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Basel Egyptologists Identify Tomb of Royal Children 巴塞尔埃及学家确定王室子女墓葬

Basel Egyptologists Identify Tomb of Royal Children
 巴塞尔埃及学家确定王室子女墓葬

来源:ScienceNewsline 日期:4月28日 链接:http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2014042817580019.html 翻译:铃铛 校译:囧母 囧母按:新闻十分重要因而4月28号发布后就入选,然而现在才出稿子。高速的法组之前先出了一篇相关的稿子,有兴趣的可参考法组... 阅读全文

来源:ScienceNewsline 

日期:4月28日

链接:http://www.sciencenewsline.com/articles/2014042817580019.html

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

 

 

囧母按:

 

新闻十分重要因而4月28号发布后就入选,然而现在才出稿子。高速的法组之前先出了一篇相关的稿子,有兴趣的可参考法组译文“Une cinquantaine de momies découvertes dans la Vallée des Rois国王谷发现五十多具木乃伊”。虽说报道的发现是相同的,但两篇新闻稿的角度并不相同,本文重点介绍KV40的情况。

 

有两点需要简单介绍一下。首先,这则新闻对埃及学家而言带来了新的研究方向。过去婴儿木乃伊发现很少,而埃及学家根据传统的宗教文献获得的看法也认为,婴儿与成人的灵魂结构不同,没有成人要经历的审判、不用去到死后世界,因而也就没有尸体防腐的需要。随着越来越多婴儿(这次还发现新生儿)木乃伊的发现,埃及学家有了更多这方面的资料,并可以对过去的古埃及宗教信仰做新的诠释。

 

另一点,大家可能会对新闻中忽而说王室忽而又非王室感到困惑。墓葬本身没有属于王室的证据,但是其中的一些遗骸却因为铭文的缘故判断为王室的。因为受到扰乱,墓葬本身与墓葬中遗骸还有随葬品就必须分别研究,以确定它们各自的年代和身份。

 

This is a panorama view over the area in the Valley of Kings investigated by the University of Basel Kings´ Valley Project. Tomb KV 40 is located directly next to tomb KV 64 which was discovered by the Basel Egyptologists in 2012. Credit: (Fig: University of Basel/Egyptology)

这是巴塞尔大学帝王谷项目所在地的全景。墓葬KV40比鄰于巴塞爾埃及學家于2012年發現的KV64。

 

 

是谁拥有特权在法老身侧度过永恒的生命?来自巴塞尔大学的埃及学家证明了埃及帝王谷附近一座墓地中有两位法老的子女以及其他王室成员。


巴塞尔大学的埃学家在卢克索附近的帝王谷墓葬KV 40进行了三年的发掘工作。从外面看,仅有地面的一处下凹暗指了地下墓葬的存在。迄今为止,KV 40的布局、墓为何人而建以及所埋何人还无人知晓。


埃及古物学家猜想该墓葬是一座追溯到十八王朝时期的非王室墓葬。古物学家们首先清理了深达6米的竖井,从而得以进入五个地下墓室,之后他们发现了无数遗骸和随葬品碎片。

 

 

王室子女的木乃伊

 

科学家在中央主室和三个侧室发现了至少属于50人的经防腐处理的遗骸。在今年的田野工作季,埃及古物学家依据储藏罐上的铭文成功辨认出了30多具遗骸并将其命名。铭文上类似“王子”和“公主”的称号说明这些遗骸是同样埋葬在帝王谷的图特摩西斯四世(Thutmosis IV)和阿蒙霍特普三世(Amenhotep III)的家族成员。两位法老都属于第十八王朝(新王国时期),在公元前14世纪时执政。


分析僧侣体铭文(与聖书体有关联)发现,墓葬KV40中葬有至少八名迄今为止仍未确定具体身份的公主、四名王子和几位异族女子,大多数为成年人,但也发现了儿童木乃伊:“我们发现了精心制作的木乃伊新生儿和婴儿,其数目十分可观,而婴幼儿的葬仪按惯例本应该比这简洁很多。”埃及古物学家、教授Susanne Bickel描述他们的考古发现时说。“我们相信,在长达数十年的时段里埃及王族成员都葬在这座陵墓内。”


通过对王室陵墓周围埋葬的遗骸的身份鉴定,研究小组得以知晓谁拥有就近法老度过永生的特权,这是一项重要发现。“大约三分之二的帝王谷陵墓都不属于王族。因为陵墓中没有铭文且被洗劫,所以目前我们只能猜测墓中遗骸的身份。”Susanne Bickel在解释此次发现对埃及学的重要性时说。

 

Mummified remains among fragments of coffins, cloth and sherds: Tomb KV 40 was plundered several times and damaged by a fire. Credit: (Fig: Matjaz Kacicnik, University of Basel/Egyptology)

混于棺材、布料和陶器碎片之中的木乃伊遗骸。墓葬KV40屡遭偷盗,并被一场火灾焚毁。

 

 

后期的墓葬遗骸

尽管在中世纪前和19世纪末期都遭到偷盗,研究人员还是在墓室中找到了无数随葬物品碎片,例如棺椁和织品碎片。“遗物和墓墙都有严重的火烧痕迹,很可能是盗墓者的火炬引发的火灾所导致。”Susanne Bickel推测。从各种不同的木质和石膏亚麻布(cartonnage)棺椁碎片可以看出,墓葬KV40后来曾再次作为坟地之用:在帝王陵被遗弃很久之后,公元前9世纪有僧侣家族成员埋葬于此。

 

人类学层面的分析和进一步的陪葬品检查将会进一步揭示第18王朝的法老王朝结构组成、其成员的生活条件和葬俗。

 

 

 

原文:

 

Who had the privilege to spend eternal life next to the pharaoh? Close to the royal tombs in the Egyptian Valley of the Kings, excavations by Egyptologists from the University of Basel have identified the burial place of several children as well as other family members of two pharaohs.

Basel Egyptologists of the University of Basel Kings' Valley Project have been working on tomb KV 40 in the Valley of the Kings close to the city of Luxor for three years. From the outside, only a depression in the ground indicated the presence of a subterranean tomb. Up to now, nothing was known about the layout of tomb KV 40 nor for whom it was build and who was buried there.

The Egyptologists assumed that it was a non-royal tomb dating back to the 18th dynasty. They first cleared the six meter deep shaft which gives access to five subterranean chambers and then recovered the countless remains and fragments of funerary equipment.

 

 

Mummified royal children

 

The scientists discovered mummified remains of at least 50 people in the center chamber and in three side chambers. Based on inscriptions on storage jars, Egyptologists were able to identify and name over 30 people during this year's field season. Titles such as "Prince" and "Princess" distinguish the buried as members of the families of the two pharaohs Thutmosis IV and Amenhotep III who are also buried in the Valley of Kings. Both pharaohs belonged to the 18th dynasty (New Kingdom) and ruled in the 14th century BC.

The analysis of the hieratic inscriptions (related to hieroglyphics) revealed that tomb KV 40 contains the mummified remains of at least 8 hitherto unknown royal daughters, four princes and several foreign ladies. Most of them were adults, however, mummified children were also found: "We discovered a remarkable number of carefully mummified new-borns and infants that would have normally been buried much simpler", describes Egyptologist Prof. Susanne Bickel the findings. "We believe that the family members of the royal court were buried in this tomb for a period of several decades."

The identification of people buried in the proximity of the royal tombs gives the team of researchers important insight into who had the privilege to spend eternal life close to the pharaoh. "Roughly two thirds of the tombs in the Kings' Valley are non-royal. Because the tombs do not have inscriptions and have been heavily plundered we so far have only been able to speculate on who lies buried in them", explains Susanne Bickel in regard to the importance of the findings for the field of Egyptology.

 

 

Remains of later burials

 

Even though the tomb was looted several times in Antiquity as well as at the end of the 19th century, the researchers found countless fragments of funerary equipment, such as fragments of coffins and textiles. "The remains and the walls have been heavily affected by a fire that was most likely ignited by the torches of the tomb raiders", suspects Susanne Bickel. The fragments of various wooden and cartonnage coffins indicate that tomb KV 40 was used a second time as a burial ground: long after the abandonment of the valley as royal necropolis, members of priestly families of the 9th century BC were interred here.

Anthropological analyses as well as further examination on the burial goods will deliver important insight into the composition of the pharaonic court of the 18th dynasty as well as the conditions of life and the burial customs of its members.

 

 

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《考古资讯》编辑部原创组人员招募启事

考古资讯小站曾于不久前发布了《考古资讯》杂志常规原创主题征稿启事(链接:http://zhan.renren.com/archnews?gid=3602888498044050101),编辑部专门设置了原创组来主要负责这些原创稿件的相关工作,这些工作现在开始公开招募工作人员啦。根据试刊(《考古资讯》第000期,下载链接:http://vdisk.weibo.... 阅读全文

考古资讯小站曾于不久前发布了《考古资讯》杂志常规原创主题征稿启事(链接:http://zhan.renren.com/archnews?gid=3602888498044050101),编辑部专门设置了原创组来主要负责这些原创稿件的相关工作,这些工作现在开始公开招募工作人员啦。根据试刊(《考古资讯》第000期,下载链接:http://vdisk.weibo.com/s/BQHaJV4u_j8jK/1384690959)制作情况与工作量评估,现将原创组工作内容主要分为以下四类:

 

一,文创

提出并参与确定征稿主题:留意国内外考古、文物、博物馆学等相关领域的资讯、研究,寻找话题切入点;与其他文创及组长讨论决定是否就该话题进行征稿;

确定征稿方式、撰写征稿启事:征稿方式可分长短期、公开或定向约稿等。如欲定向征稿,要与采编及时沟通、确定约稿对象。

二,采编

定向征稿责任编辑:根据文创建议与作者保持联系,在获得稿件并确认录用后直接负责该文审校工作

补白采编:收集人人、新浪微博等各平台上网友直接@主页君并标注#考古资讯原创投稿#的内容;关注并收集各平台上上网友针对资讯发表的有质量回复和转发,将其组织成稿。

三、审校

负责自发性投稿类稿件的审稿、校对工作。

四、作者

稳定供稿。可开设固定专栏(主题须于原创组内通过),或根据文创所拟的主题供稿

 

在原创组乃至期刊编辑部成立之初,每个人可能同时担任超过一项工作任务,随着工作的开展,工作分配可以随时根据情况作出调整。如果您有兴趣、愿意尝试,欢迎前来应征。应征请加囧母QQ:88566338,身份验证时请千万注明您是来跳原创组火坑的,谢谢。

 

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科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材 Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

来源:Tamworth Herald 日期:2013/11/1 翻译:铃铛 校译:囧母 链接: http://www.tamworthherald.co.uk/Scientists-prepare-open-Roman-coffin-buried-field/story-20016564-detail/story.html ... 阅读全文

来源:Tamworth Herald

日期:2013/11/1

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:

http://www.tamworthherald.co.uk/Scientists-prepare-open-Roman-coffin-buried-field/story-20016564-detail/story.html

 

        科学家近日准备开启一具据信超过1700年历史的儿童棺。

        上周该遗骸被发现于距塔姆沃斯(Tamworth)六英里外的田野,之后整周在考古学家处,预备进行下一步研究。

 

科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

棺材在安全环境下进行检验。

The coffin is being examined in a secure environment.


    沃里克考古小组古尸发掘专家Rob Jones一直以来在研究这具棺材,他表示:“看来我们可以打开棺材盖,谨慎地发掘棺材包含物。但是不太有可能找到有机物的残存。”

       

    该组织发言人补充道:“对棺材内层的仔细清理向我们展现了一些引人注目的工艺细节。   

    “例如,棺材内衬是嵌镶板,是用一个尖锐的工具从一张铅板上划切出来的;而末尾的结合处用融化的铅封堵。

    “有折痕的棺盖上还能看见锤痕。

    “在研究中我们从棺盖上的一个缺口探入一个内窥镜,发现棺材内部几乎塞满了泥土。

“对于判断棺盖下是否有重要的空隙,这个情况很关键。


“即将于下周开启的这具棺材据信盛有一名死于公元34世纪罗马帝国时期的儿童。”


  Chris Wright在一个农场主的田地里发现了这具棺材,之后不到两周的时间最新的研究结果便发表了。30岁的他表示之前觉得这个发现将会得到国家认可,他很兴奋地看到自己的猜测实现了。

他说:“我很高兴这个古物能激起人们的兴趣,希望它能为这片区域在罗马帝国时期的境况提供一些有价值的线索。

   

“沃里克考古小组发表的初期报告很吸引人,我很高兴他们对此付出了时间和精力。”


 科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

                            文中提到的古棺材,于其安放了1700年的原址拍摄。

                The ancient coffin, pictured where it lay buried for 1,700 years.

 

科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

                                      考古学家们准备转移该铅棺。

                              Archaeologists prepare to remove the lead coffin.

 

塔姆沃斯人当年的生活境况

 居住在塔姆沃斯的Jim Beestone是一名刚从牛津基督圣体学院毕业的古罗马历史研究学者。他相信这具棺材的发现可能会成为这座城镇迄今为止见过的最重要的古代历史片段。

 他说:“在公元300年,塔姆沃斯地区就已经被古罗马人看作重地有250多年。确实许多学者相信传说中布狄卡(Boudica)于公元6061年对古罗马人的传奇性的最后战役就发生在曼切特(Mancetter)的路上。

 “塔姆沃斯本可能是不列颠罗马行省的中心地带。

 “塔姆沃斯位于Ratae(现在的莱斯特)和利奇菲尔德(Lichfield)附近现在叫做沃尔(Wall)的军事要塞之间。塔姆沃斯可能曾是古罗马的活动中心,或曾有货物与士兵在惠特灵大道(Watling Street)和福思路(Fosse Way)来来往往。

“整个地区应当满是要通过港口运往罗马帝国的货物,有锡及其它贵重金属制品,染料,木料和奴隶。出土于该地的铅质孩童棺有可能是个令人非常兴奋的发现。       

 “铅是一种贵金属,有铅棺材的现身说明该地区有非常富有的人家居住。

 “对遗骸的分析也会很有趣;在古罗马,婴儿的死亡率非常之高(高到使得罗马的城内人口的平均寿命仅有25岁)。因此任何能透露儿童死因的线索都能告诉我们大量关于当时不列颠的生活境况。”


科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

                        在棺材所在的农田里发现的一些古罗马钱币和工艺品

                             Some Roman coins and artefacts found in the same field.

 

科学家准备开启于塔姆沃斯附近发现的罗马棺材  Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth

                                        发现棺材的金属探测小组成员

                              The team of metal detectorists who made the discovery.


原文:

Scientists prepare to open Roman coffin found buried in field near Tamworth


A CHILD’S coffin – believed to be more than 1,700 years old – is to be opened by scientists in the coming days.

The relic, discovered last week in a field six miles outside Tamworth, has been in the hands of archeologists all week and is set for the next stage.

Archaeology Warwickshire’s exhumation expert Rob Jones who has been working on the coffin said: “It looks like we will be able to open the lid and excavate the contents in a controlled manner with little chance of encountering organic remains.”

A spokesperson for the organisation added: “Meticulous cleaning of the coffin lining has revealed some fascinating technical details.

“For instance the lining was panel-beaten from a single sheet of lead marked out with a sharp implement and the joins at the ends were sealed with molten lead.

“Hammer marks are still visible around the folded lid.

“As part of the process, an endoscope was inserted through a gap in the lid to reveal that the coffin is almost entirely full of clay silt.

“This was necessary to determine if there was a significant void under the lid.

“The coffin, which will be opened next week, is thought to contain a Roman period child who died in the 3rd or 4th century AD.”

The latest findings come less than two weeks after Chris Wright found the coffin in a farmer’s field. The 30-year-old said he was excited to see the find getting the national recognition he thought it would.

He said: “I’m delighted with the level of interest in this item and hope it gives some valuable clues as to Roman life in the area.

“The initial reports from Archaeology Warwickshire have been fascinating and I’m delighted with the time and effort they are dedicating to this.”


What tamworth was like when ther coffin was buried

JIM Beestone who lives in Tamworth, is a Roman historian and a recent graduate of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

He believes the coffin’s discovery may turn out to be the most significant piece of ancient history the town has ever seen.

He said: “By 300AD, the area around Tamworth had already held significance for the Romans for over two hundred and fifty years – indeed many academics believe Boudica’s legendary last battle against the Romans in 60/61AD was up the road in Mancetter.

“Tamworth would have been at the heart of Roman operations in Britain.

“Nestled between Ratae (modern Leicester) and the military fortress now called Wall near Lichfield, Tamworth would have been a centre of Roman activity, with goods and soldiers travelling up and down Watling Street and Fosse Way.

“The whole area would be full of cargoes of tin and precious metals, dyes, timber and slaves heading to the coast to be sent to Rome. The discovery of the child’s lead coffin in the area has the potential to be incredibly exciting.

“Lead was an expensive material, and the presence of a lead coffin is an indicator that some of the people living locally were extremely wealthy.

“Analysis of the remains could prove interesting too; infant mortality was incredibly high in ancient Rome (so much so that the average life-expectancy in inner-city Rome was 25!) and so any clue as to what the cause of death was could tell us a great deal about living conditions in Britain at that time.”

 

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考古学家在秘鲁北部发现3000年前的宗教中心

来源:Globalpost日期:2013/10/31翻译:铃铛校译:囧母链接:http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/agencia-efe/131031/archaeologists-discover-3000-year-old-religious-center-northern-per 考古学家Walter ... 阅读全文

来源:Globalpost

日期:2013/10/31

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/agencia-efe/131031/archaeologists-discover-3000-year-old-religious-center-northern-per

 

        考古学家Walter Alva本周四宣布,秘鲁研究人员在秘鲁兰巴耶克大区(Lambayeque)北部的Congona考古地区发现了一座属前印加查文文化(Chavin Culture)时期的宗教中心,距今已有超过3000年历史。

        由Alva带领的一支来自兰巴耶克大区西潘博物馆(Sipan Museum)的专门小组在进行了为期一个月的考古工作之后发现了这一宗教圣所——而Alva也带领这一博物馆。

Alva在埃菲社的一个采访中表示:“从其地下建筑结构、围墙和为查文祭司留出的空间来看,我们认为这是查文文化时期的一个神谕所。”

        这座被命名为Congona神谕所的遗址明显沿用了了两个时期,其中一个显示出直接受查文文化影响的迹象。查文文化是秘鲁北部主要的前印加文化之一。

      “神庙的中心区域有两块饰有查文文化典型纹饰的巨石。”考古学家说。

        Alva表示,这次初步的考古发掘研究工作大部分都在兰巴耶克大区的上安第斯区域,关于这个地区的每个山谷上部是否都有一个专用于崇拜水和丰饶的神庙,目前正在验证这一假设。

        Alva希望这个考古发现可以被整合进该地区的旅游业。

      此次考古工作由当地团体和私营部门提供财政支持。

 

原文:

Archaeologists Discover 3,000-year-old Religious Center in Northern Peru

Lima, Oct 31 (EFE).- A religious center more than 3,000 years old from the pre-Incan Chavin culture has been discovered by Peruvian researchers in the Congona archaeological zone in northern Peru's Lambayeque region, archaeologist Walter Alva said Thursday.

After a month of archaeological research, a specialized team from the Royal Tombs of Sipan Museum in Lambayeque - headed by Alva, who directs the museum - discovered the religious sanctuary.

"We're thinking that it's an oracle from the Chavin epoch, with subterranean structures, enclosures and spaces reserved for the Chavin priests," Alva said in an interview with Efe.

The site, which was named the Oracle of Congona, was apparently used during two periods and one of these shows direct Chavin influence, the Chavin culture being one of the main pre-Incan cultures of northern Peru.

"The central part of the temple is where two monoliths were found that bear images typical of the Chavin culture," said the archaeologist.

Alva said that this initial research effort undertaken mostly in the Lambayeque upper Andean zone is examining the hypothesis that each valley in the region possesses, in its upper part, a temple devoted to the water and fertility cult.

Alva hopes that this find can be integrated into the region's tourist offerings.

The archaeological work was financed by the private sector and the local community in the area.

 

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【看看看这里啊!】期刊《考古资讯》征稿启事

去年,在小站同仁一致努力与小站关注者的支持之下,小站完成了第二届&发现中国&李济考古学奖学金&公众组的申请,并于今年获得了这一殊荣。然而,如何面向公众实践小站&怀着对全人类的关怀进行考古学研究&的目标,对于我们而言才刚刚开始。在这样的背景下,小站创办期刊《考古资讯》(英文名Archnews)并设立原创组,以期逐渐走出原本单向输出资讯的道路、搭建接纳多元观点的... 阅读全文

 

       去年,在小站同仁一致努力与小站关注者的支持之下,小站完成了第二届“发现中国•李济考古学奖学金”公众组的申请,并于今年获得了这一殊荣。然而,如何面向公众实践小站“怀着对全人类的关怀进行考古学研究”的目标,对于我们而言才刚刚开始。在这样的背景下,小站创办期刊《考古资讯》(英文名Archnews)并设立原创组,以期逐渐走出原本单向输出资讯的道路、搭建接纳多元观点的发声空间。

       目前,《考古资讯》第00期正在紧锣密鼓的筹备中,不久即将问世。在此,《考古资讯》编辑部原创组向大家公开征集稿件。目前常规开放以下两大主题(暂不设截稿日期,如截稿会另行通知),欢迎随时来稿。具体如下:

 

一,资讯、论文评论

       欢迎你分享对于平时规律发布的各语种资讯以及国外论文的疑惑、异议或者其他思考。评论内容可以包括但不限于:对资讯以及论文的批判性提问;纠正资讯中的知识性谬误、指出资讯中你认为不当的推论或表达等等。不少于150字,无篇幅上限。谢绝空洞或过于简单的评论例如“很有趣的资讯”、“这个月第三次看到奥兹冰人了,最近很红的样子”等。

 

投稿办法:

       1.发送到archnewsroom@126.com,标题请注明[原创投稿],邮件正文中请注名字(姓名、笔名皆可)及联系方式;或

       2.转发原资讯时发表你的评论,@主页君并加话题#考古资讯原创投稿#

 

二,与“公众”有关的话题

       虽然站长在尚未问世的00期卷首语中表明小站做的并不是公众考古,但至少囧母认为,说小站所做的一切都力图面向公众并不为过。“公众考古”是一个目前关注度较高的话题,而何谓“公众”更是见仁见智,即便小站不做公众考古,却仍然提供一个开放的平台供大家在此争鸣。

       由于与“公众”有关的话题范围太广,以下试拟一些具体方向并举例供大家参考,来稿可属于但不仅限于如下范围:

 

       1. “公众考古”在中国的理论思考、现状反思等,例如:“公众”当作何解,是一个群体,是一种大众化的状态,抑或其他?“考古”在公众心中是什么样的?在中国应该如何实践?

       2. 与"公众考古"有关的具体话题,例如:当下博物馆布展、考古学教育的得与失;考古与文物收藏之间的关系、考古学资源应该如何向公众开放等。

       3. 对于相关学术研讨会、讲座、展览以及论文专著(不局限于公众考古)的评论,例如:评高蒙河老师的《考古好玩》的一书;回应白云翔老师在某次研讨会中发表的对“公众考古学”的诠释等。

       4. 对社会反响不一的公众事件的分析、评论或以该事件引出的相关思考,例如:探讨天价汉代玉凳等事件何以层出不穷、此类事件对于公众有什么影响、公众考古可以做些什么样的回应;从“河南安阳西高穴大墓是否为曹操墓”的论争看考古学在公众领域中的互动等。

       5. 针对已获录用并刊载于《考古资讯》的文章的回应和评论。

 

要求:

       1. 文体不限(诗歌除外),不多于八千字,无篇幅下限。文章观点清晰,或文章讨论的问题尚未有定论,提出明确的问题并对问题有清晰的阐述亦可。

       2. 期刊鼓励多元化观点,但敬请尽可能围绕考古这一话题。

       3. 所有推测必须建立在理性基础上,合理怀疑须有依据;所有评论必须尊重被评论的对象,严格杜绝人身攻击。

 

投稿办法:

       稿件格式为word文档,以附件形式发送至archnewsroom@126.com,标题请注明[原创投稿],邮件正文中请注名字(姓名、笔名皆可)及联系方式。

 

说明:

       除以上两个常设主题外,原创组也会由组内文创不定期拟定特别主题,届时将另行征稿,敬请关注。同时,编辑部原创组很快将发布招募启事,如果你对加入原创组有兴趣,亦敬请留意。

 


《考古资讯》编辑部原创组

我就是半个组的  囧母

2013年11月4日

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[问题征集]小站将于8月14日采访香港中文大学历史系蒲慕州老师

[问题征集]小站将于8月14日采访香港中文大学历史系蒲慕州老师

亲爱的同学们,在8月14日(星期三)下午,香港中文大学历史系蒲慕州老师将接受小站成员的非正式访问,现征集问题。 这里特别作下说明,其实去年九月就已联系蒲老师接受访问,但老师第一学期都不在香港,便协商第二学期。此后又因为种种原因,一直拖到现在,可谓好事多磨。 这次访问与过去小站... 阅读全文

[问题征集]小站将于8月14日采访香港中文大学历史系蒲慕州老师


亲爱的同学们,在814日(星期三)下午,香港中文大学历史系蒲慕州老师将接受小站成员的非正式访问,现征集问题。


这里特别作下说明,其实去年九月就已联系蒲老师接受访问,但老师第一学期都不在香港,便协商第二学期。此后又因为种种原因,一直拖到现在,可谓好事多磨。


这次访问与过去小站已经进行的访问有所不同,老师接受同学们的提问但不想太正式,同时访问的时间也非常有限,比较难单独安排,故而就在鄙人与导师的约谈之余进行。而此次约谈时间确定得十分匆忙,未能留给同学们充分的时间考虑问题,望多有包涵。


事实上,采访的内容已经过半,因为在上星期的突然约谈中鄙人已经就原本就设计的问题例如“为何会离开埃及学”、 “在种种历史哲学批判以及新的学科方法的影响中古代史研究如何自处”等作出提问。过程中自然而然地,蒲老师也主动谈及了做历史有什么意义、选择人文学科为业等问题。这些问题在星期三的约谈中可能会再次提及并深化,最后将一并整理在采访稿中。


以下为蒲老师的一些基本资料:

蒲慕州老师1975年于国立台湾大学获得文学学士学位,在约翰霍普金斯大学分别于1978年与1984年获得哲学硕士和博士学位。现为香港中文大学人文学科研究所比较古代文明研究中心主任、历史系学部主任和讲座教授,在中研院史语所兼任研究员、在国立台湾大学兼任教授。


根据中文大学历史系网页上的简介,“蒲慕州教授的專長是古代埃及史,中國古代宗教社會史,以及比較古代史……是少數能夠從事埃及學及漢學研究的中國學者,近來亦致力於比較古代史的研究。”老师早期的研究领域主要为埃及学,博士论文“Wine and Wine Offering in the Religion of Ancient Egypt”研究古代埃及的祭酒仪式;又有《尼罗河畔的文采——古埃及文选》、《法老的國度》(古代埃及文化史方面的专著)等中文埃及学专著发表;此后转向中国古代的宗教信仰,专著有《墓葬與生死 -- 中國古代宗教之省思》, 《追尋一己之福-中國古代的信仰世界》等。此外,还有In Search of Personal Welfare-A View of Ancient Chinese Religion, Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes toward Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and China等。


更多老师的著作请戳这里


提问请直接回复在帖子内,前面注明“提问:”,谢谢。


*特别说明:由于并非正式专访,外加整个谈话涉及其他内容,将不会录音,采访记录完全依靠鄙人的诠释及笔记。这也会影响最后的采访稿,使得它与小站之前进行的对话式采访稿有所不同。为保证采访稿中的内容并非鄙人捏造和曲解,初稿后将交予蒲老师过目,之后才正式发布。

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发现铁甲军:加利利发现证据指向罗马军团营地 Finding the Ironsides: Evidence suggests Roman legion military camp found in Galilee

发现铁甲军:加利利发现证据指向罗马军团营地  Finding the Ironsides: Evidence suggests Roman legion military camp found in Galilee

来源:Bible History Daily 作者:Robin Ngo 日期:07/09/2013 翻译:素菡 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/finding-the-ironsides/ 耶斯列谷的考... 阅读全文

来源:Bible History Daily

作者:Robin Ngo

日期:07/09/2013

翻译:素菡

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/finding-the-ironsides/


发现铁甲军:加利利发现证据指向罗马军团营地  Finding the Ironsides: Evidence suggests Roman legion military camp found in Galilee

耶斯列谷的考古学家发掘一条可能曾属于第六罗马军团营地的水管。虽见于历史材料,但营地的确切位置仍未一个谜。


第六罗马军团的营地位置首次被确定。来自以色列文物局的考古学家Yotam Tepper与耶斯列谷(Jezreel Valley)峡谷区域项目通力合作,通过分析一张高分辨率的卫星照片,确定了他所认为的营地的方形边界。小组成员对这处遗址进行了地下雷达探测、电磁测试,随后,又进行了发掘。他们发掘出了炮台或者是墙体的台基、一条环绕营地的壕沟、水管、有顶的下水管道、钱币、花砖和饰有军团标志的建筑面板*。这些发现似乎证实了Yotam Tepper的判断,即此处遗址即为第六罗马军团的位置所在。这个遗址位于米吉多(Tel Megiddo) (圣经中的“阿米吉多顿”)和最悠久的基督教礼拜场所之间,在营地以南半英里处,公元3世纪末被遗弃。

 

根据相关历史资料,所知为“铁甲军”的第六军团(拉丁文作the Legio Sexta Ferrata)在公元2世纪设于加利利。第六罗马军团驻扎于此极有可能是应对犹太人的对抗,并最终导致了公元132-136年的第二次犹太人民起义。受到他们的总指挥部的指示,3500名罗马士兵管辖了加利利和部分撒马利亚地区。围绕这个营地所发展起来的城市在罗马帝国时期被叫做Legio,在17世纪穆斯林势力的到来之后又被改为Lajjun。然而,第六罗马军团确切的营地位置还不甚清楚。在耶斯列谷区域项目的负责人Matthew Adams看来,“如果Tepper的判断是正确的,我们通过考古学的方法判断了营地的所在,这会成为罗马帝国考古的首次东部发掘一个这一时期的罗马营地!”

 

*注:shingle,建筑上常为长方形木制的面板,既可指覆盖在椽子上的天花板也可指墙面板。这里由于报道的简略性无法得知其具体形制故无法精确翻译。

 

原文:

 

For the first time, the camp of the Sixth Roman Legion may have been located. Analyzing an enhanced high-resolution satellite photo, archaeologist Yotam Tepper of the Israel Antiquities Authority, in collaboration with the Jezreel Valley Regional Project, identified what he believes to be the camp’s square-shaped boundary. The team conducted ground-penetrating radar and electromagnetic testing and subsequently carried out excavations at the site. They uncovered the base of a battery or wall, a moat surrounding the camp, water pipes, a covered sewage channel, coins, tiles and a shingle decorated with the legion’s symbol. These discoveries seem to support Tepper’s identification of the site as the camp of the Sixth Legion. The site sits between Tel Megiddo (Biblical Armageddon) and the oldest known Christian house of worship, located half a mile south of the camp, which was abandoned by the end of the third century.

 

According to historical sources, the Legio Sexta Ferrata, known as the “Ironsides,” was based in the Galilee in the second century A.D. The Sixth Legion was most likely stationed there in response to the Jewish antagonism that eventually resulted in the Second Jewish Revolt of 132–136 A.D. From their headquarters, 3,500 Roman soldiers ruled over Galilee and part of Samaria. The city that grew around the camp became known as Legio during the Roman Empire and later as Lajjun after the arrival of Muslim forces in the seventh century. The actual camp site of the Sixth Legion, however, remained unknown. According to Matthew Adams, director of the Jezreel Valley Regional Project, “If [Tepper’s] right and we locate the camp archaeologically, it will be the first time in the archaeology of the Roman Empire that a Roman camp of this period has been excavated in the Eastern half of the Empire!”

 

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考古志愿军集结,在地图上定位每座古山丘堡垒 Volunteer army drafted to map every ancient hill fort

来源:英国广播公司新闻网 (BBC News Education) 作者:朱迪斯&伯恩斯(Judith Burns) 日期:2013年7月8日 翻译:公无渡 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-23203500 考古学家们正在征集一支... 阅读全文

来源:英国广播公司新闻网  BBC News Education

作者:朱迪斯·伯恩斯(Judith Burns

日期:201378

翻译:公无渡

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-23203500

 


考古学家们正在征集一支考古志愿军,以帮助他们在地图上定位遍布不列颠和爱尔兰的每座古山丘堡垒。

这只是项目的一部分。该项目旨在建成一个网上地图集,覆盖约5000个这样的铁器时代遗迹。

史前史爱好者们被要求确定和记录(这些古山丘堡垒的)特征,比如它的土墙、壕沟和入口。

哈佛大学的盖里·洛克教授(Prof. Gary Lock)说:“我们想要进一步揭示它们被建造的原因,以及它们的使用方法。”

研究者们说,尽管数量众多,对古山丘堡垒的学术研究工作却非常少,比如它们是如何被使用的、在不列颠和爱尔兰又有什么不同。


赶集日

洛克教授已经发掘并研究了英格兰的若干堡垒。他说尽管它们被称作“堡垒”,但考古证据显示它们最初并不是用于军事目的。

他告诉英国广播新闻网记者:“我们发现了陶器、金属制品以及纺织、织造等家务活动的证据;还有例如小麦和大麦等农业的证据,以及曾驯养猪羊牛的证据。”

研究者们认为它们可能曾经被作为宗教节庆和赶集日的聚会场所。

最古老的山丘堡垒位于爱尔兰和威尔士,它们有3000多年了。其中许多在罗马人到达不列颠后被废弃了。然而在那些没有被罗马人占领的地区,这些堡垒可能被使用了更长的时间。

调查团队想要那些信息不仅涵盖保存完好的堡垒,也包含那些仅有作物标志(crop marks)* 来表明其存在的遗址。他们的理念是要建立一个免费的网上数据库。

洛克教授说:“我们希望当地的考古协会可以加入进来。”


大众科学

他说:“比起独自前往山丘堡垒来说,与一群人一起、谈论你们的发现更好一些,这样辨认不同细节将变得更加简单。”

Jon Murden博士是多尔切斯特市的多赛特博物馆馆长。这一博物馆由国家自然历史考古协会拥有和经营。博士告诉BBC记者:“我们希望可以参与。”

“仅在南多赛特山道,就有最少50座山丘堡垒需要探索和研究。”

周一开始,志愿者们将要把他们负责的当地山丘堡垒的资料填写到“山丘堡垒地图集项目网站”(Atlas of Hillforts project website)上去。

项目的共同研究主任,爱丁堡大学教授伊恩·罗尔斯顿(Ian Ralston)说:“我们非常想看到大众考古方法将会有怎样的发现。”

“我们希望公众,包括考古协会,可以支持这一项目,因为它可能会带来新的发现。关于那些人们认为已经充分了解了的遗址,可能会有新的遗迹和新的信息。我们希望这一项目的成果可以改变人们对这些标志性的历史遗迹的看法。”

这个为期四年的项目是由艺术和人文研究委员会(Arts and Humanities Research Council)资助的。地图将对公众免费开放,可以分地区搜索。并且与谷歌地球连接,以方便与当地地貌一起展示这些山丘堡垒。

 

*注:

“作物标记”(crop marks),当地下有遗迹时可能会导致其上的农作物生长受影响、从而与周围的农作物不同,鸟瞰可以清楚地观察到这一视觉上的不同,在考古学田野勘探中常发挥作用探明遗迹。如下图所示。

 

 

原文:


Archaeologists are drafting a volunteer army to help map every ancient hill fort across Britain and Ireland.

It is part of a project to create an online atlas of around 5,000 of these Iron Age monuments.

Prehistory enthusiasts are being asked to identify and record features such as ramparts, ditches and entrances.

Prof Gary Lock, of Oxford University, said: "We want to shed new light on why they were created and how they were used."

Despite their large numbers there has been little academic work on hill forts, how they were used and how they varied across Britain and Ireland, the researchers say.


Market days

Prof Lock, who has studied and excavated a number of the forts in England, said that despite their name archaeological evidence suggests they were not primarily used for military purposes.

"We have found pottery, metalwork and evidence of domestic activities like spinning and weaving, also of agriculture, crops like wheat and barley and of keeping pigs, sheep and cattle," he told BBC News.

Researchers believe they may have been meeting places for religious festivals or market days.

The oldest hill forts are in Ireland and Wales and are up to 3,000 years old. Many were abandoned after the Romans arrived in Britain, but in areas that the Romans did not occupy they were used for longer.

The research team wants information not only on well-preserved forts but also on sites where only crop marks indicate their existence. The idea is to build a free online database.

"We are hoping that local archaeology societies will get involved," said Prof Lock.


Citizen science

"Rather than going to a hill fort on your own, it would be better, with a group of people, to talk about what you are looking at, which should make it easier to identify the various details," he said.

Dr Jon Murden, director of the Dorset museum in Dorchester, which is owned and run by the county's natural history and archaeological society, told BBC News: "We would love to be involved.

"There are at least 50 hill forts to explore and understand on the South Dorset Ridgeway alone."

Volunteers will be able to feed information on their local hill fort into an online form on the Atlas of Hillforts project website from Monday.

"We are keen to see what the citizen science approach may reveal," said Prof Ian Ralston, of Edinburgh University, the project co-director.

"We hope that the public, including archaeological societies, will get behind this project as it should lead to the discovery of new sites and new information about sites that are considered to be well known. We expect the results of this project to change our vision of these iconic monuments."

The four-year project is funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. The maps will be freely available to the public, searchable by region and linked to Google Earth to show the hill forts in the context of the landscape.

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现在您可以拜访一所2000年前的希腊妓院了 Now you can visit a 2,000-year-old brothel in Greece

现在您可以拜访一所2000年前的希腊妓院了 Now you can visit a 2,000-year-old brothel in Greece

作者:安娜莉&纳维茨 [1] 日期:2013年6月25日 来源:io9.com 翻译:公无渡 校译:囧母 链接:http://io9.com/now-you-can-visit-a-2-000-year-old-brothel-in-greece-574635907 考古... 阅读全文

作者:安娜莉·纳维茨 [1]

日期:2013625

来源:io9.com

翻译:公无渡

校译:囧母

链接:http://io9.com/now-you-can-visit-a-2-000-year-old-brothel-in-greece-574635907


 考古学家最近在希腊北部发现了一所附属于一处健身房和餐厅的古代妓院。其中满是如下图这个花瓶一样的男性生殖器主题的器具。然而这还不是它怪异的地方。


现在您可以拜访一所2000年前的希腊妓院了 Now you can visit a 2,000-year-old brothel in Greece

   

    关于这个十年前的发现令人感兴趣的是,在公元1世纪它被毁坏之前有多长的时间作为一个经营实体而存在。它可能建于公元前2世纪。这意味着,在它因一场地震引起的火灾而永远停业之前,作为一个经营实体存在了约250年。换一种说法,这个妓院的经营时间超过了美国至今为止的历史。

    想象一下,生活在古希腊,拜访一所历史可能比许多现代国家都要长的妓院。好吧,正如奇谈地图集(Atlas Obscura网站)[2]指出的那样,现在您可以再现当时的情景。这个妓院是在遗址上建立的 “限制级博物馆”的一部分。

    Yannis N. Stavrakakis曾在妓院被发现时撰文于《考古》杂志,他说道:

    塞萨洛尼基博物馆的Polyxeni Veleni[3]鉴定出一个直径约为25英尺的圆形澡堂,它的中间还有一个桑拿。而这个会所拥有多达25个独立的浴室。邻近这一澡堂有两个分别供应冷热、水的浴池以及一个长方形大厅。大厅中发现了几个人工制品:一个有阴茎形状喷口的红色器皿,一支陶制的人造阴茎,和一个描绘阿佛洛狄忒[4]的饰有浮雕的玻璃器皿。这些都指出,这里可能是一处妓院。有一间门连接着澡堂和妓院,方便顾客们在两处享受。餐饮在下一层的一个餐厅内提供。Veleni认为这一建筑群是一个更大的建筑,可能是一处健身房的一部分。

    我喜欢这个想法:你前去健身、用餐、将自己泡在浴缸中,然后雇用一位性工作者,以一个美丽的夜晚结束这一天。希腊人什么都想到了。

 基于妓院中发现的阴茎形状器皿的数量,人们可能会推断这里的性工作者可能是男性。当然,古希腊和罗马人非常喜欢阴茎雕塑,所以这些性装饰品的出现也是意料之中的了。

 

               *               *               *               我是無恥拖稿校譯的分割線               *               *               *

校譯按:看到最後一段第一句話想吐個槽。陰莖狀器的數量到底和性工作者的性別存在什麽關係啊。類似這樣的推斷在各種考古學詮釋中比比皆是。



原文:

Archaeologists recently uncovered an ancient brothel attached to a gymnasium and restaurant in northern Greece. It was full of penis-themed items like this vase. But that's not the weird part.

 

What's intriguing about the ten-year-old finding is how long the brothel had existed as a going concern before it was destroyed in the first century AD. It was likely built in the second century BCE, which means it had been a going concern for about 250 years when an earthquake caused a fire that shut the brothel down forever. Put another way, this brothel operated longer than the United States has so far.

 

Imagine living in ancient Greece, and visiting a brothel whose history stretched back further than many contemporary nations' histories do. Well, as Atlas Obscura points out, now you can recreate that visit. The brothel is part of an "adults only" museum on the site.

 

Writing in Archaeology magazine at the time of the brothel's discovery, Yannis N. Stavrakakis said:

 

Polyxeni Veleni of the Museum of Thessaloniki has identified a circular bathhouse measuring nearly 25 feet in diameter, at the center of which was a sauna. The chamber held as many as 25 separate baths. Adjacent to this room were two pools for hot and cold water and a rectangular hall. Several artifacts found in the hall—a red vessel with a phallic spout, a clay dildo, and an embossed glass vessel depicting Aphrodite—indicate it was probably a brothel. A door connected the bath and brothel so patrons could enjoy both. Dining was offered in a taverna on a level below. Veleni believes the complex was part of a larger building, probably a gymnasium.

I love the idea that you could go work out, have dinner, soak in the tub, and then hire a sex worker to finish off the evening. The Greeks thought of everything.

 

Based on the number of penis-shaped items in this brothel, one might assume that the sex workers available were probably male. Of course, the ancient Greeks and Romans were pretty into penis statues, so these decorations might have been just par for the sexy course.

 


[1]作者安娜莉纳威兹(Annalee Newitz)是科学网站io9.com的创立者和版主,也是一名资深记者,其报导主题涵盖科学、文化和未来。

[2] Atlas Obscura网站于2009年由Joshua FoerDylan Thuras创立,旨在探索天下奇观。人们作为发现者,可以在网站上传分享自己发现的神奇有趣的地方。网站地址:http://www.atlasobscura.com/

[3]现为塞萨洛尼基博物馆主管。

[4]希腊司爱与美女神,主神宙斯之女,相当于罗马神话中的维纳斯。

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索尼斯——被海洋吞没的埃及港口 Thonis—A Major Egyptian Port Swallowed by the Sea

索尼斯——被海洋吞没的埃及港口  Thonis—A Major Egyptian Port Swallowed by the Sea

来源:Bible and archaeology news 作者:Noah Wiener 日期:05/01/2013 翻译:铃铛 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/thonis%E2%80%94a-major-egyptian-port-swallowe... 阅读全文

来源:Bible and archaeology news

作者:Noah Wiener

日期:05/01/2013

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/thonis%E2%80%94a-major-egyptian-port-swallowed-by-the-sea/


索尼斯——被海洋吞没的埃及港口  Thonis—A Major Egyptian Port Swallowed by the Sea

A monumental statue from Thonis Photo: Christoph Gerigk. Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation.

于索尼斯拍摄的一尊纪念雕像。

 

希罗多德所叙述的帕里斯在埃及掳走海伦的故事不仅仅只是个故事;他巧妙地将场景植入位于尼罗河口的索尼斯的处境中,并且解释了这一繁荣的埃及港口城市的名字,在希腊语里它又被称为赫拉克勒翁[1]

 


海洋考古学家最近在埃及沿岸的地中海下发现了壮观的港口城市遗迹。在公元前331年亚历山大大帝建造中心城市亚历山大港之前,索尼斯几乎是公元前一千年里埃及规模最大的港口城市。在这座城市具体何时(大约在公元第一个千年的某时)以及如何沉入水底仍是谜团的现在,位于埃及主海关下的遗迹的发现非常震撼人心。考古学家已经发现了纪念雕像、阿蒙-格尔布[2]神庙、金币、雅典制砝码、超过64艘海船遗骸、大量石棺、以及希腊文和埃及文的铭文。壮观的遗迹使人们得以一窥古代海洋经济和国际贸易以及该地独一无二的特点,包括一座有意用沉船形成的“船坟”。在牛津大学的新闻稿里,Damian Robinson博士认为“这可能不是简单的被遗弃,而是一种防止敌人船只进入港口城市的方法。尽管这个解释很吸引人,但是我们也必须考虑这些船被弄沉是否仅仅为了填海复垦。”遗址最初在2000年被法国潜水员Franck Goddio发现,不过直到最近在牛津大学进行的一场关于索尼斯水下遗址的会议,许多发现才被带入公众视线。考古学家现正在地中海海床搜寻更多的遗存,相信更多发现将会为人们所知。


 索尼斯——被海洋吞没的埃及港口  Thonis—A Major Egyptian Port Swallowed by the Sea

An inscription from Thonis Photo: Christoph Gerigk, Franck Goddio/Hilti Foundation.索尼斯城里的一处铭文。


                     *                     *                     *                     *

另附一则相关报道,2013430日载于《蘋果日報》,翻译自英国《每日电讯报》消息。上文的原文则在本帖最后。

 

“沉没古埃及港口3D现身”

 索尼斯——被海洋吞没的埃及港口  Thonis—A Major Egyptian Port Swallowed by the Sea


古埃及经济重镇希拉克莱奥(Heracleion)沉没地中海海底逾1,200年,谜一样的城巿景貌终于借助3D技术重现人间。希拉克莱奥曾被视为另一个「亚特兰蒂斯」(Atlantis)传说,直至2001年海底考古学家意外发现遗址,经多年挖掘和重组,终重塑当年繁荣景象。

 


考古学家制作的3D城景图,重现了希拉克莱奥昔日的繁华,图中的阿蒙-格尔布神庙(Amun-Gereb)是当地是主建筑,在海底遗址中发现不少碑刻和几十个相信内有动物木乃伊的石棺祭品,相传「埃及妖后」克莱奥帕特拉(Cleopatra)也是在这里就职。

 


海底掘出数百神像

古城位于目前埃及阿布基尔湾(Bay of Aboukir)对开6.4公里,经多年发掘,起出数以百计大大小小的神像、64艘古船、大量金币和用来量度税率的青铜和石材,部份商品更来自希腊和腓尼基人,相信在古埃及年代是地中海主要的贸易中心。


考古学家戈迪奥指,12年前是想寻找18世纪尼罗河河口海战的遗迹,却意外发现这失落古城,但失落原因仍然未明,怀疑古城建于不稳定的沉积物上,也不排除是海平面突然上升,令古城沉于海底。


 

原文:

Herodotus’s account of the detainment of Helen and Paris in Egypt tells more than a simple story; he subtly contextualizes the scene within (and accounts for the names of) the thriving Egyptian port city of Thonis, or Heracleion in Greek, at the mouth of the Nile.

 

Maritime archaeologists recently discovered the spectacular remains of the port city under the Mediterranean Sea off the Egyptian coast. Thonis was Egypt’s great port for much of the first millennium B.C.E. before Alexander the Great established the metropolis Alexandria in 331 B.C.E. While it is unclear how and exactly when the city sunk into the sea (some time in the first millennium C.E.), the discoveries at Egypt’s primary customs port have been astounding. Archaeologists have uncovered monumental statuary, a temple to Amun-Gereb, gold coins, Athenian weights, the remains of more than 64 ships, dozens of sarcophagi and Greek and Egyptian inscriptions. The spectacular preservation offers a glimpse into the ancient maritime economy and international trade, as well as the site’s unique characteristics, including a “ship graveyard” with intentionally sunken ships. In an Oxford University press release, Dr. Damian Robinson suggests that “this might not have been simple abandonment, but a means of blocking enemy ships from gaining entrance to the port-city. Seductive as this interpretation is, however, we must also consider whether these boats were sunk simply to use them for land reclamation purposes.” Originally discovered by French diver Franck Goddio in 2000, many of the finds were only brought to the public’s attention after a recent conference on the underwater site of Thonis at Oxford University. More discoveries are sure to come to light as archaeologists continue to search the Mediterranean seabed for more remains from the ancient city of Thonis.

 


[1]《蘋果日報》2013430日新闻“沉沒古埃及港口3D現身”一文译为“希拉克利奥”。 链接由于小站系统不允许发布,故而……敬请谅解。

[2]译名来自同样来自“沉沒古埃及港口3D現身”的译文。

 

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三则快讯:土耳其的“布鲁托之门”、希腊发现尼安德特人、“玛雅蓝”的成份

三则快讯:土耳其的“布鲁托之门”、希腊发现尼安德特人、“玛雅蓝”的成份

来源:Archaeological Headlines 日期:4月1、2、3日 作者:JESSICA E. SARACENI 翻译:晔 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.archaeology.org/news?page=1 Structures of Pluto&s Gate Uncovered in Turkey... 阅读全文

来源:Archaeological Headlines

日期:4123

作者:JESSICA E. SARACENI

翻译:晔

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.archaeology.org/news?page=1

 

Structures of Pluto’s Gate Uncovered in Turkey

土耳其揭露布鲁托之门结构

http://www.archaeology.org/news/717-130403-turkey-hierapolis-pluto-s-gate

三则快讯:土耳其的“布鲁托之门”、希腊发现尼安德特人、“玛雅蓝”的成份

ISTANBUL, TURKEY—Francesco D’Andria of the University of Salento announced that he has unearthed the structures of Pluto’s Gate, known as the portal to the underworld in Greco-Roman tradition, at the World Heritage site of Hierapolis in southwest Turkey. The remains of a temple, a pool, and a series of steps above a cave that emits poisonous gases were found, in addition to an inscription with a dedication to Pluto, ruler of the underworld, and Kore, or Persephone, whom he abducted. Before Hierapolis became a Roman city, the Plutonium’s cave was used in local religious rites by the eunuchs of the goddess Cybele.

 

萨伦托大学的Francesco D’Andria发表声明称,土耳其西南部的世界遗产希拉波利斯的“布鲁托之门”结构已得到发掘,其在希腊-罗马传统中被熟知为地狱的入口,发现了圣殿、水池和一系列在散发有毒气体的洞穴上的台阶等的遗迹。同时还发现了向冥王布鲁托和他劫持的泊尔塞福涅题献的铭文。希拉波利斯在成为罗马城市之前,布鲁托之门里的洞穴曾被女神西布莉的太监用做当地的宗教仪式场所。

 

Neanderthals Found in Greece

希腊发现尼安德特人

http://www.archaeology.org/news/714-130401-neanderthals-greece-kalamakia-cave

 

TÜBINGEN, GERMANY—Fossils of Neanderthal adults and children have been unearthed from Greece’s Kalamakia Cave, along with flint, quartz, and seashell scrapers. The cave is located on the western coast of the Mani Peninsula, and would have had a mild climate during the Ice Age. “Greece lies directly on the most likely route of dispersals of early modern humans and earlier hominins into Europe from Africa via the Near East,” said Katerina Havarti of the University of Tübingen. She thinks further excavation could yield evidence about the last Neanderthals and their possible interactions with modern humans. These are the first Neanderthal remains to be identified in Greece.

 

在希腊的卡拉马基洞穴里发现尼安德特成人和儿童的化石,同时发现的还有燧石、石英和贝壳刮削器。洞穴位于马尼半岛西岸,在冰河时代时气候温和。图宾根大学的Katerina Havarti说:“希腊的位置非常可能是直接在早期现代人类和类人猿从非洲经过近东进入欧洲的必经路线上。”她认为进一步的发掘会为最晚近的尼安德特人以及他们与现代人可能的关联提供证据。这是第一批在希腊被证实的尼安德特人遗骸。

 

Third Key Ingredient Found in Maya Blue

玛雅蓝的第三个关键元素

http://www.archaeology.org/news/720-130403-pigment-maya-blue-component

三则快讯:土耳其的“布鲁托之门”、希腊发现尼安德特人、“玛雅蓝”的成份

VALENCIA, SPAIN—Spanish researchers have detected the pigment dehydroindigo in Maya Blue, the extremely durable blue paint used by the Maya to decorate their walls, codices, and pottery. The pigment is formed when indigo oxidizes during heating. “Indigo is blue and dehydroindigo is yellow, therefore the presence of both pigments in variable proportions would justify the more or less greenish tone of Maya Blue,” said Antonio Doménech of the University of Valencia. Varying the temperature and the cooking time may have allowed the Maya to control the color of the paint. Clay is another ingredient in Maya Blue that makes it long lasting.

 

西班牙研究者已在“玛雅蓝”中检测到脱氢剂。“玛雅蓝”是玛雅人用来装饰他们的墙壁、文典和陶器的一种特别持久的的蓝色颜料。这种颜料形成于当靛蓝染料加热、被氧化时。瓦伦西亚大学的Antonio Doménech说:靛蓝染料是蓝色的,脱氢剂是黄色的,因此两者染料不同比例的组合会多多少少产生玛‘雅蓝里’的绿色。玛雅人控制颜料的颜色可能是通过改变温度和加工时间。粘土则是“玛雅蓝”里的另一种元素使颜色保持的更长久。

 

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雅典广场的斯多葛柱廊遗址 Stoa Poikile Excavations in the Athenian Agora

雅典广场的斯多葛柱廊遗址 Stoa Poikile Excavations in the Athenian Agora

来源:Bible History Daily 作者:Noah Wiener 日期:03/20/2013 翻译:公无渡 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/stoa-poikile-excavations-in-the-athenian-agora/ ... 阅读全文

来源:Bible History Daily

作者:Noah Wiener

日期:03/20/2013

翻译:公无渡

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/news/stoa-poikile-excavations-in-the-athenian-agora/


雅典广场的斯多葛柱廊遗址 Stoa Poikile Excavations in the Athenian Agora

The eastern portion of the Athenian Agora. The renewed Stoa Poikile excavations will take place near the upper-left corner of this photograph.

雅典广场的东部。重新开始的斯多葛柱廊发掘活动将要在该照片左上角的区域展开。


又被称为“着色柱廊”(Painted Portico)的斯多葛柱廊(Stoa Poikile),曾是雅典古代广场的主要建筑之一,也是这个城市政治和公共生活的中心。

 

然而在过去的80年中,广场被大规模开掘与参观。雅典-比雷埃夫斯铁路(Athens-Piraeus railway)从遗址的北边穿过,其最北部则埋于繁华的蒙纳斯提拉奇社区(Monastiraki neighborhood)之下。

 

最近美国雅典古典研究学院对土地的收购和征用将使考古学家们能够发掘著名的斯多葛柱廊,它是广场最北的建筑之一。

 

1981年的发掘季中,斯多葛柱廊曾显露出冰山一角与人们见面,但它的其余部分直到现在都被埋在现代建筑之下,难以考察。

 

斯多葛柱廊建于公元前5世纪,并迅速成为雅典的艺术中心,公开展出Mikon, Panainos,萨索斯岛的波里格诺托斯(Polygnotos)以及其他画家的画作。公元2世纪的旅行地理学家保萨尼阿斯(Pausanias)详尽地描述了斯多葛柱廊展出的艺术作品。


雅典广场的斯多葛柱廊遗址 Stoa Poikile Excavations in the Athenian Agora

 A reconstruction of the Stoa Poikile. From the Athenian Agora Excavations at http://www.agathe.gr/

斯多葛柱廊复原图。来自雅典广场发掘活动http://www.agathe.gr/


公元前3世纪早期,斯多葛哲学的创始人,哲学家季蒂昂的芝诺,曾用斯多葛柱廊来教导他的学生。斯多葛学派的名字就来源于它们教室的名字:斯多葛柱廊。

 

几个世纪之后在新约书信[1]中,曾在斯多葛柱廊教导的哲学复活了,即使几百年来学界一直就保罗书信在多大程度上反映了他和斯多葛主义的联系这一问题上争论不休。雅典广场的新的发掘活动将要揭开这一思想学派诞生摇篮的神秘面纱。


原文:

 The Stoa Poikile, or Painted Portico, was one of the major structures in Athens’ Classical Agora, the center of the city’s political and public life.

 

While the Agora has been extensively excavated and visited over the past 80 years, the Athens-Piraeus railway runs through the north of the site, and the northernmost sections lie beneath the vibrant Monastiraki neighborhood.

 

Recent land purchases and expropriations by the American School of Classical Studies in Athens will allow archaeologists to excavate the famous Stoa Poikile, one of the northernmost structures in the Agora.

 

A bit of the Stoa Poikile was exposed during the 1981 excavation season, but the rest has been inaccessibly covered by modern buildings—until now.

 

The Stoa Poikile was built in the fifth century B.C.E. and quickly became a center for Athenian art where paintings by Mikon, Panainos, Polygnotos of Thasos and others were put on display. The traveling second-century C.E. geographer Pausanias provides us with extensive descriptions of the art displayed at the Stoa Poikile (see below).

 

In the early third century B.C.E., philosopher Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoic philosophy, used the Stoa Poikile to teach his students. The Stoics were named after their classroom—the Stoa Poikile.

 

Centuries later, the philosophy taught in the Stoa Poikile came to life again in New Testament letters, though the extent to which Paul’s letters reflect his connection to the principles of Stoic philosophy has been a popular scholarly debate for centuries. The new excavations in the Athenian Agora will uncover the cradle of this school of thought.


 


 

[1]《圣经·新约》中有全部22卷书信,其中13卷为保罗书信(作者为保罗以及其同侪)及8卷其他公函书信(作者为其他使徒以及不明作者)。早期基督教(Early Christianity)需要回应各地教会初成立时遇到的各种处境化问题问题,使徒们藉着书信而非系统学术著作回应这些问题,其中包含许多哲学思想。——校译

 

 

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考古资讯

发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人 Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s

发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人  Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s

来源:BBC News 日期:2013.2.4 翻译:Leek,铃铛,恶魔猎手 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leicestershire-21063882 Richard's v... 阅读全文

来源:BBC News

日期:2013.2.4

翻译:Leek,铃铛,恶魔猎手

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leicestershire-21063882


发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人  Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s


发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人  Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s

Richard's villainous reputation owes much to the way he was characterised by Shakespeare

理查三世的恶名主要是因为莎士比亚的刻画。


一具发现于莱斯特郡(Leicester)某停车场的骸骨被确认属于英国国王理查三世(Richard III)。

来自莱斯特大学the University of Leicester)的专家们称,从骨骼中提取的DNA与皇室后代的DNA相匹配。

首席考古学家Richard Buckley来自莱斯特大学,他在一次新闻发布会上的发言获得了阵阵掌声:“毫无疑问,他是理查(三世)。”

理查于1485年死于战乱,他将被改葬于莱斯特大教堂。

Buckley先生说,骸骨已经过“缜密的学术研究”,其放射性碳素断代结果为1455~1540年。

Jo Appleby博士是一名骨骼考古学家,来自该大学的考古与古代史学院,他透露:该遗骨属于一名近30岁或30岁出头的男性。理查去世时正是32岁。

在他死亡之时,其骨骼遭受了10处创伤,有8处在颅骨上——其中2处可能是致命的。

一处创伤为削去了一片头骨,另一处则由刃状的武器造成,该武器插入颅骨直至其另一端,伤口深度超过10厘米(4英寸)。


发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人  Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s

 

A skeleton found beneath a Leicester car park has been confirmed as that of English king Richard III.

Experts from the University of Leicester said DNA from the bones matched that of descendants of the monarch's family.

Lead archaeologist Richard Buckley, from the University of Leicester, told a press conference to applause: "Beyond reasonable doubt it's Richard."

Richard, killed in battle in 1485, will be reinterred in Leicester Cathedral.

Mr Buckley said the bones had been subjected to "rigorous academic study" and had been carbon dated to a period from 1455-1540.

Dr Jo Appleby, an osteo-archaeologist from the university's School of Archaeology and Ancient History, revealed the bones were of a man in his late 20s or early 30s. Richard was 32 when he died.

His skeleton had suffered 10 injuries, including eight to the skull, at around the time of death. Two of the skull wounds were potentially fatal.

One was a "slice" removing a flap of bone, the other was caused by bladed weapon which went through and hit the opposite side of the skull - a depth of more than 10cm (4ins).

 

 

很“囧”的创伤

Appleby博士说道:“这两处伤口可使他几乎立刻失去知觉,而后迅速死亡。”

“就那个较大的伤口而言,如果刀刃插入大脑达7厘米直至大脑,而这是我们不能从骨骼上判定的,死亡将是一瞬间的事。”

其他的伤口还包括面部和头颅一侧的砍伤或刺伤。也有一些很囧的证据,包括一处可能由武器向上刺入臀部造成的骨盆创伤。

理查三世被一些都铎王朝的历史学家们描述成畸形残废的,而骨骼的脊柱也确实严重地弯曲——这种情况被称为脊柱侧弯(scoliosis)。

然而,诸如萎缩的手臂或这位国王一些其他更为极端的特征还无迹可寻。

 

'Humiliation injuries'

Dr Appleby said: "Both of these injuries would have caused an almost instant loss of consciousness and death would have followed quickly afterwards."

"In the case of the larger wound, if the blade had penetrated 7cm into the brain, which we cannot determine from the bones, death would have been instantaneous."

Other wounds included slashes or stabs to the face and the side of the head. There was also evidence of "humiliation" injuries, including a pelvic wound likely to have been caused by an upward thrust of a weapon, through the buttock.

Richard III was portrayed as deformed by some Tudor historians and indeed the skeleton's spine is badly curved, a condition known as scoliosis.

However, there was no trace of a withered arm or other abnormalities described in the more extreme characterisations of the king.



失踪的王子

如果没有脊柱侧凸——专家认为这是他少年时代养成的——他的身高应该有5英尺8英寸1.7),但是脊柱的弯曲令他明显变得更矮了。

Appleby博士说:“骨骼分析表明这是一具成年男性遗骸,但是作为一个男性,该体型,不同寻常的修长苗条近乎于女性。

“总的来说,骨骼迹象遗骸的身份是理查三世提供了有力的支持。”

理查亲王在1483年他的兄弟爱德华四世驾崩之后被任命为他的侄子即爱德华五世的保护人,而理查借此擭取了王权。

爱德华和他的兄弟理查被称为“伦敦塔中的王子”,在此后不久就失踪了。谣传他们在叔父的命令下被谋害。

1485年,在登上王位仅仅两年之后,理查于博斯沃思平原在与亨利·都铎的交战中被杀。

 

Missing princes

Without the scoliosis, which experts believe developed during teenage years, he would have been about 5ft 8ins (1.7m) tall, but the curvature would have made him appear "considerably" shorter.

Dr Appleby said: "The analysis of the skeleton proved that it was an adult male but was an unusually slender, almost feminine, build for a man.

"Taken as a whole, the skeletal evidence provides a highly convincing case for identification as Richard III."

Richard was a royal prince until the death of his brother Edward IV in 1483. Appointed as protector of his nephew, Edward V, Richard instead assumed the reins of power.

Edward and his brother Richard, known as the Princes in the Tower, disappeared soon after. Rumours circulated they had been murdered on the orders of their uncle.

Challenged by Henry Tudor, Richard was killed at Bosworth in 1485 after only two years on the throne.


 

DNA寻踪

理查被草草安葬于莱斯特城中心的格雷弗莱尔斯(Greyfriars)教堂。

Buckley先生说,墓穴开凿粗略,其边缘倾斜且长度太短,致使头部向前蜷起。

“没有证据显示有棺材或裹尸布等使尸骨安置得更加规整紧凑。”

“手臂很不寻常地交叉安放,这可能表明下葬时遗体的手腕还是绑住的。”他补充道。

格雷弗莱尔斯教堂在16世纪的宗教改革中被拆毁,之后的几个世纪里它的准确位置失落无考。

但是,一队对此很热心的人和历史工作者试图找出可能的地点。非常关键地,在仔细地研究过系谱之后,他们找到了理查姐姐的第十七代后裔,其DNA可以用来与任何可能是理查三世遗骸的遗传信息作比较。

加拿大的Joy Ibsen几年前去世了,但是她现在伦敦工作的儿子Michael提供了一份DNA样本。

研究者们很幸运,因为Joy Ibsen的后代是他们所寻找的DNA样本的唯一来源,且关键的遗传信息只遗传给女性,而她的独生女儿却没有后代。这个家族分支快要消亡了。

 

DNA trail

He was given a hurried burial beneath the church of Greyfriars in the centre of Leicester.

Mr Buckley said the grave was clumsily cut, with sloping sides and too short for the body, forcing the head forward.

"There was no evidence of a coffin or shroud which would have left the bones in a more compact position.

"Unusually, the arms are crossed and this could be an indication the body was buried with the wrists still tied," he added.

Greyfriars church was demolished during the Reformation in the 16th Century and over the following centuries its exact location was forgotten.

However, a team of enthusiasts and historians managed to trace the likely area - and, crucially, after painstaking genealogical research, they found a 17th-generation descendant of Richard's sister with whose DNA they could compare any remains.

Joy Ibsen, from Canada, died several years ago but her son, Michael, who now works in London, provided a sample.

The researchers were fortunate as, while the DNA they were looking for was in all Joy Ibsen's offspring, it is only handed down through the female line and her only daughter has no children. The line was about to stop.

 

 

迁墓计划

但莱斯特大学的专家面临着其他问题。

该项目的基因学家杜里·金博士(Turi King)表示,此前有人曾担心骨骸中的DNA已受到严重破坏。她说,“问题在于,我们能不能弄到一份DNA样本来研究。非常高兴地告诉你,我们可以。”

她补充道,“在理查三世家族后裔和格雷夫莱尔斯教堂的骷髅遗骸之间,二者的母系DNA是相匹配的。”

“简而言之,DNA证据指出,这些确实是理查三世的遗骸。”

20128月,挖掘工作开始于一个市政厅的停车场(这是这片可能区域中唯一一块空地),它很快便被确定为格雷夫莱尔斯教堂遗址。

挖掘工作开始的第一天就发现了骸骨,并通过法医手段得以重见天日。

迁葬仪式的细节尚未公布,但理查三世学会会员菲丽芭·兰利(Philippa Langley)称,新墓葬的计划已相当成熟。

在谈到骸骨发现时,她表示,“我非常高兴,老实说真是喜出望外。这条路我们走得很久、很难,也就是说,我们到今日用了几乎四年时间。”

“这项发现是大量艰苦努力的最高成果。我觉得,正如此前有人对我说的,这不过意味着开端的终结。”

“我们将对查理三世重新考察,对所有资料重新分析。我们希望,查理三世也能有一个崭新的开始。”

 

 

Tomb plans

But the University of Leicester's experts had other problems.

Dr Turi King, project geneticist, said there had been concern DNA in the bones would be too degraded: "The question was could we get a sample of DNA to work with, and I am extremely pleased to tell you that we could."

She added: "There is a DNA match between the maternal DNA of the descendants of the family of Richard III and the skeletal remains we found at the Greyfriars dig.

"In short, the DNA evidence points to these being the remains of Richard III."

In August 2012, an excavation began in a city council car park - the only open space remaining in the likely area - which quickly identified buildings connected to the church.

The bones were found in the first days of the dig and were eventually excavated under forensic conditions.

Details of the reburial ceremony have yet to be released, but Philippa Langley from the Richard III Society said plans for a tomb were well advanced.

She said of the discovery of Richard's skeleton: "I'm totally thrilled, I'm overwhelmed to be honest, it's been a long hard journey. I mean today as we stand it's been nearly four years.

"It's the culmination of a lot of hard work. I think, as someone said to me earlier, it's just the end of the beginning.

"We're going to completely reassess Richard III, we're going to completely look at all the sources again, and hopefully there's going to be a new beginning for Richard as well."

 

附:

University of Leicester findings

莱斯特大学的考古成果

 发掘理查三世:DNA确定骨骼属于其人  Richard III dig: DNA confirms the bones are king’s

• Wealth of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, radiological evidence, DNA and bone analysis and archaeological results, confirms identity of last Plantagenet king who died over 500 years ago

大量证据确证了近500年前去世的金雀花王朝最后一位国王的身份。这些依据包括:放射性碳素测年、放射性证据、DNA与骸骨分析以及考古发现等

 

• DNA from skeleton matches two of Richard III's maternal line relatives. Leicester genealogist verifies living relatives of Richard III's family

从骸骨上采集的DNA匹配上了两位理查三世的母系亲属。莱斯特大学的系谱学家找到了理查三世家族的在世血脉。

 

• Individual likely to have been killed by one of two fatal injuries to the skull - one possibly from a sword and one possibly from a halberd

该个体可能死于头部两处致命伤中的一处,一处可能是剑伤,另一处可能是矛刺。

 

• Ten wounds discovered on skeleton - Richard III killed by trauma to the back of the head. Part of the skull sliced off

在骷髅上找到了两处伤痕,由此得出理查三世死于头部后侧的创伤。头骨出现部分碎裂。

 

• Radiocarbon dating reveals individual had a high protein diet - including significant amounts of seafood - meaning he was likely to be of high status

放射性碳素测年显示,该个体曾摄入大量海鲜等高蛋白食物。由此,此人生前应享有很高地位。

 

• Radiocarbon dating reveals individual died in the second half of the 15th or in the early 16th Century - consistent with Richard's death in 1485

放射性碳素测年显示,该个体死于15世纪下半叶至16世纪早期之间,与查理三世1485年逝世的史实相吻合。

 

• Skeleton reveals severe scoliosis - onset believed to have occurred at the time of puberty

骸骨显示出几处脊椎侧弯,被认为发生于青春期。

 

• Although about 5ft 8in tall (1.7m), the condition meant King Richard III would have stood significantly shorter and his right shoulder may have been higher than the left

虽然身高5英尺8英寸(合1.7米),但骸骨情况意味着理查三世国王的直立高度可能要矮得多,且其右肩可能要比左肩高。

 

• Feet were truncated at an unknown point in the past, but a significant time after the burial

曾被截去双脚,时间不明,但远晚于下葬时间。

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考古资讯

新的DNA研究显示,阿兹特克的征服改组了墨西哥早期原住民的遗传基因 Aztec Conquest Altered Genetics Among Early Mexico Inhabitants, New DNA Study Shows

新的DNA研究显示,阿兹特克的征服改组了墨西哥早期原住民的遗传基因
Aztec Conquest Altered Genetics Among Early Mexico Inhabitants, New DNA Study Shows

来源:Science Daily 日期:2013年1月30日 翻译:铃铛 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130131095234.htm 摘要:在阿兹特克帝国征服之前,扎热特昆(Xaltocan)是墨西哥城邦的首府。其原住民奥托米人(Otom&)的最后... 阅读全文

来源:Science Daily

日期:2013130

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130131095234.htm

摘要:在阿兹特克帝国征服之前,扎热特昆(Xaltocan)是墨西哥城邦的首府。其原住民奥托米人(Otomí)的最后命运始终是个谜团。研究者们始终在怀疑他们是否融入了阿兹特克人,或者干脆直接放弃了这座城镇。

For centuries, the fate of the original Otomí inhabitants of Xaltocan, the capital of a pre-Aztec Mexican city-state, has remained unknown. Researchers have long wondered whether they assimilated with the Aztecs or abandoned the town altogether.


新的DNA研究显示,阿兹特克的征服改组了墨西哥早期原住民的遗传基因
Aztec Conquest Altered Genetics Among Early Mexico Inhabitants, New DNA Study Shows

Using ancient DNA (aDNA) sampling, Jaime Mata-Míguez, an anthropology graduate student and lead author of the study, tracked the biological comings and goings of the Otomí people following the incorporation of Xaltocan into the Aztec empire. (Credit: Photos provided by Lisa Overholtzer, Wichita State University.)

利用取样古老的DNA,人类学研究生及该研究的第一作者Jaime Mata-Míguez追寻奥托米人在扎热特昆并入阿兹特克帝国之后其生物学性质的变迁。


据德克萨斯大学奥斯丁分校(The University of Texas at Austin)联合威奇塔州立大学(Wichita State University)和华盛顿州立大学(Washington State University)共同进行的新的人类学研究,这个问题的答案可能存在于DNA中。研究者们顺着这条线索推断,一些可能属于统治阶层的奥托米原住民逃离了城镇。他们的逃离可能引发了奥托米原住民的重组,或者引发了新居民的大量涌入,他们与这些奥托米人联姻并逐渐融为一体。

According to new anthropological research from The University of Texas at Austin, Wichita State University and Washington State University, the answers may lie in DNA. Following this line of evidence, the researchers theorize that some original Otomies, possibly elite rulers, may have fled the town. Their exodus may have led to the reorganization of the original residents within Xaltocan, or to the influx of new residents, who may have intermarried with the Otomí population.

 

采用取样古老的DNA,人类学研究生及该研究的第一作者Jaime Mata-Míguez,追寻奥托米人在扎热特昆并入阿兹特克帝国之后其生物学性质的变迁。研究成果发表于美国体质人类学杂志(American Journal of Physical Anthropology),首次为该人类学悬案提供了基因方面的证据。

Using ancient DNA (aDNA) sampling, Jaime Mata-Míguez, an anthropology graduate student and lead author of the study, tracked the biological comings and goings of the Otomí people following the incorporation of Xaltocan into the Aztec empire. The study, published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology, is the first to provide genetic evidence for the anthropological cold case.

 

Mata-Míguez表示,了解更多过去的人口规模、组成以及结构上的变化可以帮助人类学家认识历史事件的影响,包括帝国的征服、殖民、迁移。扎热特昆的例子尤其重要,因为通过它可以一窥阿兹特克对中美洲地区人口所实行的帝国主义政策的影响。

Learning more about changes in the size, composition, and structure of past populations helps anthropologists understand the impact of historical events, including imperial conquest, colonization, and migration, Mata-Míguez says. The case of Xaltocan is extremely valuable because it provides insight into the effects of Aztec imperialism on Mesoamerican populations.

 

历史文献指出,奥托米人于公元1395年逃离了扎热特昆,1435年阿兹特克统治者指派纳税人定居于兹。但是考古证据显示在并入帝国这一期间,扎热特昆的人口变迁有一定的稳定性,这个现象更为谜题增添了神秘性。最近发掘出的人类遗骸所处年代从扎热特昆被吞并前直到吞并之后,为研究基因变迁提供了宝贵的机会。

Historical documents suggest that residents fled Xaltocan in 1395 AD, and that the Aztec ruler sent taxpayers to resettle the site in 1435 AD. Yet archaeological evidence indicates some degree of population stability across the imperial transition, deepening the mystery. Recently unearthed human remains from before and after the Aztec conquest at Xaltocan provide the rare opportunity to examine this genetic transition.

 

作为研究的一部分,Mata-Míguez和他的同事从25具遗骸中提取了线粒体腺嘌呤DNA。这些遗骸来自于扎热特昆发掘出的房屋外露台遗迹。他们发现,扎热特昆被吞并前居民的腺嘌呤DNA与吞并后的并不相似。该结果与“阿兹特克占领扎热特昆对当地居民的种族有显著影响”的看法一致。

As part of the study, Mata-Míguez and his colleagues sampled mitochondrial aDNA from 25 bodies recovered from patios outside excavated houses in Xaltocan. They found that the pre-conquest maternal aDNA did not match those of the post-conquest era. These results are consistent with the idea that the Aztec conquest of Xaltocan had a significant genetic impact on the town.

 

Mata-Míguez认为,由于阿兹特克帝国主义政策而引发的殖民人口的长途贸易、人口迁移和重组也可能在墨西哥其他地区造成类似的基因变化。

Mata-Míguez suggests that long-distance trade, population movement and the reorganization of many conquered populations caused by Aztec imperialism could have caused similar genetic shifts in other regions of Mexico as well.

 

针对线粒体DNA的关注使这项研究只能追溯扎热特昆的母系基因。而为了弄清楚基因变化的程度和根本原因,未来还需要更多的腺嘌呤DNA分析。但是这项研究仍能够显示,阿兹特克的帝国主义政策很可能改变了若干扎热特昆的家族成分家庭情况。

In focusing on mitochondrial DNA, this study only traced the history of maternal genetic lines at Xaltocan. Future aDNA analyses will be needed to clarify the extent and underlying causes of the genetic shift, but this study suggests that Aztec imperialism may have significantly altered at least some Xaltocan households.

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考古资讯

“奇葩埃及人如何制作木乃伊”歌词部分 How did awful Egyptians make a mummy(lyric)

出品:BBC Horrible Hostories演唱:Jim Howick选稿:娜娜翻译:囧母歌词部分: 看完这条片那可不容易,做个木乃伊真太麻烦了&& 我们听过很多法老的事 因为考古学家挖墓不止 来让我们看看死法老怎么处置 搞个木乃伊,装点你内室 首先找张台,让你的法老躺下来 他的脑子通过鼻子排出... 阅读全文

出品:BBC Horrible Hostories

演唱:Jim Howick

选稿:娜娜

翻译:囧母

歌词部分:

看完这条片那可不容易,做个木乃伊真太麻烦了——

 

我们听过很多法老的事

因为考古学家挖墓不止

来让我们看看死法老怎么处置

搞个木乃伊,装点你内室

 

首先找张台,让你的法老躺下来

他的脑子通过鼻子排出来

肠胃肝肺跟着也要拿出来

放在四个罐子里面就不腐烂

抹上盐巴让尸体躺着慢慢干

 

摆上四十天木乃伊就干好喽

绷带包裹遗体时记得留个口

留给嘴巴也是留着塞假眼球

冰冷棺椁中放进祷文小卷轴

那会保他黄泉路上远远走

如果为了死者国度而绸缪

那么墓葬里面财宝要装够

他的健康他的兴旺不犯愁

 

你的工作结尾

盗墓坏蛋尾随

所以我们要把木乃伊和棺材来保卫

造高金字塔让它直刺云霄

请把你法老藏藏深藏藏好

我们这歌到这也就唱完了

 

原文:

Of Egyptian Kings we know oh so many things

Cos the archaeologists have dug their tombs

Now we’re here to show how to treat a dead pharaoh

Make a mummy that can decorate your room

First your dead king’s lain on a table where his brain

Is pulled out with a wire through his nose

Then his guts and lungs, stomach, liver must be bunged

In four jars so they do no decompose

Pour out salt to dry on the body let it lie

There for forty days until it mummifies

In the bandage wrap up the body, leave a gap

For the mouth and pop in artificial eyes

In the coffin cold lay out prayer in little scrolls

That will guard him on his journey far ahead

Pack his tomb with wealth

Which he’ll need for his health

If he makes it to the country of the dead

Now you’ve done your job

There are villains who will rob

So our mummy and its coffin we defend

Build a pyramid high so it points up to the sky

Place your dead king deep inside and that’s the end

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考古资讯

奇葩埃及人如何做木乃伊 How did awful Egyptians make a mummy

奇葩埃及人如何做木乃伊  How did awful Egyptians make a mummy 播放

出品:BBC Horrible Hostories 演唱:Jim Howick 选稿:娜娜 翻译:囧母 “奇葩翻儿”(娜娜语)有话说:这首老少咸宜的歌曲意图在娱乐的同时简单普及下关于古埃及木乃伊制作的基本知识,学术上很多槽可以吐的,但这些此刻不重要,而带给各位轻松愉快的体验才是正经事。故而以本色化、处境化和生活化为原则来翻译,与原歌词的匹配度肯定比平时其他稿件的要来得低。但是,真的可以唱,不妨试试看? 由于视频类文件的篇幅限制,歌词将在另一个日志中送出,敬请移步下一日志。

考古资讯

哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

來源:LiveScience.com 作者:Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor 日期:Fri, Dec 14, 2012 翻譯:囧母 链接:http://news.yahoo.com/oops-brain-removal-tool-left-mummys-skull-160456836.html ... 阅读全文

來源:LiveScience.com

作者:Owen Jarus, LiveScience Contributor

日期:Fri, Dec 14, 2012

翻譯:囧母

链接:http://news.yahoo.com/oops-brain-removal-tool-left-mummys-skull-160456836.html


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哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

 可追溯到2400年前的这具女性木乃伊可能的死亡年龄为40岁。当她经防腐处理时,防腐师似乎将取脑工具留在了她的头颅中。

哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

对该距今2400年的女性木乃伊进行的CT扫描揭示了一件被嵌在头骨中的管状物件,在脑部左侧顶骨和头骨后方填充的松脂之间。应为一件用于除去大脑的工具。


在一具可追溯到约2400年前的女性木乃伊的头颅中,发现嵌入了一件古埃及遗体防腐师用来移除大脑的工具。


移除大脑是古埃及木乃伊制作的一个步骤,大约在3500年前开始流行并一直保留到更晚的时期。


要确定是防腐师用来移除大脑的古代工具并不容易,研究人员指出,这才是第二次报告一件这样的工具发现于木乃伊头颅内。


发现:


这一物件是在2008年的一系列CT扫描中被发现的,位于左侧顶骨和填充了松香的头颅后方之间。研究人员于是插入内窥镜(经常用于医疗程序的细管)以近距离观察它,并且最终将其与黏住它的松香分离。

哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

这件长3英寸(8厘米)的物件被从黏住它的松脂上切下来,它以某一种单子叶植物制作而成,用于除去木乃伊的大脑。

 

克罗地亚杜布拉瓦的萨格勒布大学医院的Mislav Čavka博士在LiveScience的采访中说道:“在内窥过程中我们用一枚夹钳将它切下,然后从头骨中取出来。”


他们发现自己正凝视着这件超过3英寸(8厘米)长、曾用于和移除大脑的物件。“几乎可以肯定它就是用于木乃伊大脑移除的。”Čavka说。


该工具应该是通过在鼻子附近的筛骨上所钻的小孔伸进去的。“(大脑的)一些部分会包裹在这根棍子上然后被带出来,而其他部分则会被打成液体。”


木乃伊随后会被俯身放置以从鼻孔中排出液体。“将这根棍子留在了头颅里是防腐师的错误。”Čavka还补充说,这件工具可能是在作业过程中弄断的。


这一防腐过程中的意外对古代木乃伊而言十分不幸,却为研究人员提供了鲜有的材料。ČAvaka的团队在他们近期发表在RSNA G Radio Graphics上的一篇论文中指出,另外唯一一件发现于木乃伊头颅内的取脑棒可上溯到2200年前。

哎妈呀!取脑工具留木乃伊脑壳儿里啦~Oops! Brain-Removal Tool Left in Mummy's Skull

研究人员最初发现这一物件时不确定为何物,于是采用了内窥镜进一步察看。

ČAvaka还说,“在埃及的诸博物馆中可能还有其他的证据,不过它们都不是在头颅中发现的。”这就使得确定这样的人工制品为取脑工具变得比较棘手。


这一木乃伊最近正在克罗地亚萨格勒布的考古博物馆中,属于一位约卒于40岁的女性。19世纪,在没有棺材盛放的状态下被带到克罗地亚,她在埃及的发现地不明。碳同位素测年和CT扫描将年代确定在大约2400年前,死因不明。


新见解:


这根棍子太脆以至于研究团队无法按照他们的期望做一彻底分析。植物学专家通过显微镜下的观察确定该工具是由单子叶群的植物做的,单子叶群植物包括棕榈和竹子的一些品种。


当研究人员将他们的发现与古希腊历史学家希罗多德在公元前五世纪所作的解释进行比较时,最令人好奇的发现就出现了。到访埃及的他对于埃及人如何移除大脑如是说:


“谈妥价钱后来人便走了,而工人则单独留在自己的处所防腐尸体。如果以最完美的方式来做,他们首先会用一个铁钩通过鼻孔取出部分大脑,然后向余下的部分注射特定的药剂。”


最近的发现表明,至少在这些工序中所使用的是有机质棍子而非“铁钩”,这可能是出于经济的原因。研究人员指出另一件发现于2200年前的木乃伊头颅内的工具也是以有机材料制作的。


研究人员在其期刊文章内写道:“众所周知木乃伊防腐技术在古埃及文明中有着广泛的应用,但它是一个消耗时间和金钱的实践。因此,并非每个人都可以负担相同的防腐工序。”

 

 

原文:

A brain-removal tool used by ancient Egyptian embalmers has been discovered lodged in the skull of a female mummy that dates back around 2,400 years. 

Removal of the brain was an Egyptian mummification procedurethat became popular around 3,500 years ago and remained in use in later periods.

Identifying the ancient tools embalmers used for brain removal is difficult, and researchers note this is only the second time that such a tool has been reported within a mummy's skull.

The discovery

Located between the left parietal bone and the back of the skull, which had been filled with resin, the object was discovered in 2008 through a series of CT scans. Researchers then inserted an endoscope (a thin tube often used for noninvasive medical procedures) into the mummy to get a closer look and ultimately detach it from resin to which it had gotten stuck.  [See Photos of Mummy & Brain-Removal Tool]

"We cut it with a clamp through the endoscope and then removed it from the skull," said lead researcher Dr. Mislav ?avka, of the University Hospital Dubrava in Zagreb Croatia, in an interview with LiveScience.

They found themselves peering at an object more than 3 inches (8 centimeters) long that would have been used for liquefying and removing the brain. "It almost definitely would have been used in excerebration [brain removal] of the mummy," ?avka said.

The instrument would have been inserted through a hole punched into the ethmoid bone near the nose. "Some parts [of the brain] would be wrapped around this stick and pulled out, and the other parts would be liquefied," ?avka said.

The Egyptian mummy could then be put on its abdomen and the liquid drained through the nose hole. "It is an error that [the] embalmers left this stick in the skull," said ?avka, adding the tool may have broken apart during the procedure.

This embalming accident, unfortunate for the ancient mummy, has provided researchers with a very rare artifact. ?avka's team point out in a paper they published recently in the journal RSNA RadioGraphics the only other brain-removal stick found inside a mummy's skull dates back 2,200 years.

"Probably in museums in Egypt there are many other evidences, but they were not found inside the skull," making it tricky to identify such artifacts as brain-removal tools, said ?avka.

The mummy is currently in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb Croatia and is that of a woman who died around the age of 40. Brought to Croatia in the 19th century without a coffin, it's not known where she was found in Egypt. Radiocarbon dating and CT scans of the mummy determined its date to be around 2,400 years. Her cause of death is unknown.


New insights

The stick is quite brittle and the team could not do as thorough of an analysis as they'd hoped. Looking at it under a microscope, botanical experts determined the tool is made from plants in the group Monocotyledon, which includes forms of palm and bamboo.

The most curious find came when the researchers compared their discovery with an ancient account of brain removal made by the Greek writer Herodotus in the fifth century B.C. A visitor to Egypt, he had this to say about how Egyptian brain removal worked (as translated by A. D. Godley, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1920, through Perseus Digital Library):

"Having agreed on a price, the bearers go away, and the workmen, left alone in their place, embalm the body. If they do this in the most perfect way, they first draw out part of the brain through the nostrils with an iron hook, and inject certain drugs into the rest."

The recent discovery suggests an organic stick, not an "iron hook," was used in at least some of these procedures, possibly for economic reasons. Researchers note that the tool found in the skull of the other mummy, dating from 2,200 years ago, was also made of an organic material.

"It is known that mummification was widely practiced throughout ancient Egyptian civilization, but it was a time-consuming and costly practice. Thus, not every­one could afford to perform the same mummifi­cation procedure," write the researchers in their journal article.


Follow LiveScience on Twitter @livescience. We're also on Facebook & Google+.

·         Image Gallery: Amazing Egyptian Discoveries

·         Mummy Melodrama: Top 9 Secrets About Otzi the Iceman

·         The 10 Weirdest Ways We Deal With the Dead

Copyright 2012 LiveScience, a TechMediaNetwork company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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古罗马最早的港口之再发现 First Harbor of Ancient Rome Rediscovered

古罗马最早的港口之再发现 First Harbor of Ancient Rome Rediscovered

来源:Science Daily 日期:Dec. 10, 2012 翻译:公无渡河、铃铛 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121210080629.htm 奥斯蒂亚鸟瞰图;左下为台伯河,流经帝国皇宫;红点为核心现场... 阅读全文

来源:Science Daily

日期:Dec. 10, 2012

翻译:公无渡河、铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121210080629.htm


 奥斯蒂亚鸟瞰图;左下为台伯河,流经帝国皇宫;红点为核心现场 (Credit: © S. Keay)

 

提要:20121210日——考古学家已经对宏伟的奥斯蒂亚(Ostia)古遗址进行了发掘,但向罗马供给小麦的港口的位置却一直未发现。对沉积岩岩心的调查最终将这一“失落”的港口定位在奥斯蒂亚城的西北方,台伯河河口的左岸。地层学显示在公元前4世纪到2世纪之间、港口建立初期,该流域深达6.5米,与海港的深度不相上下。

--------------------------------------------------- 

这一研究由东方与地中海研究所Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée[1](法国科学研究中心/里昂第二大学),法国罗马学校(Ecole Française de Rome[2])和罗马考古学遗产特别监督会(Speciale per i Beni Soprintendenza Archeologici di Roma -- Sede di Ostia)*组成的的法意联合团队共同开展,并且将于201212月在《罗马法国学校文集》(Chroniques des Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome)上发表。


根据古代文献记载,奥斯蒂亚最初是由罗马第四代君主安克士马修斯建立的。这一新的开拓可能有三个目的:为罗马提供一个出海口、保障罗马小麦与盐的供给、以及防止敌人溯台伯河而上产生威胁。考古发掘显示,最初的城市核心区(也就是古罗马兵营)的年代可以追溯至公元前43世纪之交。主要的古建筑和交通干道逐渐浮现,但到那时为止仍没有发现奥斯蒂亚的港口。对有些人来说,港口是永远地“失落”了。自文艺复兴时起,人们为确定其所在采取过许多尝试,但却都以失败告终。直到1920世纪意大利考古学家们才圈定了奥斯蒂亚城西北部靠近皇宫的一片区域。在这个世纪之交,考古学家利用地磁仪器,确定了该流域的较为可能的位置。然而,对于其确切位置仍无定论并一直在争论之中。

 

一支由法国科学研究中心研究员让·菲利普·瓜郎(Jean-Philippe Goiran)领导的法意联合团队通过使用一种新的地质岩心取样器,尝试证实该港口的可能位置。这一技术解决了该区域的考古发掘因地下水而很难超过2米的问题。

 

萃取出两段沉积物芯,显示了整整12深的地层情况以及港口地区演变的三个阶段:

1.最深的地层早于奥斯蒂亚(Ostia)的建立,显示该地区在公元前一千年早期的时候是海洋。

 

2. 中间层样本拥有丰富的灰色粉质粘土层,显示出一种典型的港口外貌。根据推算,在港口建设初期(约公元前42世纪),该河港的泊船处水深达6.5。在此之前,学界普遍认为河港只能容纳吃水浅的船,而事实上奥斯蒂亚的港口可以轻松地接收吃水很深的海船。


3.最后,年代最晚的地层包含了大量冲积层的淤积物,显示在罗马帝国时期该河港被废弃。根据碳的同位素测算,很可能在公元前2世纪至在公元一世纪初叶时,因为台伯河主干流域长时间的洪水期导致奥斯蒂亚的河港被沉积物封堵(排除疏浚工作的可能性)。当时泊船处水深小于一米,已没有了任何航行应用的可能性。奥斯蒂亚河港的完全废弃是因为在距离台伯河口北部三公里处,一座崭新的综合性港口波特斯(Portus)完工了。这段年代较晚的冲积层所显示的信息与斯特雷波(Strabo)的记载(公元前58~公元2125年)相符。它记录了当时台伯河的沉积物封堵河港的情况。

 

发现这个位于台伯河口、奥斯蒂亚北部及皇宫西部的奥斯蒂亚河港,将会有助于人们更好地理解奥斯蒂亚及其港口与横空出世的波特斯港(尼禄治下公元42世纪始建,至公元64年完成)之间的关联。这个占地200公顷的大型综合性港口是罗马城的港口,也是罗马人在地中海建造的最大的港口。

 

研究者估算,从奥斯蒂亚港口的弃用到波特斯港口的建造历时近25年。罗马是古罗马世界的首都,也是世界上第一个达到百万人口的城市。在这25年间,小麦等粮食是如何供给的呢?这个问题是研究员目前需要解决的。

 

原文:

Dec. 10, 2012 — Archaeologists have unearthed the great ancient monuments of Ostia, but the location of the harbour which supplied Rome with wheat remained to be discovered. Thanks to sedimentary cores, this “lost “harbor has eventually been located northwest of the city of Ostia, on the left bank of the mouth of the Tiber. Stratigraphy has revealed that at its foundation, between the 4th and 2nd century BC, the basin was deeper than 6.5 m, the depth of a seaport.

 

This research was carried out by a French-Italian team of the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée (CNRS / Université Lumière Lyon 2), the Ecole Française de Rome and Speciale per i Beni Soprintendenza Archeologici di Roma -- Sede di Ostia* and will be published in the Chroniques des Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome in December 2012.

According to ancient texts, Ostia was founded by Ancus Marcius, the 4th king of Rome. This new settlement is supposed to have aimed three goals: to give Rome an outlet to the sea, to ensure its supply of wheat and salt and finally, to prevent an enemy fleet to ascend the Tiber. Archeological excavations showed that the original urban core (castrum) dates back to the turn of the 4th and 3th centuries BC. Major ancient buildings and main roads were progressively revealed, but the location of the Ostia river mouth harbour remained unknown to this day. For some, it was considered as lost forever. Since the Renaissance, many attempts to locate the harbour of Ostia were undertaken without success. It was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that Italian archaeologists defined an area north-west of the city, near the Imperial Palace. At the turn of the century, archaeologists confirmed the probable location of the basin, in that zone, by using geomagnetic instruments. However there was still no consensus on the exact location of the port and the debate was still alive.

 

A French-Italian team led by Jean-Philippe Goiran, CNRS researcher, has tried to definitely verify the hypothetical location of the harbour, by using a new geological corer. This technology solves the problem of groundwater which makes this area rather difficult for archeologists to excavate beyond 2 m deep.

 

Two sediment cores have been extracted, showing a complete 12 m depth stratigraphy and the evolution of the harbour zone in 3 steps:

 

1 -- The deepest stratum, before the foundation of Ostia, indicates that the sea was present in that area in the early 1st millennium BC.

 

2 -- A middle layer, rich in grey silty - clay sediments, shows a typical harbour facies. According to calculations, the basin had a depth of 6.5 m at the beginning of its operation (dated between the 4th and 2d centuries BC). Previously considered as a river harbour that can only accommodate low draft boats, Ostia actually enjoyed a deep basin capable of receiving deep draft marine ships.

3 -- Finally, the most recent stratum, composed of massive alluvium accumulations, shows the abandonment of the basin during the Roman imperial period. With radiocarbon dates, it is possible to deduce that a succession of major Tiber floods episodes of the Tiber finally came to seal the harbour of Ostia between the 2nd century BC and the 1st quarter of the 1st century AD (and this despite possible phases of dredging). At that time, the depth of the basin was less than 1 m and made any navigation impossible.

 

It was then abandoned in favor of a new harbour complex built 3 km north of the Tiber mouth, called Portus. This alluvium layer fits with the geographer Strabo's text (58 BC -- 21/25 AD) who indicated the sealing of the harbour basin by sediments of the Tiber at that time (Geographica, 231-232).

 

The discovery of the river mouth harbour of Ostia, north of the city and west of the Imperial Palace, will help better understand the links between Ostia, its harbour and the ex-nihilo settling of Portus, initiated in 42 AD and completed in 64 AD under the reign of Nero. This gigantic 200 ha wide complex became the harbour of Rome and the largest ever built by the Romans in the Mediterranean.

 

Between the abandonment of the port of Ostia and the construction of Portus, researchers estimate that nearly 25 years have passed. Rome was the capital of the ancient Roman world and the first city to reach one million inhabitants. So how was it supplied with wheat during that period? The question arises now researchers.



[1]维基百科:Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée是一个专业研究地中海地区和中东地区历史以及人类早期历史的研究性机构。

[2]法国远东学校EFEO官网:Ecole Française de Rome是法国高等教育与研究部下属的一所公共研究所,最初是法国雅典学校在罗马的分支机构,后来作为一所考古专门学校存在。

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考古资讯

考古学家在以色列海岸发现古代海港及海难遗迹 Archaeologists Discover Shipwrecks, Ancient Harbor On Coast of Israel

來源:《每日科学》 日期:2012年11月28日 翻译:铃铛 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121128162207.htm 提要:罗德岛大学(University of Rhode Island,简称URI)、以色列文物局(the Israe... 阅读全文

來源:《每日科学》

日期:20121128

翻译:铃铛

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121128162207.htm

 

提要:罗德岛大学(University of Rhode Island,简称URI)、以色列文物局(the Israel Antiquities Authority)、以及路易斯维尔大学(the University of Louisville)的考古工作者在艾可城(Akko)发现了19世纪早期的船只遗骸,以及古代海港的建筑遗迹。该古海港推测建于希腊化时期(公元前一至三世纪),是古代地中海东部的主要海港之一。这些遗迹的发现进一步揭示了一段人们知之甚少的历史,并为在何处、如何发现更多相关遗迹提供了线索。

ScienceDaily (Nov. 28, 2012) — Archaeologists from the University of Rhode Island, the Israel Antiquities Authority, and the University of Louisville have discovered the remains of a fleet of early-19th century ships and ancient harbor structures from the Hellenistic period (third to first century B.C.) at the city of Akko, one of the major ancient ports of the eastern Mediterranean. The findings shed light on a period of history that is little known and point to how and where additional remains may be found.

 

 

1115日和17日在芝加哥举办的美国中东研究院年会上,由罗德岛大学的助理教授Bridget Buxton和以色列海岸勘探项目的代表William Krieger公布了这项考古发现。Buxton的报告指出,在艾可城南的海岸附近发现的四艘保存完好的海难船只中,有三艘是在2011年首次用被浅底地层剖面仪(sub-bottom profiler)的。之后,暴风雨将船只表面的积淀物冲刷掉数米厚,使其和另一个大型船只的遗迹暂时显露出来,如今那里所有的海难船只遗迹都被重新掩埋。

The discoveries were presented on November 15 and 17 in Chicago at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research by URI assistant professors Bridget Buxton and William Krieger on behalf of the Israel Coast Exploration project.

According to Buxton, three of the four well-preserved shipwrecks found off the coast south of Akko were first detected using a sub-bottom profiler in 2011. Later, storms stripped off several meters of inshore sediments and temporarily revealed the wrecks, as well as an additional large vessel. The wrecks are now reburied.

 

以色列文物局在海难船只遗迹显露的短短时间内检查了其中一艘32米长的船只,它的黄铜轮轴(船舵的插座)以及许多古代器物如盘子,一盏烛台,甚至一柄里面仍盛有骨头的锅都保存完好。文物局的实验室分析显示,建船的木料来自土耳其。研究小组确信这些船只曾经隶属于埃及海军的司令官Osman Nurredin Bey,1831年的土埃战争期间,他指挥的舰队在攻占艾可城的战斗中损失惨重。在易卜拉欣帕夏(Ibrahim Pasha)的指挥下,城镇最终于1832年落入埃及陆军之手。

During the brief time the shipwrecks were exposed, the Israel Antiquities Authority investigated one of them: a 32 meter vessel which still preserved its brass gudgeon (rudder socket) and many small artifacts, such as plates, a candlestick, and even a cooking pot with bones in it. Laboratory analyses completed this summer by the IAA revealed that the ship's wood came from Turkey.  The team believes these ships may have belonged to the Egyptian navy under Admiral Osman Nurredin Bey, whose ships were severely damaged in his attempt to capture Akko in the Egyptian-Ottoman War of 1831. The town eventually fell to Egyptian land forces under Ibrahim Pasha in 1832.

 

“自我们发现遗迹以来,这些船只不时因暴风雨的冲刷现于世间又再次被掩埋,”Buxton表示,“现在进入了一场与时间的竞赛,我们要在暴风雨完全将这附近其他遇难船只遗迹完全移走或摧毁之前,抓紧找到并研究它们。”

"These ships have occasionally been exposed and buried again by storms since we found them," Buxton said. "We're in a race against time to find other ships in the area and learn from them before storms totally dislodge or destroy them."

 

尽管19世纪的遇难船只并不是这个拥有上千年文明历史的地区的亮点,但是Buxton很为这个发现兴奋不已,因为这些遗存可能会指向更古老的船只遗迹。

Although shipwrecks from the 1800s are not the highest priorities in a region where civilization goes back thousands of years, Buxton is excited by the discovery for what it tells her about where much older ships may be found.

 

“像许多水下考古学家一样,我也很有兴趣发现一个保存完好的希腊化时期多层甲板战舰的标本。”Buxton说。“这些船只的建造技术很不可思议,但是我们对其设计了解并不多,因为目前为止还没有发现船身主体。然而,一种由很不寻常的环境和历史组合起来的因素令我们确信,我们有机会在以色列北部海岸找到这些船只遗迹中的一部分。”

"Like many underwater archaeologists I'm very interested in finding a well-preserved example of an ancient multi-decked warship from the Hellenistic age," said Buxton. "These ships were incredible pieces of technology, but we don't know much about their design because no hulls have been found. However, a combination of unusual environmental and historical factors leads us to believe we have a chance of finding the remains of one of these ships off the northern coast of Israel."

 

Buxton相信,他们想要寻找的的船只很可能埋藏在自然形成有数个世纪之久的沿海沉积物中,但是时间并不站在考古工作者这一边。“那一层起保护作用的淤泥现在正被冲走,”她说,“并且由于人为发展和自然变迁的一系列原因,再加上阿斯旺大坝的影响,当前的冲刷速度比沉积速度快了很多。”尼罗河自古以来就一直为其流域带来大量的淤泥,但是大坝显著减少了淤泥的沉积。

Buxton believes that the ships they are looking for are likely buried in the coastal sediment, which has built up over the centuries through natural processes. However, time is not on their side. "That protective silt is now being stripped away," she said. "And it's being stripped away a lot faster than it was originally dumped, by a combination of development, environmental changes, and the effects of the Aswan Dam." The Nile River has historically deposited large quantities of silt in the area, but the dam has significantly reduced the flow of silt.

 

考古学家是在为一个正在进行的海底勘察项目测试仪器时在艾可城的现代海港里发现了这些船只遗迹,以及另外一个早期的现代船只。“这是一个不断赠予着的礼物,Buxton说,“我们找到了太多可供探寻的目标,以至于我们没有时间去完成所有的探索,但仅仅是这些信息就足以帮助KobyJacob Sharvit,以色列文物局海事文物小组领导)知道哪里是大型暴风雨的多发地。”

The archaeologists found the ships and another early modern vessel within Akko's modern harbor while testing their equipment in preparation for an ongoing survey out in deeper water. The sub-bottom profiler detects anomalies below the sea floor. "It's the gift that keeps on giving," Buxton said. "We found so many targets to explore that we didn't have time to check all of them, but even just having information about where things are helps Koby (Jacob Sharvit, director of the IAA Maritime Antiquities Unit) know where to look after any big storms."

 

其中位于古艾可城南部海堤的一条遗迹线索尤其具有启发性:对其持续了一整个夏天的考古发掘透露出了上文提到的探寻目标与一个新近发现的船台及船棚建筑的关系,后者的区域一直延伸到距奥斯曼时期的城墙外25米处的海底,其特征很像在其他地区如希腊发现的海军船棚,在这些地区它们被用来托举古代战舰。

该发掘项目最开始的目的是为了加固正在被腐蚀的防波堤,然而发掘期间还发现了希腊风格的石工工程、陶器、一块古代系泊石,以及一个埋藏在现代海底1.3米深的石质码头。希腊风格港口的更多部分在海底保存完好的可能性鼓舞了考古学家们,因为这意味着,很明显年代更早些的海难船只遗迹会埋藏在更深的沉积层中。

One line of buried targets detected off the southern seawall of old Akko is particularly suggestive. Continuing excavations in this area over the summer revealed an alignment between these targets and a newly-discovered slipway and ship shed structure, which continued out under the sea floor 25 meters from the Ottoman city wall. The feature resembles other naval shipsheds found in places such as Athens where they were used to haul up ancient warships. The excavation project was initially undertaken to strengthen the eroding sea wall, but it also revealed Hellenistic masonry, pottery vessels, an ancient mooring stone, and a stone quay 1.3 meters below the modern sea level.  The possibility that much more of the Hellenistic port lies well-preserved under the sea floor is exciting for the archaeologists, because it means that shipwrecks from earlier centuries that have so far not been found at Akko may simply be buried deeper down in the sediment.

 

 “我们已经有了希腊化时期这个地区的历史记录片断,而现在我们在古海港找到了这个时期非常重要的特征。古代海难船只的遗迹作为拼图的另一块,将会帮助我们重写这个地区处在地中海历史重要时期时的记述。”她说。

"We've got fragmentary historic records for this area in the Hellenistic period, and now we've found a very important feature from the ancient harbor. Ancient shipwrecks are another piece of the puzzle that will help us to rewrite the story of this region at a critical time in Mediterranean history," she said.

 

坐落于以色列北部海岸,身为联合国教科文组织遗产地,艾可城是地中海为数不多的拥有五千年航海历史的城市,又被称作阿克(Acre, Ake) 和托勒密(Ptolemais)。它的海港是历史上腓尼基人、古罗马人、十字军、奥斯曼人以及其他海上帝国的交通要道,也曾是埃及和叙利亚帝国激烈争夺的对象。

Located on the northern coast of Israel, the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Akko is one of the few cities in the Mediterranean with more than 5,000 years of maritime history. Also known as Acre, Ake and Ptolemais, its port was an important waypoint for the Phoenicians, Romans, Crusaders, Ottomans and other ancient maritime empires. In the Hellenistic period, it was bitterly fought over by the rival empires of Egypt and Syria.

 

“了解艾可城港口的历史和考古价值对于了解更广泛的海上交通问题与形成希腊化时期的地中海东部历史的强大力量极其重要。”Buxton说。

"Understanding the history and archaeology of Akko's port is crucial to understanding the broader issues of maritime connectivity and the great power struggles that defined the history of the Eastern Mediterranean during the Hellenistic Age," Buxton said.

 

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考古资讯

【快讯】苏格兰的古代树种;驯养火鸡来自墨西哥;欧洲人在墨西哥、玻利维亚开采的银矿古;古挪威人的消失;丹麦天文学家之死的诙谐新解

来源:Archaeological news from Archaeology Magazine 作者:Jessica E. Saraceni 日期:2012年11月20日、21日 翻译:晔 校译:囧母 链接:http://www.archaeology.org/news/ Scientists analyzed... 阅读全文

来源:Archaeological news from Archaeology Magazine

作者:Jessica E. Saraceni

日期:20121120日、21

翻译:晔

校译:囧母

链接:http://www.archaeology.org/news/

 

Scientists analyzed the charcoal found in a burnt mound in Scotland and indentified wood from birch, alder, hazel, and possibly hawthorn or apple trees, indicating that there were more species of trees in the area during the Bronze Age than there are today. The burnt mound contained a deep pit linked to a nearby stream with a channel. The pit may have been used for bathing or as a sauna.

从苏格兰的一处被焚烧过的的土丘遗迹[1]中,科学家分析了其中的木炭,并从中辨认出了桦树、桤木、榛树,以及可能的山楂树或苹果树。这些分析表明在铜器时代有比今天更多的树种。土丘遗迹包含着一个深坑,由一条沟渠联通附近的小溪。这个深坑可能曾经用来作为洗澡处或桑拿处。


[1]网上有辞典译为“坟墩”且在前面冠以【考古学】的标签。然而,mound这种遗迹一般泛指各种人工堆积形成的、一般呈圆锥形的丘状遗迹。在北美这种遗迹常常与当地的墓葬有关,然而本则新闻所谈到的发现在苏格兰,并不相及。不过“坟”字在古汉语中曾指高起之地而并不特指墓葬,从这个意义上说译为“坟”又可以了。——校译


Turkeys were first domesticated in 800 B.C. from ancestral wild turkeys in South Mexico. Rob Fleischer of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute compared the DNA of the modern turkey with samples taken from specimens of nineteenth-century birds at the museum. He found that today’s turkeys have less genetic variation than their ancestors, which was expected, but they are also less genetically diverse than other modern livestock breeds such as pigs and chickens. “Few people know that the commercial turkeys served at Thanksgiving descended from Mexico, where they were discovered during the Spanish Conquest and transported to Europe. During the next 100 years, Europeans created many different varieties of the domesticated turkey,” said Julie Long of the USDA.

火鸡最早在公元前800年从南墨西哥来的古代野火鸡驯化而来。史密森生物保护学院的Rob Fleischer用今日火鸡的DNA与博物馆中19世纪的鸟类DNA样本做了对比。他发现今日的火鸡相比其祖先来说有更少的基因变化。这并不奇怪,但他们的基因变化比今日的鸡、猪等禽畜还少。USDAJulie Long说:“很少人知道在感恩节吃的火鸡是起源于墨西哥的,他们在西班牙征服时期被发现并送往欧洲。在后来的100年中,欧洲人发明了许多种类的驯养火鸡。”


Silver excavated from Mexican mines by the Spanish has been detected in English coins dating to the 1550s. Silver from Bolivia was also being mined by Europeans at this time, but it didn’t show up in their coins until later. Geologists Anne-Marie Desaulty and Francis Albarède of the Ecole Normale Supérieure speculate that Mexican silver was easier to ship east to Europe. Bolivian silver would have had to travel across Brazil before traveling to Europe, so it was probably sent west, to China.

1550年的英国硬币上检测出了由西班牙人开采的墨西哥矿里的银。玻利维亚的银也是这期间被欧洲人开采的,但之后才用于硬币。地理学家Anne-Marie Desaulty Francis Albarède推测墨西哥的银更容易用船运到欧洲东部。玻利维亚的银在到欧洲前需要穿过巴西,所以更有可能往西运送到中国。


[2]即使海上线路更适合往西运送到包括中国在内的地方,对于提出运到中国的可能性还缺少很多证据。当然这则简讯不交代那么多实属正常,留心的童鞋可以寻找更多资料。——校译。


An analysis of bones from a collection of Norse skeletons at the University of Copenhagen shows that the Viking settlers in Greenland ate plenty of sea food, and gradually came to rely upon seals as a major source of nutrition. It had been thought that the Norse attempted to farm in Greenland for 500 years until the cold climate made it impossible and the colony failed. “Nothing suggests that the Norse disappeared as a result of a natural disaster. If anything they might have become bored with eating seals out on the edge of the world. The skeletal evidence shows signs that they slowly left Greenland,” said Niels Lynnerup, a member of the university’s department of forensic medicine.

一份在哥本哈根大学的古挪威人骨骼的的骨头分析显示,了在格陵兰的维京殖民者吃许多海洋食物,并逐渐的依赖于海豹当作主要营养来源。人们曾经认为古挪威人试图在格陵兰耕种了500年直到严寒天气使种植业不可能,殖民地因此败落。大学法医学部门的成员Niels Lynnerup说:“没有证据显示古挪威人是因为自然灾难消失的。如果是这样的话,那也是因为他们厌倦了在世界边缘吃海豹。而骨骼证据显示他们是逐渐离开格陵兰的。”


A new analysis of the remains of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe shows that his famous silver nose prosthesis was actually made of brass. Archaeologist Jens Vellev of Aarhus University found traces of copper and zinc in a bone sample taken from the astronomer’s nose. The investigative team has also ruled out mercury poisoning as the cause of Brahe’s death. Scientists who examined his bones in 1901 claimed to have found mercury in his remains, suggesting that he’d been murdered. The mercury levels are low, however. That brings researchers back to the traditional story surrounding Brahe’s death in 1601: that he died from a ruptured bladder after failing to excuse himself during a royal banquet.

一项对丹麦天文学家Tycho Brahe遗体的新分析显示,他著名的银鼻子假体其实是用黄铜做成的。考古学家Jens Vellev从一份鼻子骨骼样本发现铜和锌的痕迹。调查小组也排除了Brahe死于水银中毒的可能性。在1901科学家们声称在他的残骸中发现水银,推测他有可能被谋杀。但是水银值非常低。这使研究人员重新检测1601Brahe的死因。他们认为他是死于膀胱破裂,因为他在一个皇家宴会上未能借机尿遁。

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