是需要经过迭代细化的。用户场景应当包含以下几个关键要素:

  1. 目的
  2. 期望
  3. 动机
  4. 行为
  5. 回应

User Scenario   既不是假设也不是预测,而是试图反映或描述在其中一个应用或服务,是如何被用户在日常活动中使用的。

User Scenario    以最少的技术细节,使得All Team Members(PM, DEV, TESTER, UX Designer),能有共同的例子,可以集中精力进行讨论。 

 

场景编写技巧

     如何抽取场景

     首先,需要站在典型用户的角度,从问题出发,列出用户都有哪些问题,需要做什么,

有哪些活动?在列出这些活动时,先不要考虑细节。然后将这些活动按照重要性和常用程度排个序,将最重要的那些活动作为典型场景抽取出来。并根据开发周期剔除那些这个版本不支持的活动。场景抽取的过程是也是一个迭代过程,由粗到细,先分类抽取典型的场景,再一个一个细化场景描述

    如何描述一个场景

  •       以故事叙述的方式描述如何帮助用户解决问题,最好辅以交互草图(也可以将讨论过程中确定的草图拍成照片附在场景描述中)
  •        需要有清晰、明确的上下文环境,说明这个场景发生在什么背景下,何时会发生
  •        需要从用户的角度出发,描述用户做什么,与系统的交互行为,以及用户对出现问题的反应
  • 不需要描述具体的界面是怎样的,场景的目的是让所有人员明白用户的目标是什么,以及用户希望怎样做

  • 不涉及实现和技术的内容

  • 内部的API不应该在场景中描述

 

场景的粒度如何把握

用户问题的大小决定了场景的粒度大小,并没有一个标准来定义场景的粒度。场景应该具有高内聚低耦合的特征,一个场景内部各个环节的逻辑关系可以比较紧密,而各个场景之间应该是低耦合的。不需要把所有可能的场景都罗列出来,只需要描述主要的、典型的场景。

一个例子:

设计一个创建贺卡的网站。对比两个不同视角的结果。

站在程序员的角度可能会为这个例子列出以下活动:

1.为卡片添加文本信息

2.为卡片添加图片

3.从卡片库中获取草图

4.发送卡片:1) 通过email发送 2) 打印卡片

站在用户的角度则会列出以下活动:

 1.发送生日贺卡

2.发送周年纪念卡 

3.发送聚会请帖  

4. 从一张空白卡片开始制作贺卡

      可以看出来,从程序员的角度列出的活动,系统大致按下述方式运行:开始是一张空白卡片,菜单功能提供:添加文本、图片,从库中加载卡,以及发送卡片。这样,用户必须坐下来从一张空白卡片开始,弄明白所有的可用的功能,并通过这一堆功能创建一张自己需要的卡片。而从用户的角度出发,软件就变得简单了,他们可以很轻松地完成自己所需要的卡片。场景则是针对每一个活动再细化描述活动执行的过程。

如何抽取特性

特性(即Feature)是根据场景描述抽取的。要将场景逐一模拟一遍,并通过头脑风暴的方式提出问题,讨论并给出解决方案,在此过程中,也是逐步明确特性的过程。在此过程中需要注意几点: 

1.讨论场景时一定不要匆匆忙忙的,需要有充分的时间,仔细地模拟场景过程  

2. 尽可能多地提出问题,并从设计的角度讨论确定方案  

3. 要有市场、需求、架构、开发、测试等人员共同参与,最终需要达成共识。

如何取舍特性定义Scenario优先级

  • P1:首先从用户的角度出发,抽出那些支撑场景必须的功能和非功能性要求,标定为P1级的,这些是产品必须提供的特性。  
  • P2:然后考虑开发周期、资源投入和开发难度,以及对用户的影响,确定剩下的哪些功能是需要提供的,标定为P2级的。   
  • P3:从中剔除那些不做的功能,放到“非目标”中。剩下有分歧,模棱两可的功能,可以标定为P3级,在有时间和资源的情况下才会考虑实现。

特性的优先级划分定义Features的优先级

  • P1--must have:属于产品必须具备的特性,没有此特性无法完成一个业务场景的;
  • P2--nice to have:属于产品的扩展特性,有了这些特性让产品更好用,但是没有此特性,用户也可以通过其他方式完成业务;
  • P3--may not have:属于产品的可选特性,在非典型场景下可能才会用到,锦上添花型。 

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