拥有1个小站,订阅0个话题,关注11个小站

考古资讯

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨 In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots

作者:Jeanna Bryner 来源:LiveScience 时间: September 15, 2015 09:16am ET 译者:霁蓝 校对:Leek 原文链接:http://www.livescience.com/52173-photos-medieval-skeleton-in-tree-roots.html ... 阅读全文

作者:Jeanna Bryner

来源:LiveScience

时间: September 15, 2015 09:16am ET

译者:霁蓝

校对:Leek

原文链接:http://www.livescience.com/52173-photos-medieval-skeleton-in-tree-roots.html 

 

Like an episode of "Bones," the mangled skeleton of a medieval teenager was found when a 215-year-old beech tree uprooted during a storm in Ireland. The upper body of the remains, entangled in the tree's roots, were ripped from the ground, while the guy's lower legs remained intact in its organic tomb. Here's a look at what archaeologists found at the made-for-TV site. 

如美剧《识骨寻踪》中某集一般,在爱尔兰的一场风暴中,一棵215岁的老山毛榉树被连根拔起,树根中露出了一名中世纪少年面目全非的骨殖。他被树根缠绕的上半身遗骨在风暴中被拔地而起,而下半身则仍完好地躺在这个天然墓穴之中。接下来就让我们了解一下考古学家们在这片极富戏剧性的遗址中的发现吧。


Tree tomb

树墓


图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots

Marion Dowd, an archaeologist and director of Sligo-Leitrim Archaeological Services (SLAS), a private consultancy in Dromahair in Ireland excavates the medieval remains from tree roots. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


Marion Dowd是一名考古学家,同时也是斯莱戈-利特林郡考古部门(SLAS)的负责人。SLAS是位于爱尔兰Dromahair的一家私人咨询机构,他们对此次树根中的中世纪遗存进行了发掘。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)

 

Tangled discovery

被缠住的发现

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


The full skeleton had been present beneath the 215-year-old beech tree. But when it was uprooted during storms in May, the upper part got ripped from the ground, while the lower legs remained intact. Here, the skeletal remains are excavated from the tree. (Photo Credit: Marion Dowd)


这副遗骨被埋藏在上图这棵215岁的山毛榉树下。然而,在五月的风暴中这棵老树被连根拔起时,遗骨的上半身被一同扯出了地表,而下半身则完好地留存于原地。上图中显示了从树根中清理骨骸的画面。(摄影人:Marion Dowd)


Toppled tree

倒下的大树

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots

The tree that toppled during the May storms in Sligo in Ireland. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


上图是五月份的风暴中,爱尔兰斯莱戈郡倒下的那棵大树。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)


Larger than life

比生命更加宏大

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


Archaeologists on the scene at the site where the beech tree uprooted to reveal a medieval skeleton. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


图中场景是考古学家们在发现中世纪骨殖的树边。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)


The feet

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


The foot bones of the medieval boy, who likely died when he was between 17 and 20 years old, are still in the grave beneath the old beech tree. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


图中是这名中世纪少年的脚骨。这名少年死于约17岁至20岁间。他的脚骨仍埋在古树下的墓葬中。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)


Dating bones

骨骼断代

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


The leg bones of the medieval teenager also remained in the muddy grave. The researchers used radiocarbon dating to put an age on the bones, finding the boy likely lived between A.D. 1030 and 1200. Radiocarbon, or carbon-14, is a naturally occurring isotope of carbon that decays at a known rate and is often used for archaeological dating. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


这名中世纪少年的腿骨也仍在树下的墓穴中。研究者们运用放射性碳素断代法的测年结果显示,这名少年大约生活在公元1030至1200年间。放射性碳素,或称碳14, 是一种自然界中的同位素,其半衰期已知,因而在考古学中常被用于断代。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)


Medieval spine

中世纪的脊椎

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


Though the leg bones remained in the ground, when the tree uprooted during the storms, the upper part of the body, including the spine (shown here), was torn out of the ground. The leg bones are also visible in the ground in this image. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


虽然这具遗骨的下半身仍在墓穴中,但当古树在风暴中被连根拔起时,其上半身(脊椎如图所示)被一齐带离了地面。这张照片里同时也可以看到地上的腿骨。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)


Measuring bones

人骨测量


图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots


An archaeologist examines the medieval skeleton (including the spine, shown here) at the site in Ireland. Once the investigation is complete, the remains will be sent to the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, according to Dowd. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


图中,一名考古学家正在该爱尔兰遗址上测量这具中世纪遗骨(包括图示的脊椎)。Dowd称,一旦研究完成,这些遗存便会被送至位于都柏林的爱尔兰国家博物馆。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)

 

图说:树根中缠绕的中世纪人骨
In Photos: Medieval Skeleton Entangled in Tree Roots

 

Christian burial

基督教墓葬

 

Here, the lower leg bones within the grave; the researchers noted the teenager was given a formal Christian burial. Though the archaeologists have yet to find other burials there, Dowd said 19th-century records suggest a graveyard and church may be hiding in the area. (Photo Credit: Thorsten Kahlert)


图中可见墓穴中的下肢骨架。研究者们注意到,这名少年是按照正规的基督教葬俗下葬的。虽然考古学家们仍未发现其它墓葬,但Dowd表示,根据19世纪的记录,这片地区可能藏有一片墓地和一座教堂。(摄影人:Thorsten Kahlert)

收起全文

考古资讯

游览波兰废弃的城堡 Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

来源:Smithsonian. com 链接:http://www.smithsonianmag.com/ist/?next=/travel/visit-ruined-castles-poland-180956290/ 作者:Michele Lent Hirsch 翻译:Sai 校对:LKN 编辑:Leek 数百年... 阅读全文

来源:Smithsonian. com

链接:http://www.smithsonianmag.com/ist/?next=/travel/visit-ruined-castles-poland-180956290/

作者:Michele Lent Hirsch

翻译:Sai

校对:LKN

编辑:Leek

 

 

百年前壮丽的遗构装点了这个国家的风景线

Grand but dilapidated structures from many centuries ago dot the country’s landscape

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

Krzy?topór Castle in Ujazd, Poland, once the largest castle in all of Europe, now in a state of ruin.?(Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland)

波兰乌亚兹德(Ujazd)的克汝茨塔波尔(Krzy?topór)城堡曾经是全欧洲最大的城堡,现在已是一片废墟。(供图:波兰共和国外交部)

 

宫殿和城堡通常都是存在于童话中的事物,但是在波兰却有着大量姿态万千的废弃城堡。一度是东欧霸主的波兰,在17世纪受到瑞典的侵略,在第二次世界大战中又被纳粹德国和苏联蹂躏,其后又度过了荒废的华约时代。在历史的潮流中,波兰境内留下了大量废弃的城堡。

 

出于某些考虑,有开发商现在试图复兴这些伟大的遗产,把它们建成可以供来访者凝望和学习的波兰历史与艺术的博物馆。其中有一些城堡现在成为了旅馆。但是其余的大多数仍只是一个空壳,仅仅为几百年的历史做了沉默的注脚。尽管废墟爱好者们或许会很喜欢这些,但是波兰的开发商们却在试图扭转这种情况,其背后并不单单只有利益的驱动,民族自豪感也是重要的因素。“德国人在莱茵河畔有他们的城堡,法国在卢瓦尔河岸也有他们的城堡,捷克每年有如此多的城堡对来访者开放,为什么波兰只有废墟?”——一位在当地从事一座中世纪城堡重建的开发商2011年如是对美联社说道。另一位开发商提到,多数城堡建于中世纪和文艺复兴时代,而这两个时代正是这个国家最辉煌的时代——“那是波兰在欧洲赫赫有名的时代,它举足轻重。”

 

今天,波兰的每个城堡都承载着许多有关其主人和寓客们的故事。毕竟一个连续服务了五六个,甚至七个世纪的建筑迎送了无数人的生与死。以下,敬请阅读波兰最有趣的七个城堡遗址废弃和修复的故事:

 

乌亚兹德的克汝茨塔波尔城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

克汝茨塔波尔(Krzy?topór)曾是欧洲最大的城堡,建于1631到1644年间。城堡的设计据说是都与历法中的数字有关。波兰官方旅游网站解释道:“一年有多少天城堡里就有多少窗,一年有几个星期城堡里就有几个厅堂,一年有多少月城堡里就有多少房间,一年有几个季节城堡里就有几个塔楼。”

 

在克汝茨塔波尔的兴盛时期,城堡里的马儿甚至使用大理石的马槽和水晶装饰的马厩,时尚而又奢华。这个城堡里还曾有一个房间的屋顶建造地就像水族馆的观赏鱼缸,满是稀有的外来鱼种游来游去。现在这个巨大的城堡已经成为了可供游客探险的遗址。想体验中世纪风情的游客可以来参加城堡的定期活动——今年夏天有复古枪炮表演(包括加农炮、滑膛抢和火绳枪),舞蹈表演和骑枪对冲比赛。

 

瓦乌布日赫的克希昂日城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

尽管克希昂日(Ksi??)城堡自从13世纪建立至今已经几易其手,但是它大部分时间(从1509到1941年)都为霍赫培尔格家族(House of Hochbergs)?所有。1941年,纳粹闯进了城堡,毁坏了许多建筑。他们还在城堡下面挖掘了地道,直至今日历史学家还不能全面地解释其原因。在希特勒的军队和之后的苏联军队的破坏下,克希昂日城堡日渐荒圮,直到1974年,一位保护者才开始修复它。如今拥有三个旅馆、两个餐馆和一个美术馆的克希昂日又风光了起来。城堡也仍保留着一些战争中留下的废墟,游客甚至可以参观当时纳粹挖掘的地道。这些区域显示着从二战的破坏到如今复苏克希昂日所发生的巨大变化。

 

魏内且雅的魏内且雅城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

从前的要塞现在变为废墟。魏内且雅(Wenecja)城堡建于14世纪,位于Weneckie、Biskupińskie和Skrzynka三个湖泊间的地峡区域。当地的文化网站上写道,当时城堡的建造者Miko?aj Na??cz模仿了意大利著名水城威尼斯的结构,因此将其命名为“Wenecja”,即波兰语中的“威尼斯”。(Na??cz也是一个臭名昭著的法官,由于其极端残酷的判决得到了“Wenecja幽灵”的称号。)波兰的其他城堡可能保存地更为完好,但是对于那些想体验14世纪究竟离我们有多遥远的人来说,魏内且雅城堡的废墟向我们展示了时间那无情的破坏力。

 

克鲁什维察的“老鼠塔”

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

 

在波兰中部的克鲁什维察(Kruszwica)小镇耸立着一个名为“老鼠塔”的著名建筑。它曾属于一座14世纪的城堡,它的经历十分坎坷。1656年,瑞典军队占领并焚烧了城堡。18世纪的晚期,“城堡的残骸一点点地开始剥落,城砖顺着诺泰奇河(the Note? river)流到伊诺弗洛科沃夫(Inowroc?aw),”当地的官方网站这样写道。然而这座塔楼及其两边的城墙依然挺立着,20世纪开始在这里进行了发掘,发现了一些木屋的碎片、玻璃碎片和中世纪时的街道遗迹。

 

然而为什么叫做“老鼠塔”呢?据《波兰旅游指南》(The Rough Guide to Poland)中的描述,当时的居民起来反抗他们的“恶魔领主”,领主随后逃进了这座塔楼中,“最后在塔楼中被老鼠所吞噬”。今天,游客可以爬到塔楼的最上层,约105英尺高的地方(希望已经没有老鼠了)观赏景色。

 

亨齐内的亨齐内城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

亨齐内(Ch?ciny)城堡建造于700年前,据说一匹马的幽灵时常出没于此地。1465年这里发生了一场大火,而在接下来的好几个世纪里,城堡又遭受了几次大火和数次军事打击。城堡的居住者们一直试图修复城堡,但是后来发现修复的速度实在难以赶上破坏的速度,最终在1707年放弃了该城堡。二战之后人们进行了一些修复工作,但是直到今年才开始了为期两年的进一步的大型修复计划,游客可以在那里看到更多前所未见的风景。在此之前仅仅东边的高塔可以攀登,而现在西边的高塔也可以访问了,这为游客提供了新的高处观景点。

 

专家们还发现了另一座已消失了的塔的遗迹,专家们用两圈彩色石头将它们从前的形状和位置标记了出来,以帮助我们在心中重现它。复原工作还包括了复原通往亨齐内道路两旁的木质雕像,这些雕像表现的是城堡历史上重要的宗室成员和骑士。

 

奥德齐孔的卡明涅兹城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

卡明涅兹(Kamieniec)城堡位于Czarnorzecko-Strzy?owskiego国家公园的边缘,自14世纪以来就是一个防守要塞,而15世纪中期则是它的鼎盛时期。就像波兰的其他城堡那样,其拥有者不断地对城堡进行扩建和修复。17世纪瑞典人的入侵对城堡造成了严重的破坏,尽管此后的拥有者尝试修复过,但城堡还是自此逐渐衰落了,到了1786年,它成为了一座废墟。今天,卡明涅兹城堡向包括学校里的孩子们在内的游客开放,以丰富的活动内容闻名。城堡的广场上有陶器工坊,游客们还可以参观刑讯室。

 

马尔堡的特多尼克奥尔多城堡

 

游览波兰废弃的城堡
Visit the Ruined Castles of Poland

 

这座典型的哥特红砖城堡修建于13世纪,现在是世界文化遗产之一。它曾是条顿骑士团修建的武装修道院。这座城堡几经毁坏和修复。联合国教科文组织认为,它的建筑风格影响了整个欧洲东北部的建筑。它的重建也影响巨大,在19世纪和20世纪早期用于修复城堡的方法都成为现在的标准做法。今天,参观博物馆的游客可以看到中世纪的火炉,老式的面粉机,花园,还有童话城堡中最为经典的特色——一条护城河。

 

 

原文:

 

Palaces and castles are the stuff of fairy tales, usually, but?Poland has a host of them in varying degrees of decay. Once a powerful corner of Eastern Europe, the country suffered a Swedish invasion in the 17th century, devastation?by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II and?neglect during the Communist era. Over time, that’s led to a lot of ruined castles in the country.

 

In some cases, developers?are now?trying to reinvigorate?these grand properties, turning them into museums where visitors can gaze at the ornate details and learn more about Polish history. Some?are now?hotels. But others are simply a shell, a ruin, merely hinting at what was there hundreds of years before. And while fans of decay may enjoy these the most, Polish developers are looking to turn things around, motivated by a sense of national pride in addition to profit. “Why should the Germans have their castles on the Rhine, the French their castles on the Loire, why should the Czechs have so many castles open to the visitors and why should the Poles have only ruins?” one of the rebuilders of a medieval castle?told the Associated Press?in 2011. Another developer noted that?the medieval and Renaissance periods, from which many of the castles date, were a?golden age for the country—“a time?when Poland was known in Europe,?when Poland mattered.”

 

Today, each of Poland’s castles bears the stories of a slew of owners and inhabitants. After all, a structure that’s lasted five, six, or even seven centuries has seen hundreds of people live and die there.?Read on for seven of Poland’s most interesting sites of ruin and repair:

 

Krzy?topór Castle in Ujazd

 

 

Once the largest castle in all of Europe, Krzy?topór was built between 1631 and 1644. The design is?said to be based on numbers found in the?calendar.?As Poland’s official travel site explains, “The castle had as many windows as there are days in a year, as many chambers as there are weeks, as many rooms as there are months and as many towers as there are seasons of the year.”

 

During Krzy?topór’s heyday, even the horses were living in style,?with troughs made out of marble and crystal mirrors in the stables. Other decadent features included a room with an aquarium for a ceiling,?filled with exotic fish. Now?the massive castle is in a state of ruin, which?visitors?can explore.?Folks who want to relive the Middle Ages can also attend periodic events at the site—this summer’s have included a show of artillery (including cannons, muskets and?harquebuses), dancing and?jousting tournaments.

 

Ksi?? Castle in Wa?brzych

 

 

Although it has changed hands several times since its construction in the 13th century, the castle of Ksi?? was owned by the?House of Hochbergs?for much of its history—between 1509 and 1941. Then, in 1941, the?Nazis invaded it?and destroyed a number of chambers. They also dug tunnels under the castle, which?historians still haven’t been able to entirely explain. Between Hitler’s troops and the Red Army after them, Ksi?? began to fall into ruin, until?a conservator stepped in and began restoring it in 1974. Now the place is?mostly swank again, with?three hotels, two restaurants and an art gallery on its grounds—but tourgoers can still tour sections of the castle that were ruined during the war?and can even?go into one of the Nazi-dug tunnels. The areas that are restored?throw the World War II damage into sharp relief.

 

Wenecja Castle in Wenecja

 

 

A former stronghold that's now fallen into ruins,?the Wenecja Castle was built in the 14th century?on the isthmus between three lakes: Weneckie, Biskupińskie and Skrzynka.?According to a cultural website for the local?region, the man in charge of the castle's construction, Miko?aj Na??cz, compared his structure to the Italian city famous for buildings on water, and so named the site “Wenecja”—Polish for “Venice.” (Na??cz was also a judge?infamous for the “extremely cruel” verdicts he gave, which some say led to his nickname, “the Wenecja Devil.”) Other castles may offer more complete features, but for those who want to ponder just how long ago and far away the?14th century?is,?Weneckja provides a great visual reminder of the ravages of time.

 

The Mouse Tower in Kruszwica

 

 

In the town of Kruszwica in central Poland stands a structure known as the “Mouse Tower,” which was originally part of a 14th?century castle. It’s been through quite a bit: In 1656, the Swedish army seized the castle and burned it down. In the latter part of the 18th century,?as the?region’s official website explains,?“the castle ruins were gradually dismantled and its bricks floated up the Note? river to Inowroc?aw.” Yet the tower still stands, along with some wall fragments, and an excavation in the 20th century uncovered other fragments of the castle as well as pieces of wooden huts,?glass beads and the remains of streets?from a city in the area’s medieval days.?

 

So why is it called the “Mouse Tower”??According to?The Rough Guide to Poland, legend has it that residents rose up against an “evil leader” who took refuge in his tower,?“where he was eventually devoured by rats.” Today, tourists can climb to the top of the tower, about 105 feet high, and take in the (hopefully rodent-free) views.

 

Ch?ciny Castle in Ch?ciny

 

 

The ghost of a horse is said to?haunt Ch?ciny, whose construction began?more than 700 years ago. A?fire broke out in 1465, and?over the course of the next few centuries, the castle endured several more conflagrations as well as a number of military attacks. Various inhabitants sought to repair the structure?but seemed unable to keep up with repeated destruction, and?the castle was abandoned in 1707. Some restoration efforts followed?World War II, but a?giant, two-year undertaking to further reinvigorate the castle just concluded this year, and there are a number of new things for visitors to see. Previously, one could climb?only the eastern?tower, but?the western tower is now also accessible, giving?visitors an additional?high-up vantage point.

 

Experts have also uncovered evidence of yet another tower, now gone—and to help us picture it, they’ve placed?two giant concentric circles?made of colored stones, mapping its erstwhile?shape and location. The revitalization also added?a number of wooden statues?along the path to?Ch?cin, featuring?royalty and knights who played a role in its history.

 

Kamieniec Castle in Odrzykon

 

 

Located on?the edge of the Czarnorzecko-Strzy?owskiego National Park,?Kamieniec is a defensive fortress from the 14th century, although?the mid-15th century is considered its?era of peak splendor.?As with other castles in Poland, owners over the years expanded the site with new construction and repaired it after attacks. The Swedish invasion of the country in the 17th century?severely damaged?the building, and?although later owners tried to fix it up, the castle still fell into decline. It was considered?a ruin by 1786. Today, it’s?open to visitors, including school children—and boasts quite an eclectic mix of activities. There are ceramic workshops on the castle grounds, as well as?a tour of the?torture chamber.?

 

Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork

 

 

Built during the 13th century, this?Gothic brick castle complex and?Unesco World Heritage?site was once a fortified monastery for the Teutonic Order. During?its many years of existence, the castle has fallen into several periods of decay, followed by periods of restoration.?Acccording to Unesco,?its architectural features were influential across?northeastern Europe.?Its reconstructions were influential, too: Many of the methods?used by conservators to restore the castle in the 19th and early 20th centuries?went on to become standard practice. Visitors to the museum in place today can explore, among other things,?a medieval heating furnace, an old-school flour?mill, a garden and that most classic feature of childhood castle dreams:?a moat.

 

收起全文

考古资讯

联合国教科文组织谴责ISIS炸毁帕尔米拉古神庙(UNESCO condemns destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple)

联合国教科文组织谴责ISIS炸毁帕尔米拉古神庙(UNESCO condemns destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple)

来源:Archaeology News Network 作者:TANN 日期:2015年8月24日 翻译:铃铛 校对:曲清 链接:http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/unesco-condemns-destruction-of-palmyras.html ... 阅读全文

来源:Archaeology News Network

作者:TANN

日期:2015824

翻译:铃铛

校对:曲清

链接:http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2015/08/unesco-condemns-destruction-of-palmyras.html


极端主义者“不可能令历史沉默”,联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜·博科娃(Irina Bokova)今日(824日)严厉谴责对位于叙利亚帕尔米拉古城的世界文化遗产巴尔夏明神庙(temple of Baalshamin)的破坏行径。

 

联合国教科文组织谴责ISIS炸毁帕尔米拉古神庙(UNESCO condemns destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple)

ISIS叙利亚霍姆斯(Homs)分部上传的一张照片显示,位于帕尔米拉遗址的巴尔夏明神庙被炸毁。[图片来源: CBS]


“针对显示叙利亚文化多样性的文化地标进行系统性毁灭的行径揭示了其真正意图,即剥夺属于叙利亚人民的知识、身份和历史。”博科娃在新闻稿上表示。 

“在杀害研究帕尔米拉遗址四十载的考古学家Khaled al-Assaad教授一周后发生的毁灭行动是ISIS犯下的新一桩战争罪行,对叙利亚人民乃至全人类都是巨大损失。”

联合国教科文组织的数据显示,巴尔夏明神庙建于近两千年前,见证着叙利亚在伊斯兰教扎根之前的悠久历史。据报道,神庙于23日(星期日)遭炸毁。其内部结构损毁严重,周围的圆柱也已倒塌。

 

联合国教科文组织谴责ISIS炸毁帕尔米拉古神庙(UNESCO condemns destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple)

巴尔夏明神庙化为一堆瓦砾。[图片来源: AFP]


巴尔夏明神庙建筑可追溯到罗马时代。神庙建于公元一世纪,后由古罗马皇帝哈德良(Hadrian)扩建。该神庙是帕尔米拉古城内最重要、保存最完好的建筑之一,而后者是古代最重要的文化中心之一,以其希腊-罗马风格的雄伟遗迹著称。自20155月以来,帕尔米拉古城多次成为极端组织“伊斯兰国”(即ISIS,也称伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国,Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant,简称 ISIL)的袭击目标。

博科娃指出,帕尔米拉的艺术和建筑风格由数个文明交汇而成,是叙利亚富裕繁盛的文明和历史的标志。

“极端主义者妄图毁灭这种多样性和丰富性,而我在此呼吁国际组织联合起来抵抗这持续的文化清洗。ISIS屠杀人民、毁坏遗迹,但并不能令历史沉默,他们试图从世界的记忆里抹杀伟大文明的企图终将失败。尽管前方面对重重障碍和宗教狂热的阻拦,人类的创造力终将获胜,建筑和遗址终会复原和重建。”博科娃表示,ISIS此类行径实属战争罪行,犯罪者必须为此承担责任。

 

相关阅读:

1.  《伊斯兰国毁坏摩苏尔博物馆,联合国教科文组织敲响警钟》(链接:http://weibo.com/p/1001603822668251014160

2.  《损毁摩苏尔市文物一周后,“伊斯兰国”又毁该市古城尼姆罗德》(链接:http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603822670645960763

3.  《继尼姆罗德之后,“伊斯兰国”再毁哈特拉古城》(链接:http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603823365113680737?sudaref=passport.weibo.com

4.  《战火中处境危殆的叙利亚古迹》(链接:http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603824116183523081?sudaref=passport.weibo.com

5.  《“伊斯兰国”成立“文物局”走私文物并为其恐怖主义活动提供资金》(链接:http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603854037941366631?sudaref=passport.weibo.com

6.  《拒透漏帕尔米拉文物下落 叙利亚学者遭ISIS斩首》(链接:http://www.weibo.com/p/1001603879685728911248

 

 

原文:

Extremists "cannot silence history," the Director-General of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Irina Bokova, declared today, firmly condemning the destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple of Baalshamin, in Syria, a World Heritage site.


"The systematic destruction of cultural symbols embodying Syrian cultural diversity reveals the true intent of such attacks, which is to deprive the Syrian people of its knowledge, its identity and history," Ms. Bokova declared in a press release.

 

"One week after the killing of Professor Khaled al-Assaad, the archaeologist who had looked after Palmyra's ruins for four decades, this destruction is a new war crime and an immense loss for the Syrian people and for humanity," she added.

 

According to UNESCO, Baalshamin temple was built nearly 2,000 years ago, and bears witness to the depth of the pre-Islamic history of the country. According to several reports, the building was blown up on Sunday 23 August. Its cella, or inner area, was severely damaged, and followed by the collapse of the surrounding columns.

 

The structure of the Baalshamin temple dates to the Roman era. It was erected in the first century AD and further enlarged by Roman emperor Hadrian. The temple is one of the most important and best preserved buildings in Palmyra. It is part of the larger site of Palmyra, one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world, famed for its Greco-Roman monumental ruins, repeatedly targeted by Da'esh [also referred to as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL] since May 2015.

 

The art and architecture of Palmyra, standing at the crossroads of several civilizations, is a symbol of the complexity and wealth of the Syrian identity and history, Mrs. Bokova continued.

 

"Extremists seek to destroy this diversity and richness, and I call on the international community to stand united against this persistent cultural cleansing. Da'esh is killing people and destroying sites, but cannot silence history and will ultimately fail to erase this great culture from the memory of the world. Despite the obstacles and fanaticism, human creativity will prevail, buildings and sites will be rehabilitated, and some will be rebuilt." Such acts are war crimes and their perpetrators must be accountable for their actions, the Director-General added.

 

Photo 1: An image posted online by ISIS' branch in the Syrian province of Homs appears to show the destruction by explosives of the ancient temple of Baalshamin, in the ruins at Palmyra [Credit: CBS]

 

Photo 2: The ancient temple of Baalshamin reduced to a pile of rubble [Credit: AFP]

收起全文
  来自  曲清   的投稿 

考古资讯

失落的沉船宝藏——皇室三百周年纪念币的故事 Million-Dollar Find: Shipwreck's Golden Treasure Includes Very Rare Coin

失落的沉船宝藏——皇室三百周年纪念币的故事
Million-Dollar Find: Shipwreck's Golden Treasure Includes Very Rare Coin

来源:Live Science 作者:Elizabeth Palermo 时间:2015年7月28日 翻译:Sai 编辑:Leek 链接: http://www.livescience.com/51679-shipwreck-treasure-hunters-gold-coins.html 图中显示的&皇室三... 阅读全文

来源:Live Science

作者:Elizabeth Palermo

时间:2015年7月28日

翻译:Sai

编辑:Leek

链接:

http://www.livescience.com/51679-shipwreck-treasure-hunters-gold-coins.html

 失落的沉船宝藏——皇室三百周年纪念币的故事
Million-Dollar Find: Shipwreck's Golden Treasure Includes Very Rare Coin

图中显示的“皇室三百周年”纪念币为压铸法制造,与大多数17世纪西班牙殖民地发行的金币都不同。

The "Tricentennial Royal" coin pictured here was die-cast, unlike most coins minted in the Spanish colonies during the 1700s.

Credit: 1715 Fleet Queens Jewels, LLC

 

最近宝藏猎人在佛罗里达海岸拖上来一份巨大的宝藏:价值近100万的金币和精致的金链子,其中还包括极为罕见的西班牙皇室三百周年纪念金币。

 

在6月17日打捞船把这些财宝拖出海面之前,它们已经在海底沉睡了300年。打捞船Aarrr Booty的船长Eric Schmitt曾经定位过宝藏的位置,据他所说,宝藏距佛罗里达Fort Pierce海岸仅1,000英尺(305米)。

 

在1715年的7月24日,满载着黄金珍宝的船队从古巴出发,当时古巴还属于西班牙的殖民地。船队的任务是把财宝运到西班牙以支援急需资金的对法战争。

 

但是船队再也没能抵达西班牙。1715年7月30日,佛罗里达海岸一场飓风湮灭了一切,12艘舰船只有1艘幸免于难。自此“1715舰队”就成了宝藏猎人中流传的传说。2010年,Brent Brisben和他的父亲William得到许可搜索沉没的宝藏。

 

Fort Pierce的幸运打捞是整个Schmitt家族的功劳,Eric、Eric的妻子、姐妹和父母都功不可没。拥有打捞许可的Brisben公司把搜寻沉船的工作转包给Schmitt家族,他们已经搜寻了12艘沉船的位置。

 

包括Aarrr Booty号最近的打捞成果共发现了51枚金币和40英尺长的金链。但是最珍贵的就是罕见的皇室三百周年纪念金币——为西班牙菲利普五世铸造发行的少量金币,Schmitt说道(寻宝远征队Aarrr Booty号的潜水领队)。

 

相比于其他金币,纪念金币非常的“圆”。Schmitt告诉Live Science这主要是由于纪念金币是使用压铸法制成的,即把融化的黄金倒入已经做好的模具中。根据钱币收藏网站Coinquest的资料,这个时代的殖民地钱币仅经过初步加工,并没有统一的形制。规整的皇室纪念币与美元银元的大小一致,大约价值50万美元,Brent Brisben说道。

 

尽管珍贵金币的发现令Brisben和Schmitt兴奋不已,但是他们仍对埋藏在佛罗里达海底的其他宝物十分期待。Brisben告诉Live Dcience,Brisben公司拥有1715年7月30日沉没的11艘舰船中5艘的打捞权。他估计还有价值4亿4千万的金币和宝物尚未从世纪沉船中发掘出来。

 

仍未被打捞的宝物中包括有“在逃”的皇后首饰,它们属于菲利普五世的第二任妻子,Elizabeth Farnese——帕尔马公爵夫人。精致的首饰是皇后嫁妆的一部分,本应该由1715舰队运送到西班牙。由于在当时的西班牙珠宝并不需要纳税,所以没有官方档案记录有珠宝的明细。但据说舰队上载有一些华美的珠宝,比如74克拉的蓝宝石戒指和14克拉的珍珠耳环,Brisben说道。

 

原文:


Treasure hunters off the Florida coast recently pulled up the haul of a lifetime: nearly $1 million worth of gold coins and elaborate gold chains, as well as an extremely rare Spanish coin known as a "Tricentennial Royal."


The treasures were hidden on the seafloor for 300 years before the crew of a salvage vessel brought them to the surface last month, on June 17. The riches were found just 1,000 feet (305 meters) offshore of Fort Pierce, Florida, according to Eric Schmitt, captain of the aptly named salvage vessel, Aarrr Booty, which was used to locate the treasure.


The ships that once carried the valuables set sail from Cuba on July 24, 1715, when the island was a Spanish colony. The ships' mission was to transport the riches below deck to Spain, which at the time was waging a war against France and was desperately in need of money to fund battles.


But the ships never made it to Spain. A hurricane off Florida sank all but one of the 12 ships on July 30, 1715. The so-called "1715 Fleet" has been a treasure-hunter's fantasy ever since. In 2010, Brent Brisben and his father, William, obtained permits to explore the wrecks in search of sunken riches.


The lucky haul off Fort Pierce was the work of the entire Schmitt family, which includes Eric and his wife, as well as Eric's sister and parents. The Schmitts were subcontracted to explore the 12 different shipwrecks for Brisben's company (1715 Fleet Queen Jewels, LLC), which owns salvage permits. 


Included in Aarrr Booty's recent haul were 51 gold coins and 40 feet of golden chain. But the real treasure salvaged from the deep was the rare Tricentennial Royal, one of very few gold coins minted for King Philip V of Spain, according Schmitt, lead diver of the Aarrr Booty vessel's treasure-hunting expeditions.


The coin is "very round" compared to most coins salvaged from the wrecks, said Schmitt, who told Live Science that the royal coin was die-cast (made by pouring molten gold into a coin mold). Most Colonial coins from this period were made using cruder methods that resulted in less uniform shapes, according to the coin-collecting website Coinquest. The round royal coin, which is about the size of a silver dollar, is worth an estimated $500,000, according to Brent Brisben.


And even though Brisben and Schmitt are excited about the discovery of this precious coin, both remain hopeful that even more treasure lies hidden off Florida. Brisben's company owns the salvage rights to five of the 11 ships that sank on July 30, 1715, he told Live Science. He estimates that $440 million worth of coins and other treasures have yet to be recovered from these centuries-old wrecks.


Among the treasures that are still at large are the elusive queens jewels, which belonged to Philip V's second wife, Elizabeth Farnese, Duchess of Parma. The elaborate jewels were to be a part of the queen's dowry and were supposed to be brought to Spain by the 1715 Fleet. Because jewelry wasn't a taxable commodity in Spain at the time, details about the jewels weren't entered on any official documents , but a few ornate items were allegedly aboard the fleet when it sank, including a 74-carat emerald ring and 14-carat pearl earrings, according to Brisben.

 

收起全文

考古资讯

揭开詹姆斯敦神秘居民的面纱(Identities of Mysterious Jamestown Settlers Revealed)

揭开詹姆斯敦神秘居民的面纱(Identities of Mysterious Jamestown Settlers Revealed)

来源:Live Science 作者:Tia Ghose 日期:2015年7月28日 翻译:铃铛 校对:曲清 链接:http://www.livescience.com/51673-four-jamestown-settlers-identified.html 一项新研究揭秘了17世纪早期埋葬于詹姆斯敦一座教堂的四... 阅读全文

来源:Live Science

作者:Tia Ghose

日期:2015年7月28日

翻译:铃铛

校对:曲清

链接:http://www.livescience.com/51673-four-jamestown-settlers-identified.html 

 揭开詹姆斯敦神秘居民的面纱(Identities of Mysterious Jamestown Settlers Revealed)

一项新研究揭秘了17世纪早期埋葬于詹姆斯敦一座教堂的四人身份。詹姆斯敦是英国在美洲建立的第一个永久居住地,这四个人是殖民地的领袖。

 

 揭开詹姆斯敦神秘居民的面纱(Identities of Mysterious Jamestown Settlers Revealed)

研究小组使用宗谱数据、陪葬品、化学分析来鉴定遗骸身份,还制作了一个墓地的3D复原图作教学之用。(图片来源:3d.si.edu)

 

 揭开詹姆斯敦神秘居民的面纱(Identities of Mysterious Jamestown Settlers Revealed)

图为墓地的3D复原图。该墓地于2013年首次发掘。(图片来源:3d.si.edu/DonaldHurlbert)

 

在化学分析和历史资料的帮助下,研究员确认了美洲第一个英国永久居住地的四位领袖的身份。

 

这几名殖民地领袖大多地位较高,于1608年在弗吉尼亚州詹姆斯敦的教堂下葬。四人都在早期的殖民历史中扮演着关键的角色。

 

“他们是建立了现代美洲的核心人物。”协助研究遗体身份的华盛顿史密森尼学会(the Smithsonian Institution)法医人类学家Douglas Owsley表示。

 

通过分析遗骨,研究者得以一瞥美洲早期殖民者的生活。

 

“我们通过这种研究方法得到了非常详实的信息,这是光读史书无法获取的。” Owsley对Live Science网站说。

 

第一批殖民地

尽管英国人之前也派遣过殖民者(如失败的罗诺克殖民地),但英国真正意义上的美洲殖民是从弗吉尼亚的詹姆斯敦起步的。

 

1607年,英国殖民者在詹姆士河(James River)的内陆地带登陆,并圈下了一大块土地作为主要的设防居住地。在接下来的几年时间里,几艘船陆续抵达此地,带来了数百名殖民者,詹姆斯敦就此形成。

 

然而开拓是艰辛的。1609年发生了长达6个月的“饥荒时期”,詹姆斯敦近250人死亡。根据本次发现的研究者在2013年的研究,当时肯定有一些居民开始食人。

 

殖民地之父

2013年,Owsley和他的同事首次发掘位于詹姆斯敦教堂的坟墓。约翰•史密斯船长和宝嘉康蒂(迪士尼动画片《风中奇缘》的原型——译者注)在这座著名的教堂里结为连理。四具尸体中有两具殓在装饰华丽的人形棺中,然而尸体保存得并不好。

 

为了鉴定遗体身份,考古学家们查阅了英国和殖民地的宗谱和历史文献,并分析遗骨的化学成分。例如,这个时期的精英阶层骨骼中通常含有更多的铅,因为他们常用的餐具是锡铅合金制品和涂有含铅釉的瓷器,Owsley说。

 

“这些人生前社会地位高,特别是其中的两人。”Owsley告诉Live Science。

 

其中一具遗体属于Ferdinando Weyman,死于1610年,约34岁。他是弗吉尼亚地方长官 Thomas West 爵士的叔叔。Weyman也和另一具遗骨的主人William West船长有亲属关系,后者在1610年和波瓦坦人的冲突中战死,与遗骨同葬的一个沾满泥土的半腐朽肩带帮助确定了他的身份。肩带暂未进行清理,和附着的泥土一起被放置在CT扫描仪中,扫描结果显示一块银穗子装饰的绸布。

 

 

特殊肩带

研究小组确定其中一人的身份是Weyman,他属于上流社会,和弗吉尼亚地方官有血缘关系。一个被泥土裹住的肩带是确认他身份的证据之一。研究小组使用CT扫描发现肩带有华丽不群的装饰褶边。另一个装殓在相似的华丽棺木里的遗骨身份确定是William West船长,是John Smith的对头。(图片来源:(上图) Donald E. Hurlbert,史密森尼学会。(下图) Mark L. Riccio,康奈尔大学生物技术研究中心CT成像设备室)

 

West 和 Weyman的遗体都装殓在人形棺木内,钉子是特制的。和其他遗骨相比,Weyman的骨骼内含铅更多,说明他的地位较高。

 

另一个新鉴定出身份的遗骨是Gabriel Archer船长,他在1609年的饥荒中去世,时年34岁。 Gabriel Archer的随葬品中有一个生前使用的箭头顶手杖,研究小组因此确认了他的身份。在他的棺材上还发现了一个称作遗骨匣(reliquary)的小银盒,里面盛有骨头碎片和用来盛装圣水的铅制圣瓶碎片。这件陪葬品说明他暗地里仍维持着他的天主教信仰。

 

 

手杖

确认Archer船长身份的关键证据是他手杖的一个碎片。这是一个顶部是箭头的礼杖,他常在评判自己的船员时握着这个手杖。(图片来源:Jamestown Rediscovery/Preservation Virginia)

 

 

银盒

Gabriel Archer的墓顶有一个叫遗骨匣的银盒作为陪葬。遗骨匣里有几块骨头碎片和一个圣瓶,圣瓶过去可能用来装圣水。这说明他可能还保留天主教信仰。(图片来源:Donald E. Hurlbert,史密森尼学会)

 

最后一人是Reverend Robert Hunt。不像富有的其他三个人,他用简单的寿衣装殓,面朝西方,向着教堂会众的方向。他死于1608年,时年约39岁。

 

湮没于历史

研究小组可能会进一步对遗体身份进行分析。Owsley表示,遗体保存得十分差,但是仍有可能从中提取出可用的DNA。

 

 “就在我们说话的时候,我们小组还在研究基因证据,看看是否能让我展示Weyman和William West之间可能存在的叔侄联系。”Owsley说。

 

研究小组还试图确定詹姆斯敦殖民地时期其他人的身份,但这项工作很难开展,因为其他居民几乎没有留下什么痕迹,研究人员解释。

 

Owsley说:“如果你是生活在17世纪的女性,那么你完全生活在丈夫的阴影之下。许多人在詹姆斯敦度过一生,然而历史并没有给他们留下只言片语。”

 

 

原文:

Picture 1: A new analysis has identified four of the men who were buried in a Jamestown Church in the early 1600s. The four men were leaders of the colony, which was the first permanent British settlement in the Americas.

 

Picture 2: The team used genealogical data, along with artifacts from the grave and chemical analysis to identify the men. They also created a 3d-reconstruction of the grave sites for educational purposes, shown here. (Photo credit: 3d.si.edu) 

 

Picture 3: Here, a 3D reconstruction of the site where four men were buried. The site was first excavated in 2013. (Photo credit: 3d.si.edu/DonaldHurlbert) 

 

Four lost leaders of the first permanent English settlement in the Americas have been identified, thanks to chemical analysis of their skeletons, as well as historical documents.

 

The settlement leaders were mostly high-status men who were buried at the 1608 Jamestown church in Virginia. And all played pivotal roles in the early colony.

 

"They're very much at the heart of the foundation of the America that we know today," said Douglas Owsley, a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., who helped identify the bodies.

 

By analyzing the bones, researchers can get a snapshot of what it was like to live during the earliest days of America, Owsley said.

 

"It's a way of getting very detailed information you simply can't get from the history books," Owsley told Live Science.

 

First colonies

Though the British had previously sent out settler ships (to the doomed colony of Roanoke), the British colonial adventure in America truly got started in Jamestown, Virginia.

 

English settlers disembarked from their ships in 1607 at an inland spot along the James River, marking a chunk of land as a prime location for a fortified settlement. Over the next few years, several boats would arrive, bearing hundreds of settlers to what would be called Jamestown.

 

But times were rough; during a six-month period in 1609 known as the "starving time," nearly 250 people died at Jamestown. At least some of the inhabitants resorted to cannibalism, according to a 2013 study by the same researchers.

 

Founding fathers

In 2013, Owsley and his colleagues first unearthed the bodies, near the historic Jamestown church where Captain John Smith married Pocahontas. Two of the bodies were in fairly ornate, anthropomorphic coffins, though the bodies were poorly preserved.

 

To identify the men, the archaeologists combined genealogical and historical documents from both England and the colonies, along with artifacts and analyses of the chemicals in the skeletons. For instance, the elite often had higher levels of lead in their bones during this time, because they frequently used lead-containing pewter and lead-glazed ceramics for eating and drinking, Owsley said.

 

"These are high-status individuals, two of them particularly so," Owsley told Live Science.

 

One of the men was Ferdinando Weyman, who died in 1610 at around age 34. He was the uncle of Sir Thomas West, the governor of Virginia. Weyman was also related to another of the men identified, Captain William West. This man perished in 1610 after a fight with the Powhatan Indians. His body was identified thanks to a partly decayed, dirt-covered military sash that was found with the skeleton. The sash, still inside a block of dirt, was placed in a computed tomography (CT) scanner, which revealed a silk cloth decorated with silver fringe.

 

Picture 4: Signature Sash

The team identified one of the men as Ferdinando Weyman, a high-status man who was related to the governor of Virginia. One line of evidence pointing to Weyman's identity was a dirt-encased sash found with the body. Under a CT scanner, the sash's ornate and distinctive frills were revealed. A man buried in a similar ornate coffin was identified as Captain William West, a nemesis of Captain John Smith. (Photo credit: (top) Donald E. Hurlbert, Smithsonian Institution | (bottom) Mark L. Riccio, Cornell BRC CT Imaging Facility) 

 

Both West and Weyman were buried in human-shaped coffins with a distinctive pattern of nails. Weyman had higher lead levels in his bones than the other individuals, indicating his elite status.

 

Another of the newly identified men was Captain Gabriel Archer, who died during the starving time in 1609 at the age of 34. Captain Archer was buried with the leading staff, an arrow-tipped staff that he used, enabling the team to identify him. Archer was also buried with a small silver box, known as a reliquary, containing bone fragments and pieces of a lead container for holding holy water atop his coffin. The artifact suggests he may have secretly clung to his Catholic faith.

 

Picture 5: Leading staff

The key piece of evidence identifying Captain Archer was a fragment of his leading staff, an arrow-tipped ceremonial staff he would have clung to while evaluating his crew. (Photo: Courtesy of Jamestown Rediscovery/Preservation Virginia) 

 

Picture 6: Silver box 

Another man was buried with a silver box, known as a reliquary, atop his grave. The reliquary contained several bone fragments and an ampulla, which was likely used to hold holy water. The man with the silver box was identified as Captain Gabriel Archer, who may have been hiding his Catholic faith. (Photo credit: Donald E. Hurlbert/Smithsonian Institution) 

 

The last man of the group was Reverend Robert Hunt. Unlike the more affluent men, he was buried in a simple shroud, facing west, toward the congregation he headed. Hunt died in 1608 around the age of 39.

 

Lost to history

The research team may do further analysis to confirm the men's identities. The bodies were poorly preserved, but it may be possible to extract some usable DNA from the remains, Owsley said.

 

"Even as we speak, we're looking at genetic evidence to see if I can show the connection between Weyman, who would be the uncle of William West," Owsley said.

 

While the team would like to identify other individuals from historic Jamestown, that could prove difficult, as fewer traces remain of most of the settlers, the researchers said.

 

"If you're a woman in the 17th century, you live totally in the shadow of your husband," Owsley said. "Most people would come and go and die at Jamestown, and nobody would write a word about them."

收起全文

考古资讯

破译珍稀希伯来古卷(Rare ancient Hebrew scroll deciphered)

破译珍稀希伯来古卷(Rare ancient Hebrew scroll deciphered)

来源:archaeologynewsnetwork 作者:TANN 时间:2015年8月6日 译者:果园里的瓢虫 校对:曲清 链接:http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2015/07/rare-ancient-hebrew-scroll-deciphered.html#.Vc... 阅读全文

来源:archaeologynewsnetwork

作者:TANN

时间:2015年8月6日 

译者:果园里的瓢虫

校对:曲清

链接:http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.co.uk/2015/07/rare-ancient-hebrew-scroll-deciphered.html#.VcNsjL777IV

 

科学家首次运用先进科技成功释读遭焚毁的部分卷轴,该卷轴藏于恩戈地(Ein Gedi)【注释1】一处犹太教堂的圣柜中,约1500年前遭彻底焚毁。在持续一年多极为艰辛的努力之后,科学家和研究人员惊喜地发现《利未记》(the Book of Leviticus)卷首的诗节突然重新呈现在眼前。

 

 破译珍稀希伯来古卷(Rare ancient Hebrew scroll deciphered)

恩戈地卷轴残片 [版权:Shai Halevi/ASI]

 

今天(周一)在耶路撒冷召开的一场新闻发布会上公布了这项珍贵发现,以色列文化体育部部长Miri Regev议员和以色列文物局局长Israel Hasson先生出席了这场发布会。

 

羊皮卷轴于1970年在恩戈地犹太教堂的一次考古发掘中出土,该发掘由已故的耶路撒冷希伯来大学教授Dan Barag(1935-2009)、Ehud Netzer(1934-2010)及以色列文物局的Sefi Porath.博士主持。然而,由于卷轴已经焦黑,当时无法对其进行保存和释读。

 

以色列文物局死海古卷保存中心(The Lunder Family Dead Sea Scrolls Conservation Center)运用最先进科技保存和记录死海古卷,使得本次重要发现成为可能。结果显示该部分卷轴来自《利未记》卷首,以希伯来文写成,C14分析其成书于公元六世纪晚期。它是迄今为止发现的记录希伯来圣经五部的最古老卷轴,晚于死海古卷(the Dead Sea scrolls),后者的成书年代主要在第二圣殿时期(Second Temple period)末期,即公元前一世纪至公元一世纪。

 

以色列文物局一直与国内外科学家合作对死海古卷进行保护和数字化。约一年前,以色列公司Merkel Technologies使用专业的Bruker Skyscan 1176显微CT 扫描仪,对部分死海古卷残片和犹太经文护符匣(tefillin)进行了高分辨率3D扫描。恩戈地卷轴残片与经文和经匣一同扫描。以色列文物局而后将扫描结果交给肯塔基大学Brent Seales教授处理,他开发的数字图像软件能虚拟展开经卷并将文本可视化。因而才有了《利未记》开头8节霎时清晰可辨后的惊喜万分。

 

 “耶和华从会幕中呼叫摩西、对他说:你晓谕以色列人说:你们中间若有人献供物给耶和华,要从牛群羊群中、献牲畜为供物。他的供物若以牛为燔祭,就要在会幕门口献一只没有残疾的公牛,可以在耶和华面前蒙悦纳。他要按手在燔祭牲的头上,燔祭便蒙悦纳,为他赎罪。他要在耶和华面前宰公牛,亚伦子孙作祭司的,要奉上血,把血洒在会幕门口坛的周围。那人要剥去燔祭牲的皮,把燔祭牲切成块。祭司亚伦的子孙,要把火放在坛上,把柴摆在火上。亚伦子孙作祭司的,要把肉块、头和脂油摆在坛上火的柴上。”(利未记1:1-8)【注释2】

 

破译珍稀希伯来古卷(Rare ancient Hebrew scroll deciphered) 

虚拟揭开融合文本后的模拟图像 [版权:肯塔基大学]

 

在犹太教堂中、尤其还是在圣柜中发现《妥拉》(Torah)卷轴尚属首次。

 

1970年恩戈地发掘中卷轴的发现者Sefi Porath博士称:“成谜45年的卷轴得到释读,令人十分兴奋。恩戈地是拜占庭时期(公元四-七世纪)的一个犹太村落,教堂铺满精美的马赛克地砖并有一个圣柜。该地后来完全化为灰烬,再没有人回去居住,也没有人试图从废墟中抢救有价值的物品。在对教堂进行的考古发掘中,我们发现除烧焦的卷轴残片外,还有七分枝铜烛台(menorah)、包含约3500枚硬币的公共钱盒、玻璃及陶瓷油灯和香水瓶。我们没有任何与大火起因有关的信息,但对村落毁灭原因探查从死海东部的贝都因偷袭者(Bedouin raiders)延伸到与拜占庭政府的冲突。”

 

以色列文物局死海古卷项目主管Pnina Shor馆长坦言: “每天与死海古卷打交道实乃幸事。意识到我们正在保护的是20世纪最重要的发现、是西方世界最为重要的文化财富使得我们不断以极致细心和谨慎相待,并采用当前可用的最为先进的技术。该发现也确实令我们震惊:我们很确定它只是黑暗中的一处闪光,但仍决定尝试扫描这批焚毁的卷轴。现在,我们不仅能将死海卷轴传给后世,也能将1500岁的犹太教堂圣柜中圣经的一部分留给他们!”

 

来源:以色列文物局[7月 20日, 2015年] 

 

【注释1】恩戈地(Ein Gedi)意为羔羊的泉水,位于以色列境内,是死海西侧沙漠中的一处绿洲,毗邻马萨达和库姆兰(死海圣经古卷发现地),也译为隐基底。

【注释2】译文摘自http://abibletool.com/book/3.htm

 

 

 

原文:

For the first time, advanced technologies made it possible to read parts of a scroll that was completely burnt c. 1,500 years, inside the Holy Ark of the synagogue at Ein Gedi. At the end of extremely challenging efforts which lasted over a year, the scientists and researchers were amazed to see verses from the beginning of the Book of Leviticus, suddenly coming back to life.

 

Picture1:  Ein Gedi Scroll Fragment [Credit: Shai Halevi/ASI]

 

Today (Monday) the rare find was presented at a press conference in Jerusalem, attended by the Minister of Culture and Sports, MK Miri Regev, and the director of the Israel Antiquities Authority, Mr. Israel Hasson.

 

The parchment scroll was unearthed in 1970 in archaeological excavations in the synagogue at Ein Gedi, headed by the late Prof. Dan Barag and Prof. Ehud Nezer from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Dr. Sefi Porath. from the Israel Antiquities Authority. However, due to its charred condition, it was not possible to either preserve or decipher it.

 

The Lunder Family Dead Sea Scrolls Conservation Center of the Israel Antiquities Authority which uses state of the art and advanced technologies to preserve and document the Dead Sea scrolls enabled the discovery of this important find. It turns out that part of this scroll is from the beginning of the Book of Leviticus, written in Hebrew, and dated by C14 analysis to the late sixth–century CE. To date, this is the most ancient scroll from the five books of the Hebrew Bible to be found since the Dead Sea scrolls, most of which are ascribed to the end of the Second Temple period (first century BCE-first century CE).

 

The Israel Antiquities Authority has been cooperating with scientists from Israel and abroad to preserve and digitize the Dead Sea Scrolls. About a year ago Merkel Technologies, Ltd. Israel, offered their professional assistance in performing high resolution 3D scanning of some Dead Sea Scrolls fragments and phylactery (tefillin) cases by means of the Bruker Skyscan model 1176 Micro-CT scanner. The fragment of the Ein Gedi scroll was scanned along with the phylacteries and phylactery cases. The Israel Antiquities Authority then sent the outcome of these scans to Professor Brent Seales of the University of Kentucky who developed a digital imaging software which allows to virtually unroll the scroll and visualize the text. Thus, the great surprise and excitement when the first 8 verses of the Book of Leviticus suddenly became legible.

 

“The LORD summoned Moses and spoke to him from the tent of meeting, saying: Speak to the people of Israel and say to them: When any of you bring an offering of livestock to the LORD, you shall bring your offering from the herd or from the flock. If the offering is a burnt-offering from the herd, you shall offer a male without blemish; you shall bring it to the entrance of the tent of meeting, for acceptance in your behalf before the LORD. You shall lay your hand on the head of the burnt-offering, and it shall be acceptable in your behalf as atonement for you. The bull shall be slaughtered before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons the priests shall offer the blood, dashing the blood against all sides of the altar that is at the entrance of the tent of meeting. The burnt-offering shall be flayed and cut up into its parts. The sons of the priest Aaron shall put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire.Aaron’s sons the priests、 shall arrange the parts, with the head and the suet、, on the wood that is on the fire on the altar." (Leviticus 1:1-8).

 

Picture 2: Virtual unrolling and suggested merged text layer [Credit: University of Kentucky]

 

This is the first time in any archaeological excavation that a Torah scroll was found in a synagogue, particularly inside a Holy Ark.

 

According to Dr. Sefi Porath, discoverer of the scroll in the 1970 Ein Gedi excavations, "The deciphering of the scroll, which was a puzzle for us for 45 years, is very exciting. Ein Gedi was a Jewish village in the Byzantine period (fourth–seventh century CE) and had a synagogue with an exquisite mosaic floor and a Holy Ark. The settlement was completely burnt to the ground, and none of its inhabitants ever returned to reside there again, or to pick through the ruins in order to salvage valuable property. In the archaeological excavations of the burnt synagogue, we found in addition to the charred scroll fragments, a bronze seven-branched candelabrum (menorah), the community’s money box containing c. 3,500 coins, glass and ceramic oil lamps, and vessels that held perfume. We have no information regarding the cause of the fire, but speculation about the destruction ranges from Bedouin raiders from the region east of the Dead Sea to conflicts with the Byzantine government.”

 

According to Pnina Shor, curator and director of IAA's Dead Sea Scrolls Projects, “Dealing with the Dead Sea Scrolls on a daily basis is really a privilege. The knowledge that we are preserving the most important find of the 20th century and one of the western world’s most important cultural treasures causes us to proceed with the utmost care and caution and use the most advanced technologies available today. This discovery absolutely astonished us: we were certain it was just a shot in the dark but decided to try and scan the burnt scroll anyway. Now, not only can we bequeath the Dead Sea Scrolls to future generations, but also a part of the Bible from a Holy Ark of a 1,500-year old synagogue!”

 

Source: Israel Antiquities Authoruty [July 20, 2015] 

收起全文

考古资讯

花瓶中发现2500年前的“神奇女侠” 2500-Year-Old 'Wonder Woman' Found on Vase

花瓶中发现2500年前的“神奇女侠”
2500-Year-Old 'Wonder Woman' Found on Vase

来源:Discovery News 链接: http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/2500-year-old-wonder-woman-found-on-vase-150605.htm 作者:Rossella Lorenzi 翻译:穆鸟 ... 阅读全文

来源:Discovery News
链接:
http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/2500-year-old-wonder-woman-found-on-vase-150605.htm
作者:Rossella Lorenzi
翻译:穆鸟
校对:丘丘
编辑:Leek

花瓶中发现2500年前的“神奇女侠”
2500-Year-Old 'Wonder Woman' Found on Vase

The 2500-year-old "Wonder Woman."2500年前的“神奇女侠”
THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI MUSEUM AND HISTORIC HOUSES, DAVID M. ROBINSON MEMORIAL COLLECTION来源:密西西比大学博物馆和历史陈列室,出自大卫-罗宾逊收藏品


DC漫画中超级女英雄神奇女侠拥有一位2500岁的前辈——该女子形象出现在美国一间小型博物馆收藏的瓶饰画上。


这个肖像绘于一个白色底盘的瓶子上(用于盛放化妆品、珠宝和软膏的有盖圆柱形盒子),展示了一个坐在马背上与希腊勇士搏斗的亚马逊人的画面。


正如小说中描写的亚马逊勇士公主一样,这位女骑士正挥舞着手中的套索。


来自斯坦福大学经典和历史科学系的研究学者Adrienne Mayor告诉《发现新闻》:“这是唯一发现的展示亚马逊人使用套索战斗画面的古代艺术图片。”


Mayor是在为了写2014年的新书《亚马逊人:古代女武士生活与传说》所做研究的过程中注意到了这个收藏于密西西比大学博物馆的花瓶。


这幅绘画被认为创作于公元前480到450年的雅典,由一位索斯比画家完成。


Mayor说:“这个花瓶存放着希腊女性的贴身化妆品和珠宝。盒子上的图片表明当时的女性十分享受亚马逊人战胜希腊男武士的场景。”


根据研究,一个希腊男人被一个强大的外国女武士用套索捆住的紧张画面是不寻常和颠覆性的,这和传统的希腊女性角色截然不同。


在捆绑她的战利品之前,这位亚马逊人被描绘成一个极具动态的形象。她转身回头看向挥着的套索,而希腊男性则拿着矛,跪伏在盾牌之下。


Mayor说:“她绳索的剩余部分,与她的鞋子一样被涂为紫色,盘绕在她的腰间,而她则准确地抓着绳结附近的套索环。”Mayor补充道:“她运用绳索捆住正前方物体的技术十分精准。”


她注意到这位亚马逊人已备好战斧准备随时派遣受降者。


Mayor说:“花瓶的装饰证明了画家和他的观众十分熟悉斯基泰骑马女勇士使用套索的描绘。”


古希腊和古罗马历史学家生动地描述了斯基泰骑兵弓箭手在战争中熟练使用套索的场景。


例如,希罗多德写道,在公元前480年,8000名配备有匕首和皮革编制套索的草原游牧骑兵加入了波斯君王大流士的军队中。


其他资料则告诉我们斯基泰散兵如何抛掷绳索和转动马匹来围攻并与敌人缠斗。


罗马地理学家Pomponius Mela在公元43年写道,北黑海地区的女武士是使用套索的专家。


保罗·盖蒂博物馆古物部副馆长David Saunders认为这种有盖的瓶子之所以引人注目除了因其形状和装饰艺术外,还因为这上面有罕见的带着套索的亚马逊人肖像,更因为它对该女性所有者——或者送她这份礼物的人——可能具有的意义。


精于希腊花瓶绘画和肖像研究的Saunders告诉《发现新闻》:“关于这样的场景如何与吸引的艺术联系起来,以及古雅典男女之间对彼此的态度等问题上,还有更多更广泛的挖掘空间。”


他补充道:“像这样的容器更有可能用于存放饰品,例如化妆品、香水或珠宝。我们可以认为其所有者就像亚马逊人为战争做好了准备一样,为她自己的装扮也做足了准备。”


原文:


A 2,500-year-old predecessor of DC Comics’ Wonder Woman super heroine has emerged on a vase painting kept at a small American museum.


Drawn on a white-ground pyxis (a lidded cylindrical box that was used for cosmetics, jewelry, or ointments) the image shows an Amazon on horseback in a battle against a Greek warrior.


Much like the fictional warrior princess of the Amazons, the horsewoman is twirling a lasso.


“It is the only ancient artistic image of an Amazon using a lariat in battle,” Adrienne Mayor, a research scholar at Stanford University’s departments of classics and history of science, told Discovery News.


Mayor noticed the vase at the University of Mississippi Museum during research for her 2014 book “The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World.”


Created between 480 and 450 B.C. in Athens, the image is attributed to the Sotheby painter.


“The vase would have held a Greek woman’s intimate make-up or jewelry. The images on the box suggest that women enjoyed scenes of Amazons getting the best of male Greek warriors,” Mayor said.


According to the researcher, the suspenseful scene of a Greek male about to be lassoed by a powerful foreign warrior woman was exotic and also subversive, a surprising twist on traditional Greek women’s roles.


The Amazon is portrayed in a dynamic action just before roping her victim. She looks back over her shoulder at the lasso she is swinging while the Greek man crouches under his shield with a spear.


“The rest of her rope, painted purple like her shoes, is coiled around her waist, and she correctly holds the lariat’s loop near the knot,” Mayor said. “Her technique is accurate for roping something straight ahead,” she added.


She noted the Amazon has her battle-axe ready to dispatch her victim.


According to Mayor, the vase decoration is evidence that the painter and his audience were familiar with descriptions of horse-riding Scythian warrior women using lariats.


Ancient Greek and Roman historians describe Scythian mounted archers skillfully using lassos in warfare.


For example, Herodotus reported that 8,000 nomadic steppe riders armed with daggers and braided leather lariats joined the army of Persian king Darius in 480 B.C.


Several other sources told how Scythian skirmishers threw rope nooses and wheeled their horses around to entangle their enemies.


Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, who wrote around 43 A.D., also reported that warrior women of the northern Black Sea region were experts with the lasso.


David Saunders, associate curator at J. Paul Getty Museum’s department of antiquities, found the pyxis fascinating for its shape and techniques of decoration, for the unusual image of the lassoing Amazon and for what it might have meant for the woman who owned it – and perhaps also whoever bought it for her.


“There’s plenty to explore in terms of how the scene might relate to the arts of seduction, and more broadly regarding male and female attitudes to one another in ancient Athens,” Saunders, who specializes in Greek vase-painting and iconography, told Discovery News.


“A vessel like this would probably have been used as a container for some sort of adornment – be it make-up, perfume, perhaps jewellery. Maybe we could think of its owner preparing herself as the Amazons did for battle,” he added.

收起全文

考古资讯

拯救非洲古代艺术,你我同行 Africa's ancient art to be saved, with your help

拯救非洲古代艺术,你我同行
Africa's ancient art to be saved, with your help

来源:THEINDEPENDENT 链接:http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/africas-ancient-art-to-be-saved-with-your-help-10345300.html 翻译:LKN 校对:大古 编辑:Leek 77000年前的非洲岩画艺术濒... 阅读全文

来源:THE INDEPENDENT

链接:http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/africas-ancient-art-to-be-saved-with-your-help-10345300.html

翻译:LKN

校对:大古

编辑:Leek

拯救非洲古代艺术,你我同行
Africa's ancient art to be saved, with your help

77000年前的非洲岩画艺术濒临毁灭,逐渐消失,亟待拯救。

Endangered rock art up to 77,000 years old is disappearing and needs to be protected urgently

 

因为位置经常无人知晓和文物盗贼的破坏,数以千计数万年前的洞穴石刻和岩画正受到威胁。

 

尽管非洲是人类最古老艺术的起源地之一,非洲的岩画艺术传统却长期为考古学家和艺术历史学家所忽视。

 

现在大英博物馆和以肯尼亚为基地的考古慈善组织TARA(非洲岩画艺术联合会)正在致力于保护这一濒危的文化遗产。

 

“大英博物馆希望能让学者和普通民众共享非洲岩画艺术。我们希望保护并向全世界观众免费展示这一灿烂历史文化,”非洲石刻艺术图集项目的负责人Elizabeth Galvin介绍道。

 

非洲岩画艺术传统可追溯到50000年以前,而抽象的雕刻可能早至77000年前。它们的出现远早于文字,所以是探索早期人类文化信仰及其生活世界的重要历史媒介。时至今日,只有屈指可数的几个社群仍在延续这一传统文化,少数刻石遗址仍被用作祈求丰收和雨水的宗教场所。

 

发现古代岩画艺术的地点很少得到了妥善的记录和保护,从而导致了这些遗址和石刻情况不断恶化。1996年,旨在记录与保护非洲大陆上丰富的石刻艺术遗产的TARA成立了。

 

这一设在内罗毕的NGO致力于提高人们对于岩画艺术传统以及濒危岩画遗址的保护意识。

 

TARA主席大卫·库尔森说:“我们的最终目标是在一切不可为之前为人类社会将这些灿烂的文化遗产尽数记录下来。”

 

TARA与大英博物馆达成了合作协议,该协议使得后者能够使用前者图片档案的电子拷贝来为公众进一步推广关于岩画艺术的知识。由于这些遗址处于人烟稀少之地,并且极易遭受自然和人为的破坏,因此该项目可以让学术界和全球的同好们更好的接触这一艺术传统。

 

这将会是英国公众首次得以接触到数量如此庞大的石刻资料档案,这批档案也将成为世界上收集非洲岩画艺术最为完善的公共数据库之一。其中包括25000份来自非洲大陆各个遗址的电子照片,同时还有来自考古学和人类学的研究材料。

 

届时藏品将会包括利比亚西南部费赞地区各遗址的图片资料,这些遗址的年代在公元前10000年至公元100年间。其中,Messak Sattafet高原和Acacus山脉中的遗址(联合国教科文组织世界遗产Tadrart-Acacus trans-frontier的一部分)将会展现包括从河马到战车及其驭手在内的丰富的创作对象。一项针对南非各遗址的调查则将展示科伊人、萨恩人,以及其他数千年前人群的不同的石刻风格和题材。除了人类早期的艺术,十九世纪晚期至二十世纪早期欧洲定居者们的雕刻和涂鸦也将得到展出。

 

TARA的档案还会揭示东非图瓦游猎者们所留下的几何型绘画与雕刻、马赛和桑布鲁牧民在岩洞里留下的关于牲畜、盾牌以及族徽标记的图形。在这些照片中,岩石显然是像锣鼓一般作响的,因为这些与大自然共鸣天籁的石头原本就是用来交流的。

 

获取更多资讯,请移步:britishmuseum.org/africanrockart.

 

 

原文:

 

Thousands of examples of millennial old art carved into rocks and on the walls of caves are under threat as their location is often unknown and unprotected from artefact thieves.

 

Despite providing some of the oldest art in the world, Africa’s rock art tradition has long been overlooked by archaeologists and art historians alike.

 

Now the British Museum and Kenyan-based archaeological charity TARA (Trust for African Rock Art) are working to preserve this endangered heritage.

 

“The Museum wants to make Africa’s rock art available to both scholars and the general public alike. We hope to both protect and share this remarkable history for free with a global audience,” says Elizabeth Galvin, Curator of the African Rock Art Image Project.

 

The rock art tradition began in Africa 50,000 years ago, but abstract engravings may be up to 77,000 years old. It long predates writing, so serves as an important historical window into the culture and beliefs of early humans, and the world in which they lived. Today only a handful of isolated groups engage in the tradition, with a few sites still being used for fertility and rainmaking rituals.

 

The places in which ancient rock art is found have been little documented and largely unprotected, leading to a deterioration of the sites and the art itself. In 1996, TARA was set up, in order to record and protect the rich rock art heritage of the African continent.

 

The Nairobi-based NGO are committed to improving awareness about this tradition, and the endangered state that rock art sites are in.

 

“The ultimate aim is to record all this incredible heritage for humanity before it’s too late,” says David Coulson, TARA’s Executive Chairman.

 

TARA signed the partnership agreement with the British Museum, so that the Museum could use a digital copy of TARA’s photographic archive to educate people further about rock art. Since the sites are often fairly inaccessible geographically, and susceptible to natural and man-made destruction, the project will allow both academics and general audiences greater access to the tradition.

 

It will be the first time that such an extensive rock art archive will be available to the British public, and will provide one of the most complete public databases on African rock art in the world. 25,000 digital photos of sites from across Africa will be included, alongside material from archaeological and anthropological research.

 

The collection will include images of sites across the Fezzan of Southwest Libya, with dates ranging from 10,000 BC to 100 AD. Sites in the Messak Sattafet and the Acacus Mountains, (part of the Tadrart-Acacus trans-frontier UNESCO World Heritage site) will feature, depicting a wide range of subjects, from hippopotami to men in chariots. A survey of the South African sites will show the different styles and subject matters of the Khoi, San and other groups of humans from thousands of years ago. As well as this early art, the collection will also exhibit engravings and graffiti by European settlers in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

 

In East Africa, the TARA archive will reveal geometric paintings and engravings by Twa forager-hunters as well as images of livestock, shields and clan markings made by Maasai and Samburu pastoralists in rock shelters. In these photos, ‘rock gongs’ – rocks with natural resonance once used for communication – feature prominently.

 

For more information, please visit 

britishmuseum.org/africanrockart.

 

 

收起全文

考古资讯

人类通过埃及完成非洲大出走 Humans Trekked Out of Africa Via Egypt, Study Suggests

人类通过埃及完成非洲大出走
Humans Trekked Out of Africa Via Egypt, Study Suggests

来源:livescience.com 作者:CharlesQ.Choi 时间:2015.5.28 译者:大古 校对:Zinc 编辑:西歪歪 链接: http://www.livescience.com/51005-humans-migrated-out-of-egypt.html 图为在老挝发现的人类头骨修复品... 阅读全文

来源:livescience.com

作者:Charles Q. Choi 

时间:2015.5.28

译者:大古

校对:Zinc

编辑:西歪歪

链接:

http://www.livescience.com/51005-humans-migrated-out-of-egypt.html

 人类通过埃及完成非洲大出走
Humans Trekked Out of Africa Via Egypt, Study Suggests

图为在老挝发现的人类头骨修复品。新的研究结果表明,现代人是经由埃及走出非洲的。

图片来源:F. Demeter

 

一个新的基因分析表明,埃及可能是现代人走出非洲的主要通道。研究人员认为,这个发现可以帮助科学家重建人类遍布全球的过程。

 

200,000年前,现代人最先出现于撒哈拉大沙漠以南的非洲地区。长久以来,关于现代人种何时以及如何穿越撒哈拉大沙漠走出非洲,都是饱受争议的。

 

先前的研究认为,人类离开非洲的大迁徙开始于40,000-70,000年以前。然而,最近的一项研究显示,现代人开始向全球扩散的时间可能早至130,000年以前,并且是分批进行他们的非洲出走之旅。

 

研究人员曾预测了两条大迁徙路线。一条是北部路线,现代人从现在的埃及和西奈半岛离开非洲;另一条是南部路线,现代人通过这条路线穿过现在的埃塞俄比亚和阿拉伯半岛。可惜两条迁移路线都缺乏有力的证据。

 

 人类通过埃及完成非洲大出走
Humans Trekked Out of Africa Via Egypt, Study Suggests

埃塞俄比亚人和埃及人的DNA证明了现代人是经由埃及走出非洲的。图片来源:Luca Pagani

 

为了确认我们的先祖离开非洲采用的是哪条路线,研究人员对来自非洲东北部的225个人的基因组进行了测序——其中有100个埃及人,125个埃塞俄比亚人。然后他们拿这些数据与东亚人、南亚人和欧洲人的DNA进行比较——确切来说,是分别与汉人、古吉拉特印度人和托斯卡纳意大利人的DNA进行比较。他们同样比较了来自撒哈拉以南的现代西非人的DNA,这些数据大体可以反映出古代撒哈拉以南非洲地区的基因库。

 

科学家注意到,现代埃及人和埃塞俄比亚人近期都与离开非洲的移民有过接触,他们之间的通婚可能会大大提高自身基因与移民基因的相似度。鉴于此,研究者排除了来自于近期移民产生的基因序列。

 

如果南部路线是现代人离开非洲的主要路线,那么欧亚人与埃塞俄比亚人应有更高的基因相似性。然而,研究人员发现欧亚人的基因与埃及人更相似,这表明北部路线才是主要路线。研究人员预估,欧亚人的基因与55,000年前的埃及人,65,000年前的埃塞俄比亚人和75,000年前的非洲人是截然不同的。

 

此项研究的负责人,英国剑桥大学韦尔科姆基金会桑格学院研究所的分子人类学家Luca Pagani,告诉《生命科学》,“此项研究最激动人心的成果,是揭开了欧亚人进化史的新篇章,从而加深了亿万人对于自身深层生物史的了解。”

 

所有非非洲人都拥有尼安德特人的DNA这一事实也证明了当时的现代人的确选择了北部迁徙路线,因为尼安德特人当时在北部路线的东地中海地区生活。这项新发现,与近期在位于北部路线附近的以色列发现的55,000年前的现代人化石不谋而合。尽管基因学和考古学都有证据表示,一些现代人确实是通过南部路线离开非洲的,但是可能这些人没有穿越阿拉伯半岛,或者没有在现代欧亚人身上留下任何的基因痕迹。Pagani说,未来科学家可以研究,选择南部迁徙路线的人究竟有没有在现代大洋洲人身上留下基因学证据。

 

更多细节可见于5月28日的《美国人类遗传学杂志》。

 

原文阅读:

 

The major gateway for modern humans out of Africa may have been Egypt, a new genetic analysis suggests.

 

This finding may help scientists reconstruct how humans evolved as they wandered across the globe, the researchers added.

 

Modern humans first arose about 200,000 years ago in Africa south of the Sahara. When and how the modern human lineage crossed the Sahara and dispersed from Africa has long been controversial.

 

Previous research suggested the exodus from Africa started between 70,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, a recent study hinted that modern humans might have begun their march across the globe as early as 130,000 years ago, and continued their expansion out of Africa in multiple waves.

 

Scientists had suggested two routes for the exodus from Africa. One, known as the northern route, has humans exiting through what is now Egypt and Sinai. The other, the southern route, brought humans through what is now Ethiopia and Arabia. The available evidence for either migratory path remains inconclusive.

 

To see which route the ancestors of all humans outside of Africa might have taken, the researchers sequenced the genomes of 225 people from northeast Africa — 100 Egyptians and 125 Ethiopians. They then compared this data with DNA from East Asians, South Asians and Europeans — specifically, Han Chinese, Gujarati Indians and Tuscan Italians, respectively. They also compared this data with DNA from modern West Africans from south of the Sahara, which should generally reflect the ancient sub-Saharan gene pool.

 

The scientists noted that both modern Egyptians and Ethiopians have recently experienced migrations from outside Africa, and the interbreeding that resulted might increase their genetic similarity with those migratory people. To account for this, the researchers removed any genetic sequences that might have come from these recent migrations.

 

If the southern route was the main path out of Africa, Ethiopians should be more genetically similar to Eurasians. Instead, the researchers found that Egyptians were more genetically similar to Eurasians, suggesting the northern route was the predominant way out of Africa. The researchers estimated that Eurasians genetically diverged from Egyptians 55,000 years ago, Ethiopians 65,000 years ago and West Africans 75,000 years ago.

 

"The most exciting consequence of our results is to have unveiled an episode of the evolutionary past of all Eurasians, therefore potentially improving the knowledge of billions of people on their deep biological history,"study lead author Luca Pagani, a molecular anthropologist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge in England, told Live Science.

 

The northern route as the preferred way from Africa is supported by the fact that all non-Africans possess DNA from Neanderthals, who were present along the northern route in the eastern Mediterranean at the time. This new finding is also in agreement with the recent discovery of modern human fossils in Israel close to the northern route that date to about 55,000 years ago.

 

Although there is genetic and archaeological evidence that some people did take the southern route out of Africa, perhaps those people got no farther than Arabia, or left no genetic trace in modern Eurasians. In the future, scientists could investigate whether anyone who took the southern route left any genetic traces in modern Oceanians, Pagani said.

 

The scientists detailed their findings online today (May 28) in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

 

收起全文

考古资讯

冰人奥茨身上的新发现——最古老的红血球样本 New study of Iceman reveals oldest known example of red blood cells

冰人奥茨身上的新发现——最古老的红血球样本
New study of Iceman reveals oldest known example of red blood cells

来源:Phys.org 作者:JanPiotrowski 时间:2015年5月8日 译者:京晶 校对:西歪歪 链接:http://phys.org/news/2015-05-iceman-reveals-oldest-red-blood.html 红血球(简称RBCs)的原子力显微镜片【1】。图a和图b是现代人体组织中的单... 阅读全文

来源:Phys.org

作者:Jan Piotrowski

时间:2015年5月8日

译者:京晶

校对:西歪歪

链接:http://phys.org/news/2015-05-iceman-reveals-oldest-red-blood.html

 冰人奥茨身上的新发现——最古老的红血球样本
New study of Iceman reveals oldest known example of red blood cells

 

红血球(简称RBCs)的原子力显微镜片【1】。图a和图b是现代人体组织中的单个红血球形态。图c为凝聚的红血球。图d和图e则是分别从冰人人体组织样本A和样本B中发现的单个细胞。图f是凝聚的细胞群,与现代人样本(图c)相似。如图所示,图d-图f的细胞呈铁饼状,表面微凹,显现出红血球的特征。(图片出处:《英国皇家学会交界杂志》,DOI:10.1098/rsif.2012.0174)

 

【本网讯】位于意大利的波森欧洲科学院(简称EURAC),又名博尔扎诺木乃伊与冰人研究所的研究人员发现了目前已知最古老的人体红血球样本。他们把研究报告发布到《英国皇家学会交界杂志》的网站上,报告中,他们不仅描述了红血球的发现过程,还提出了冰人猝死的证据。

 

这具著名的冰人(奥兹)自1991年在阿尔卑斯山脉的冰川中被发现后,一直被当成研究的对象,目前普遍认为他死于大约5300年前。过去,专家们曾几次试图在其身上寻找红血球未果,但在这次的尝试中,研究学者们采用了一项新技术——用一个纳米尺寸的探测器在冰人受伤后并未愈合的部位极其缓慢地移动。随着探测器的四处移动,探头逐渐描绘出3D的图像——让我们看到清晰的,犹如甜甜圈形状的红血球。为了证实图像显示的是真正的红血球,研究人员还用激光照射同样的部位,读取反射波的波长,数据显示物质的分子构成与红血球相符,从而证明了他们发现了目前已知最古老的红血球样本。

 

科学家认为,奥兹死亡时约46岁,相关研究表明,他一直饱受病痛折磨,还可能患有莱姆病(Lyme Disease)【2】。研究学者们认为奥兹皮肤上的许多纹身是用于缓解炎症导致的关节疼痛的。

 

此外,通过拉曼光谱分析,研究人员还发现了纤维蛋白的存在。纤维蛋白是人体在受伤后迅速分泌的一种凝血剂,它的存在强有力地说明,奥兹在受伤后没多久就死去了。通常,在人体受伤后,纤维蛋白很快会被身体吸收,并分泌其它物质取代它。根据奥兹的伤口附近还留有纤维蛋白这一点,可以肯定他在受伤后(可能是被击中头部)很快就死亡了。

 

更多信息请见:《保存在冰人体内长达5300年之久的红血球》,《英国皇家学会界面杂志》,DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0174

 

注释:

【1】 AFM:全称Atomic Force Microscope,即原子力显微镜,是继扫描隧道显微镜(Scanning Tunneling Microscope)之后发明的一种具有原子级高分辨的新型仪器,可以在大气和液体环境下对各种材料和样品进行纳米区域的物理性质包括形貌进行探测,或者直接进行纳米操纵;现已广泛应用于半导体、纳米功能材料、生物、化工、食品、医药研究和科研院所各种纳米相关学科的研究实验等领域中,成为纳米科学研究的基本工具。

【2】  Lyme Disease:莱姆病,是一种以蜱为媒介的螺旋体感染性疾病。以神经系统损害为该病最主要的临床表现,其神经系统损害以脑膜炎、脑炎、颅神经炎、运动和感觉神经炎最为常见。

 

原文阅读:


AFM images of red blood cells (RBCs). (a,b) Single RBCs from recent human tissue. (c) An assembly of RBCs. (d,e) Single corpuscles found in Iceman sample A and sample B are shown. An assembly of several randomly distributed corpuscles, similar to those found within the recent sample (c), are displayed in image (f). The imaged corpuscles (d–f) feature the characteristic discoid and concave surface of RBCs. Credit: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0174

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers with the European Academy of Bozen (EURAC) aka, the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, Italy, has found examples of the oldest known samples of red blood cells. In their paper uploaded to the open access site, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team explains how they found the red blood cells and why they now believe the Iceman died very quickly.

 

The Iceman as he has come to be known, (also known as Ötzi) has been the object of intense scrutiny ever since being found embedded in an Alpine glacier back in 1991—he is believed to have died approximately 5,300 years ago. Attempts to find examples of actual red blood cells within his body have failed in the past, but in this new effort, the researchers used a new technique—a nano-sized probe they moved very slowly over parts of the mummified body that had been wounded, leading to open cuts. Because it moves, the probe allows for capturing 3D imagery—it revealed the clear doughnut shape of red blood cells. To confirm that the images they were seeing represented real red blood cells, the team shone a laser on the same material and read the wavelengths that were reflected back—that revealed that the molecular makeup of the material matched that of red blood cells—a finding that marks the oldest known preserved instance of a red blood cell.

 

Scientists believe the Iceman was approximately 46 years old when he died—other research has led to the discovery that he suffered from a variety of illnesses and injuries and his skin was decorated with many tattoos, most of which are believed to have been applied as a means of alleviating joint pain, possibly due to arthritis or inflammation caused by Lyme Disease.

 

Also, by using Raman spectroscopy, the researchers found traces of fibrin, a clotting agent the body makes immediately after an injury occurs, which suggests very strongly that the Iceman died shortly after he was wounded—it is generally absorbed shortly after an injury occurs as other agents take over. Because it was still present near the Iceman's wound suggests he died shortly after it was inflicted, likely from a blow to the head.

 

More information: Preservation of 5300 year old red blood cells in the Iceman, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0174

 

收起全文

考古资讯

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)

来源: Phys.org-News and Articles on Science and Technology 作者: Yohannes Haile-Selassie 时间:2015年3月27 译者:伊西斯 校对:LKN 编辑:Leek 链接:http://phys.or... 阅读全文

来源: Phys.org-News and Articles on Science and Technology
作者: Yohannes Haile-Selassie
时间:2015年3月27
译者:伊西斯
校对:LKN
编辑:Leek
链接:http://phys.org/news/2015-05-human-ancestor-species-ethiopia-lucy.html
 

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)
Holotype upper jaw of a new human ancestor species found on March 4, 2011. Credit: Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Cleveland Museum of Natural History
2011年3月4日,研究者们发现一例上颌标本,它来自人类祖先一个新的分支。来源:约翰尼斯·海利-瑟拉解(Yohannes Haile-Selassie), 克利夫兰自然历史博物馆(Cleveland Museum of Natural History)


包括Lucy(南方古猿阿尔法种)在内的人类祖先大家庭中迎来了新的一员。在埃塞俄比亚沃拉索-米勒地区(Woranso-Mille area of the Afar region of Ethiopia),由克利夫兰自然历史博物馆(Cleveland Museum of Natural History)的约翰尼斯•海利-瑟拉解(Yohannes Haile-Selassie)博士带领的国际科学家团队发现了一块早期人类上颚骨化石碎片。经鉴定分析,他属于一个新的古人种——南方古猿近亲种(Australopithecus deyiremeda)。他们生活在330-350万年前,与早期人类“Lucy”生活在同一时期。关于这一人种的具体研究将在2015年5月28日的国际性科学杂志《自然》上公布。


Lucy的种族(即南方古猿阿尔法种)生活在290—380万年前,南方古猿近亲种(Australopithecus deyiremeda)这一新人种的发现证明,在距今300万年前,至少同时存在两种早期人类祖先,“deyiremeda”在阿法尔人(Afar people)的语言中为“近亲”。


相对于Lucy而言,南方古猿近亲种的牙齿较小、下颌骨更加健壮,其较小的前齿可能暗示着不同的食物结构。


Woranso-Mille项目的负责人、克利夫兰自然历史博物馆(Cleveland Museum of Natural History)体质人类学首席专家Yohannes Haile-Selassie博士表示,“新化石的发现证明,在上新世中期,Lucy的族群南方古猿阿尔法种(Australopithecus afarensis)在当地并不是唯一,至少有两种早期人类物种同时生活在邻近地区。”


合著者凯斯西储大学(Case Western Reserve University)的Beverly Saylor博士表示,“新化石的测年方法是严谨的,采用了区域地质学、放射性年代测定、古地磁年代测定等多种方法相结合。”在多种方法相互印证的基础上,新人类物种的年代被推定为330万—350万年前。


Haile-Selassie认为,“来自埃塞俄比亚的新化石将把关于早期人种多样性的讨论提升到另一个层次,有些学者持反对意见,这是正常的。但在我看来,对于人类进化早期阶段的研究,不能总是固守长久以来的假设,排除与假设不相符的化石证据,而是要以更加开放的思想来整合各种材料。”


人种起源是“单元进化”还是“多元进化”一直是学术热点,直到20世纪,出土的证据全部支持“单元”论,但是后来发现的来自乍得的南方古猿羚羊河种(Australopithecus bahrelghazali)、来自肯尼亚的肯尼亚平脸人(Kenyanthropus platyops)是与Lucy同时期的人类物种。当然,对这些人种的科学性一直存在争议,直到2012年Haile-Selassie宣布在伯特勒地区(Burtele)发现了340万年前早期人种的足部化石,300—400万年早期人种的多样性才被广泛接受。


伯特勒地区(Burtele)发现的早期人类归属问题仍是未解之谜,但可以肯定,除了生活的时间、地区具有相似性外,他与Lucy毫无关系。而新发现的南方古猿近亲种有力证明了早期人种的多样性。


此项发现对于早期人类的研究意义重大,同时也带来了许多新问题,各早期人类物种如何相处?他们如何分配土地与资源?

 

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)
Cast of the holotype upper jaw of Australopithecus deyiremeda. Credit: Laura Dempsey
南方古猿近亲种的上颌化石。来源:Laura Dempsey


关于南方古猿近亲种的发现


2011年3月4日带牙齿的上颌在伯特勒地区(Burtele)的粉质粘土层表面被发现,同月的4到5号,其下颌在附近的Waytaleyta被找到。上颌保存得较完整(除了一颗牙齿散落),但是下颌却碎成了两块(发现时相聚约2米),另一块下颌是在伯特勒发现地以东约2公里处被发现的。


发现地点


化石标本发现于阿尔法中心地区(the central Afar region of Ethiopia)的Woranso-Mille 古生物保护区内,东北距埃塞俄比亚的首都亚的斯亚贝巴(Addis Ababa)325英里(520公里),北距Hadar(Lucy发现地)22英里(35公里)。Burtele(上颌发现地) 和Waytaleyta(下颌发现地)为当地地名,虽相聚千米,但同属阿尔法一区(Zone 1 of the Afar Regional State)。

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)
Scientists get their teeth into A. deyiremeda fossils. Credit: Laura Dempsey
研究人员将南方古猿近亲种的上颚和下颚骨化石拼凑在一起。来源:Laura Dempsey


Woranso-Mille地区的研究项目


Woranso-Mille地区古生物研究项目包括每年在埃塞俄比亚的田野以及实验室工作,该项目的总负责人为克利夫兰自然历史博物馆(Cleveland Museum of Natural History)的Yohannes Haile-Selassie博士,合作研究人员有:巴塞罗那大学(University of Barcelona)(西班牙)的Luis Gibert博士,马克斯-普朗克研究所(Max Planck Institute)(德国,莱比锡)的Stephanie Melillo博士,宾夕法尼亚大学(Pennsylvania State University)的Timothy M. Ryan博士,亚的斯亚贝巴大学(Addis Ababa University)(埃塞俄比亚)的Mulugeta Alene博士,伯克利地质年代中心(Berkeley Geochronology Center)的Alan Deino 和 Gary Scott博士,约翰·霍普金斯大学( Johns Hopkins University)的Naomi E. Levin博士以及凯斯西储大学(Case Western Reserve University)的Beverly Z. Saylor博士。除此之外,埃塞俄比亚和美国在读及毕业高校生也参与了此项目。

在埃塞俄比亚发现与Lucy同时期的早期人种(New human ancestor species from Ethiopia lived alongside Lucy's species)


原文:


A new relative joins "Lucy" on the human family tree. An international team of scientists, led by Dr. Yohannes Haile-Selassie of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, has discovered a 3.3 to 3.5 million-year-old new human ancestor species. Upper and lower jaw fossils recovered from the Woranso-Mille area of the Afar region of Ethiopia have been assigned to the new species Australopithecus deyiremeda. This hominin lived alongside the famous "Lucy's" species, Australopithecus afarensis. The species will be described in the May 28, 2015 issue of the international scientific journal Nature.


Lucy's species lived from 2.9 million years ago to 3.8 million years ago, overlapping in time with the new speciesAustralopithecus deyiremeda. The new species is the most conclusive evidence for the contemporaneous presence of more than one closely early human ancestor species prior to 3 million years ago. The species name "deyiremeda" (day-ihreme-dah) means "close relative" in the language spoken by the Afar people.


Australopithecus deyiremeda differs from Lucy's species in terms of the shape and size of its thick-enameled teeth and the robust architecture of its lower jaws. The anterior teeth are also relatively small indicating that it probably had a different diet.


"The new species is yet another confirmation that Lucy's species, Australopithecus afarensis, was not the only potential human ancestor species that roamed in what is now the Afar region of Ethiopia during the middle Pliocene," said lead author and Woranso-Mille project team leader Dr. Yohannes Haile-Selassie, curator of physical anthropology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History. "Current fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille study area clearly shows that there were at least two, if not three, early human species living at the same time and in close geographic proximity."


"The age of the new fossils is very well constrained by the regional geology, radiometric dating, and new paleomagnetic data," said co-author Dr. Beverly Saylor of Case Western Reserve University. The combined evidence from radiometric, paleomagnetic, and depositional rate analyses yields estimated minimum and maximum ages of 3.3 and 3.5 million years.


"This new species from Ethiopia takes the ongoing debate on early hominin diversity to another level," said Haile-Selassie. "Some of our colleagues are going to be skeptical about this new species, which is not unusual. However, I think it is time that we look into the earlier phases of our evolution with an open mind and carefully examine the currently available fossil evidence rather than immediately dismissing the fossils that do not fit our long-held hypotheses," said Haile-Selassie.


Scientists have long argued that there was only one pre-human species at any given time between 3 and 4 million years ago, subsequently giving rise to another new species through time. This was what the fossil record appeared to indicate until the end of the 20th century. However, the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali from Chad and Kenyanthropus platyops from Kenya, both from the same time period as Lucy's species, challenged this long-held idea. Although a number of researchers were skeptical about the validity of these species, the announcement by Haile-Selassie of the 3.4 million-year-old Burtele partial foot in 2012 cleared some of the skepticism on the likelihood of multiple early hominin species in the 3 to 4 million-year range.

 

The Burtele partial fossil foot did not belong to a member of Lucy's species. However, despite the similarity in geological age and close geographic proximity, the researchers have not assigned the partial foot to the new species due to lack of clear association. Regardless, the new species Australopithecus deyiremeda incontrovertibly confirms that multiple species did indeed co-exist during this time period.


This discovery has important implications for our understanding of early hominin ecology. It also raises significant questions, such as how multiple early hominins living at the same time and geographic area might have used the shared landscape and available resources.


Discovery of Australopithecus deyiremeda:


The holotype (type specimen) of Australopithecus deyiremeda is an upper jaw with teeth discovered on March 4, 2011, on top of a silty clay surface at one of the Burtele localities. The paratype lower jaws were also surface discoveries found on March 4 and 5, 2011, at the same locality as the holotype and another nearby locality called Waytaleyta. The holotype upper jaw was found in one piece (except for one of the teeth which was found nearby), whereas the mandible was recovered in two halves that were found about two meters apart from each other. The other mandible was found about 2 kilometers east of where the Burtele specimens were found.


Location of the Discovery:


The fossil specimens were found in the Woranso-Mille Paleontological Project study area located in the central Afar region of Ethiopia about 325 miles (520 kilometers) northeast of the capital Addis Ababa and 22 miles (35 kilometers) north of Hadar ("Lucy's" site). Burtele and Waytaleyta are local names for the areas where the holotype and paratypes were found and they are located in the Mille district, Zone 1 of the Afar Regional State.


The Woranso-Mille Project:


The Woranso-Mille Paleontological project conducts field and laboratory work in Ethiopia every year. This multidisciplinary project is led by Dr. Yohannes Haile-Selassie of The Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Additional co-authors of this research, include: Dr. Luis Gibert of University of Barcelona (Spain), Dr. Stephanie Melillo of the Max Planck Institute (Leipzig, Germany), Dr. Timothy M. Ryan of Pennsylvania State University, Dr. Mulugeta Alene of Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), Drs. Alan Deino and Gary Scott of the Berkeley Geochronology Center, Dr. Naomi E. Levin of Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Beverly Z. Saylor of Case Western Reserve University. Graduate and undergraduate students from Ethiopia and the United States of America also participated in the field and laboratory activities of the project.

 

收起全文

考古资讯

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨 Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

来源:Ancient Origins 作者:Mark Miller 时间:March 26, 2015 译者:曲清 编辑:良辰 链接:http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/earliest-known-breast-cancer-identified-an... 阅读全文

 

来源:Ancient Origins

作者:Mark Miller

时间:March 26, 2015

译者:曲清

编辑:良辰

链接:http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/earliest-known-breast-cancer-identified-ancient-egyptian-skeleton-002825

 

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

精选图片:研究者挖掘出世界最早的乳腺癌患者骨架。(来源:埃及文物部)

 

 

西班牙人类学家在埃及的一片墓葬群中发掘出一具距今4200年的人类遗骨,并在骨架上发现癌症造成的恶化痕迹,是已知首例乳腺癌病例。发现者认为,这位女性的癌细胞已由乳腺转移至骨骼。

 

这具骨架本月在埃及南部城市阿斯旺(Aswan)附近的Qubbet el-Hawa被发现。这项发现,加上2014年在苏丹发现的骸骨,表明癌症在古时的尼罗河谷地区便已存在。本月发现的女性是当时埃及最南端城市象岛(Elephantine)的贵族。

 

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

斯兰普特二世墓(the tomb of Sarenput II)內的精美壁画。这座坟墓位于Qubbet el-Hawa墓葬群,在其不远处发现了患癌症的古代埃及女性遗骨。(来源:Daniel Csörföly 衍生作品 / Wikimedia Commons

 

癌症虽然在考古记录上几乎不见踪影,然而其已成为当今全球第二大死因,仅次于心脏疾病。

 

现代的生活方式如丰富的食物、吸烟、肥胖和环境中的毒素被认为是导致癌症发病的主要原因。然而有些学者认为,人类寿命延长反而是其首要原因。

 

英国癌症研究所(Cancer Research UK)表示,癌症多发于高龄人群,三分之一的患者年龄在60岁或以上,而75岁或以上患者则占36%。该机构的网站上如是写道:

“古代人群患癌几率小不足为奇。但这不应单纯归因于我们现代的生活方式,人类现在寿命相比史上任何时间的都要长亦是原因之一。千百年前,人类的平均寿命相当短暂。许多人在青壮年时便死于传染性疾病,而分娩造成死亡和幼儿夭折也极为平常……所以,在人们不太可能活过40岁的情况下,癌症造成死亡的概率极低也就不是令人惊讶的事情。”

虽然癌症算是一种现代疾病,但古代确实已有癌症病例。最近发现的几具古代人类遗骸证明了这一点。

 

去年,英国考古学家在尼罗河流域的一处苏丹墓穴中发现一具3200年前的男性遗骸,伴有转移性癌症(metastatic cancer)的痕迹。这是20143月前发现的唯一一例公元前一千年以前的转移性癌症病例。

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

研究者检查这具癌症病变的3200年前的苏丹男性骸骨。

考古学家在苏丹首都喀土穆下游750公里(466英里)处的Amara West发现了这具男性遗骸。他被仰面葬在一口彩绘木棺中,装饰着镶玻璃的护身符。死亡时约25-35岁,恶性的软肿瘤癌已转移全身。研究者利用射线成像和扫描电子显微镜技术检查了他的骨骼,从图像上清晰观察到骨骼损伤,癌细胞已经扩散全身,包括锁骨、肩胛、上臂、椎骨、肋骨、骨盆和大腿骨。

 

骸骨发现者、英国杜伦大学学者Michaela Binder表示,光凭骨头无法判断癌细胞来自身体的哪一部分。癌症成因可能来自生活环境,如木头燃烧的烟中所含的致癌物,也可能是基因性的或来自寄生物,如血吸虫病,这种疾病现在在该地区仍十分常见。

 

201412月,研究者宣布在西伯利亚地区发现的青铜时代人类骸骨上发现了转移癌痕迹,是已知最早的癌症患者。

 

Ancient Origins作者Liz Leafloor写道:“科研人员在这具距今4500年的遗骨上发现了典型的癌症侵蚀痕迹,显示出死者生前饱受肺癌(lung cancer)或前列腺癌(prostate cancer)折磨,并因此丧命。这个新证据表明古代人类便已受到癌症威胁,向癌症是现代疾病的说法提出挑战。”

 

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

遗骨显示,这个生活在4500年以前的西伯利亚男性死于癌症。这也许是世界最古老的人类癌症病例。来源:Angela R. Lieverse等。

 

遗骨显示死者年龄约为35-45岁。死时癌细胞已扩散,导致其全身瘫痪。几乎可以确定他周围的人发现了他的疾病:死者呈胎儿姿态被放置在一个圆形墓中,膝盖碰触到胸部,而随葬品中包括一把特殊的蛇形骨勺。与之相反,同时代墓葬中死者仰面埋葬,随葬品则为一整套渔猎装备。

 

埃及发现人类已知首例乳腺癌患者遗骨
Earliest known breast cancer identified in ancient Egyptian skeleton)

青铜时代西伯利亚男性墓中的随葬品:一把特别的骨勺,勺柄雕刻成弯曲蛇形。来源:Angela R. Lieverse等人

 

201410月,研究人员称在一具2500前的女性木乃伊上找到了癌症证据。这具木乃伊于1993年在现代的俄罗斯阿尔泰共和国(the Republic of Altai, Russia)境内一座古墓中出土,被认为是二十世纪末俄罗斯的重大考古发现之一。

 

这名女性的右乳腺有原发性肿瘤,右腋淋巴结则有转移癌。目前尚不清楚癌症是否为其死亡的最终原因,这是因为她还受到脊髓炎(骨头或骨髓感染)的困扰,以及身上有多处严重损伤,包括可能因为坠马造成的颅骨骨折。但有一件事是肯定的,这位虚弱的“冰美人”死前应极为痛苦。

 

这名女性生前为贵族。她被埋葬在石棺里,六匹装上华丽马鞍和挽具的骏马,以及两名为其陪葬。人们认为这位阿尔泰公主和两名陪葬的战士来自游牧的Pazyryk族群。

 

原文

A 4,200-year-old skeleton that shows signs of deterioration from cancer is the earliest known case of breast cancer, according to the Spanish anthropologists who uncovered her remains in a necropolis in Egypt. They think the woman’s breast cancer metastasized (spread) to her bones.

The find this month in Qubbet el-Hawa near the southern city of Aswan and a Sudanese find in 2014 indicate cancer was present in the Nile Valley region long ago. The woman excavated this month was an aristocrat from Elephantine, the southernmost town in Egypt.

Though cancer is nearly non-existent in the archaeological record of ancient peoples, now it is the second cause of death worldwide after heart disease.

While the modern lifestyle of rich foods, smoking, obesity and toxins in the environment have been vilified as a leading cause of cancer, some researchers say the fact people are living longer is the primary reason.

Cancer Research UK says three-quarters of cancer cases are diagnosed in people 60 and older, and 36 percent in people 75 or older. The group’s website says:

The suggestion that cancer was rarer in ancient populations is not surprising at all. But it’s not just because of our modern lifestyles. It’s because we live longer today than at any point in history. Hundreds or thousands of years ago, life expectancy was short. Many people died in middle age from infectious diseases, and death in childbirth or childhood was also common. … So it’s not surprising that cancer was a rare event in populations where people were unlikely to make it past 40.

While cancer is a modern affliction, there appears to have been some cancer in ancient times. There have been several recent finds of ancient remains of people who had the devastating disease,

Also last year in the Nile Valley, British researchers found the 3,200-year-old skeleton of a man with metastatic cancer in a Sudanese tomb. Until March 2014, there had only been one example of metastatic cancer predating the first millennium BC in human remains.

The man’s skeleton was found in Amara West, 750 kilometers (466 miles) downstream from the Sudanese capital Khartoum. He was buried on his back in a painted wooden coffin with a glazed amulet. The bones of the 25- to 35-year-old man showed evidence of a malignant soft-tumor cancer that spread. Tests using radiography and a scanning electron microscope provided clear imaging of the lesions on the bones, with cancer metastases on the collar bones, shoulder blades, upper arms, vertebrae, ribs, pelvis and thigh bones.

Michaela Binder, the researcher from Durham University in England who made the discovery, said that it is impossible to determine the exact site where the disease originated, but that the cause may have been environmental, for example from carcinogens from wood fire smoke, genetic or from the parasite schistosomiasis, which still causes cancer to this day in the area.

In December 2014, researchers announced they’d found the earliest known case of cancer of any kind, a Bronze Age Siberian skeleton with metastasized cancer.

“The 4,500-year-old bones have significant marks and holes, alerting researchers to the devastating lung or prostate cancer that the ancient man had endured. This new evidence of the illness in ancient bones demonstrates that cancer is not only a modern phenomenon, but also affected the ancient world,” wrote Liz Leafloor of Ancient Origins.

The remains show the man was 35 to 45 years old when he died. The cancer spread throughout his body, and the deterioration of his bones left him immobile. It was almost certain that those around him would have recognized he was ill. They placed him in a circular grave in the fetal position, his knees drawn up into his chest, and he was buried with a crooked bone serpent spoon, among other items. This type of burial is in contrast to other men at the time who were buried on their backs with fishing or hunting gear.

In another case, in October 2014 researchers said they found evidence of cancer in the 2,500-year-old mummy of a woman in what is now the Republic of Altai, Russia. Her remains were excavated from a burial mound in 1993, and the find was considered one of the most significant of late 20th century Russia.

The woman had a primary tumor in the right breast and right axial lymph nodes with metastases.  It is not clear whether the cancer was the ultimate cause of her death as she also suffered from osteomyelitis, an infection of the bone or bone marrow, and significant injuries, including fractures of the skull, which may have been caused by falling from a horse. But one thing is for certain, the feeble Ice Maiden, as she is called, would have been suffering a great deal of pain.

As well as the sarcophagus with the mummy, six horses richly saddled and harnessed and two warriors were found indicating that the woman came from a noble clan. The Altai Princess and the two warriors found with her are believed to have been nomadic Pazyryk people.

 

 

参考资料:

http://www.chinanews.com/gj/2015/03-25/7157361.shtml

http://world.chinadaily.com.cn/2015-03/25/content_19907346.htm

https://myancientegyptpractice.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/%E5%9B%9B%E5%8D%83%E5%85%A9%E7%99%BE%E5%B9%B4%E5%89%8D%E7%9A%84%E7%99%8C%E7%97%87%E7%97%85%E6%82%A3/

http://gushi.tw/archives/1406

http://www.dylb.cn/Article_Print.asp?ArticleID=919

http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1267598

http://www.ettoday.net/news/20150325/483555.htm

 

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

人类与菌类的初接触

人类与菌类的初接触

作者:heritage daily 时间:2015.05.11 译者:严小呆 校对:穆鸟 编辑:西歪歪 链接: http://www.heritagedaily.com/2015/05/study-to-detect-the-first-evidence-of-human-consumption-of-mushrooms/... 阅读全文

 

作者:heritage daily

时间:2015.05.11

译者:严小呆

校对:穆鸟

编辑:西歪歪

链接:

http://www.heritagedaily.com/2015/05/study-to-detect-the-first-evidence-of-human-consumption-of-mushrooms/107303

 人类与菌类的初接触

一篇在《考古科学》杂志上的研究报道表明,研究学家们找到了人类应用菌类的首个证据。

 

“我们的研究结果显示,早在石器时代人们就开始广泛应用各种各样的植物资源,菌类就是其中之一。”萨拉萨尔•加尔卡说道。

 

这个研究小组通过分析El Mirón坎塔布连地区马格德林时期人们的牙结石来探索古人类的食谱。通过使用光学显微镜和扫描电镜,研究者发现人们一生中所形成的牙结石上堆积了大量的微体化石:有植物的、真菌的、动物的和矿物的,这为研究马格德林时期人们的饮食提供了宝贵信息。

 

走近祖先的食谱

 

通常重构史前饮食习惯的研究对象以肉类食物为主。因此,对于研究人员来说:“这些关于植物类食物应用信息的研究,对描绘一个更全面的人类祖先饮食图谱来说非常重要。这一类的微体化石说明El Mirón地区的人们曾食用各种生长在不同生态圈的植物和其它可食用菌类,如牛肝菌等。”一位来自瓦伦西亚的马克斯•普朗克进化人类学研究所人类进化研究室副研究员如是说道。

 

多明戈•卡洛斯•萨拉萨尔表示,目前考古学中关于早期蘑菇的应用方面的信息并不多。尽管我们对史前时期菌类的应用知之甚少,但是人种学已经证实,近代的狩猎采集族群已经开始大量地应用菌类,把它们制成食物、调味品和药品。他说:“菌类的应用已经被证实存在于欧洲铜石并用时代,甚至还奠定了简单耕作和畜牧经济的基础。”其中一个例子就是著名的铜石并用时代阿尔卑斯山奥兹冰人,在数十年前被发现时,身上已经携带着蘑菇。然而,在El Mirón 地区的新发现,却是继旧石器时代以后人类使用蘑菇的第一个证据。

 

欧洲石器时代马格德林时期的人类饮食习惯鲜为人知,特别是植物类的食物,考古学上几乎没有相关记载。尽管在欧洲西北部的大部分地区,马格德林时期普遍被认为是驯鹿猎人时期,但是这并不适用于伊比利亚半岛。其他证据表明当时人们会食用大批量的梅花鹿和野山羊,但是至今仍无法确定其他类型的食物如植物类,是否也在当时人类的食谱中。

 

原文阅读:

A study published in the ‘Journal of Archaeological Science has detected the first evidence of human consumption of mushrooms.

 

Our work reveals that, as early as the Upper Palaeolithic, individuals used a wide variety of plant resources, including mushrooms”, says Salazar García.

 

This group of researchers have explored the ancient diet by analysing the dental calculi of Magdalenian individuals in the Cantabrian site of El Mirón. Analyses by optical and scanning electron microscopy have revealed a wide range of microremains of plant, fungal, animal and mineral origin assembled in dental calculi throughout life that provide valuable information on nutrition in the Magdalenian period.

 

Getting to know our ancestors’ diet

 

Usually the techniques used to reconstruct prehistoric dietary habits focus on the consumption of animal products. For this reason, according to the researcher, “this kind of studies provide information about the use of plant resources that is important to have a more complete picture of the diet of our ancestors. This type of microremains show that individuals at El Mirón used to eat a wide variety of plants from different ecosystems and other foodstuffs such as ‘boletus’ mushrooms”, says the Valencian research associate at the Department of Human Evolution of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

 

Domingo Carlos Salazar acknowledges that archaeology has not provided much information so far about the early use of mushrooms. And although their use during prehistory is poorly understood, ethnography has identified that recent hunter-gatherer groups have frequently used mushrooms as food, condiment and medicine. “This use of mushrooms has been positively identified during the European Chalcolithic, once the foundations of the farming and stock-rearing economy had already been laid”, he says. For example, the famous chalcolithic iceman discovered a few decades ago in the Alps, Ötzi, was already carrying mushrooms on him. However, the new discovery at the site of El Mirón is the first evidence of human use of mushrooms, which was so far unknown for the Palaeolithic period.

 

The human diet during the Magdalenian phase of Europe’s Upper Palaeolithic is little known. This is particularly true regarding the consumption of plant resources, which leave little trace in the archaeological record. Although the Magdalenian period in much of north-western Europe is commonly regarded as the period of reindeer hunters, this was not the case in the Iberian Peninsula. Other evidence showed that diet included substantial amounts of deer and ibex, but until now it was unclear whether other types of food like plants were a component of diet.

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

过敏:持续千年的顽疾 Allergies A Malady for Millennia

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

作者:TALAL AL-KHATIB 时间:2015年4月21日 译者:果园里的瓢虫 校对:Yuki 编辑:良辰 链接:http://news.discovery.com/history/allergies-a-malady-for-millennia-150421.htm 过敏反应的历史 豚草是季节性过敏反... 阅读全文

 

作者:TALAL AL-KHATIB

 时间:2015421

 译者:果园里的瓢虫

 校对:Yuki

 编辑:良辰

链接:http://news.discovery.com/history/allergies-a-malady-for-millennia-150421.htm

 过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia 

过敏反应的历史

豚草是季节性过敏反应者发病的众多刺激物之一

过敏季正值花朵盛开,每年这个时候大量过敏症患者对任何“盛开”(“full bloom”)的事物都恐惧不已、厌恶万分。

即使现代医学已研发出最新药物,过敏对任何需要忍受发痒、肿胀和各种痛苦的人来说仍然是个累赘,这些反应是由潜伏于空气中的花粉、霉菌以及其他隐形的敌人带来的。以上还只是季节性过敏。食物过敏和无数其他免疫过敏反应会困扰患者将近一整年。

虽然过敏经常被误以为是现代文明带来的后果,但其实它已经存在数千年了。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

打喷嚏是罪孽深重

一块4500年前楔形泥板的截面,可追溯到美索不达米亚时期。描绘了最古老的书写式样之一。

自有人类文明起,就有过敏症患者的记录。

不幸的是,对于5000多年前美索不达米亚的过敏症患者来说,医学诊疗并不能缓解他们的症状。据《过敏的历史》( "History of Allergy")所述,祭司与医生过去通常是一体的,因而疾病常常会被归于罪孽。疾病的来源通常被认为有三种:众神的惩罚、停止神的庇护或黑魔法。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

它会蜇人

即便不会致命,也没有人想被这样的马蜂蜇一下。

埃及法老美尼斯(Pharaoh Menes)很不幸地拥有一项殊荣—历史上首位死于过敏反应的名人。

约在公元前2600年,美尼斯(Menes)被马蜂叮了一口。对于这位因统一上、下埃及,制造莎草纸和书写工具,建立诸多城市而备受赞誉的君主来说这必然是微不足道的。然而,这一蜇对法老来说却是致命的。

蜂蜇是否导致了美尼斯死亡众说纷纭,就像这位法老是否存在过一样,仍旧是个谜。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

太阳神保佑你

《亚伯斯古医籍》(Ebers Papryus)的部分底片。

或许是害怕其他法老重蹈覆辙,不论他们是否存真实存在过,古埃及针对过敏原可能诱发的多种症状设计了一系列治疗方案。

上溯至约公元前1500年,历史上最古老的医书之一《亚伯斯古医籍》(Ebers Papyrus)包含了大量治疗咳嗽、鼻塞、哮喘等疾病的参考疗法。例如该书建议,如果流涕不止,用棕榈酒清洁粘膜并在局部敷上捣碎的海枣(smashed dates)即可治愈。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

麻黄疗法

麻黄,其中Ephedra viridis为生长在美国西部的麻黄属植物,可被用来制备麻黄碱。

30004000年前,中国古代医生开始使用一种药物,其效果之好以至于在今天治疗感冒和过敏时仍在使用它——但仅供满18周岁且不会过量购买的患者使用,以免被缉毒局(DEA)盯上。

一次中美科学政策会议的报告中,提到一本译为“Shen Nong’s Scripture on Medicinal Herbs”(《神农百草经》)的书,书中神农氏描述了365种不同植物及其医疗用途。例如以马尾草,也就是草麻黄(Ephedra sinica)的果实来医治哮喘。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

不想尝,不想要

医药之父希波克拉底(Hippocrates)的石制半身像图。

希波克拉底,被誉为“医药之父”,在约2500年前研究了食物过敏缘何只影响了一部分人。这是一篇他所写的关于奶酪的文章:

不是所有人都对奶酪过敏,有的人不仅能够吃到饱且没有不良反应,正相反,还能从中汲取能量;但也有人不能忍受奶酪,这是由于他们的生理结构不同,其身体并不能适应奶酪的刺激因而产生了反应。”

希波克拉底正确指出并非是奶酪本身有害,而是在于不同人对不同种类食物的反应不同。此外我们还可很明显地看出希波克拉底是个奶酪狂。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

中世纪的医药

悬挂于美国众议院(House of Representatives)门廊上的迈蒙尼德(Maimonides)大理石浮雕

随着罗马帝国的衰落,西欧医学领域鲜有进展。但在中东,拜占庭帝国保留了希腊罗马(Greco-Roman)的医学传统并在其基础上发扬光大。

摩西·本·迈蒙(Moshe ben Maimon),多数人称之为“迈蒙尼德”(Maimonides),是一位犹太哲学家、神学家和医生,生活在1135年至1204年,作为私人医生为苏丹萨拉丁(Sultan Saladin)及其家族效力。迈蒙尼德广泛撰写了大量医学文章,包括一篇有关哮喘的论文,指出了来自食物和环境等诱发哮喘的不同因素。他也拥护健康的生活方式,包括注意个人卫生、避免接触公众传染病和适当休息。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

草莓丑闻

国王理查德三世素描像

拜莎士比亚所赐,国王理查德三世数百年来臭名昭著。他残酷的行为是否可能是一位过敏症患者因无法缓解病痛所致?

答案是否定的。但理查德三世确实利用了他对草莓过敏这点使自己从一场政治斗争中脱身。在与威廉·黑斯廷斯(Willian Hastings)——时任理查德的前任,国王爱德华四世的内侍——的一场会面前,理查德吃了一些坎特伯雷大主教约翰·莫顿(John Morton)花园中的草莓。在前往会面途中,理查德变得“焦虑、皱眉、不停咬唇”,如Amy Licence的新观点所说,疑似急性荨麻疹或蜂蜇。

理查德声称这些反应是黑斯廷斯对其下咒的结果,并命令将这位仍然效忠其兄长的人处死。于是黑斯廷斯很快就掉了脑袋。

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

只用于医药

可可树被用于医药已有好几个世纪。

15世纪晚期至16世纪,当西班牙征服者到达新大陆的海岸,他们遇见了前所未见的人种和文化,以及欧洲尚未发现的新药。

中南美洲的土著族群利用植物,如橡树的胶乳,来治疗不同的呼吸疾病。他们也相信烟草能帮助打开收缩的呼吸道。像中国古代医生一样,这些土著还了解麻黄的功效。他们也懂得在诸如哮喘时用可卡因作缓解剂。

可卡因在20世纪被用作多种药物的活性成分,这些药物用于治疗从牙痛到抑郁等不同疾病。

 

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

给那种免疫失调命名

克莱门斯·冯·皮尔凯(Clemens Von Pirquet)年轻时的肖像

虽然在数千年的多种文献中均有提及,过敏症直到20世纪才被恰当地予以定义。

参考《过敏:一种现代顽疾的历史》("Allergy: The History of a Modern Malady"),克莱门斯·冯·皮尔凯是一位年轻的奥地利儿科医生,他于1906年首次提出了‘过敏’这一术语,用于描述先前一系列各种不同症状和过敏现象,这些症状均对特定的外界刺激表现出反应。

冯·皮尔凯对大范围免疫失调的定义十分新颖且经过细致观察;也因此他的观点就像用过的手巾纸一样被评论家很快抛弃。20世纪进一步的免疫学研究最终追随了皮尔凯的观点并证明了其正确性,而过敏这一术语也迅速成为流行词汇,成千上万的过敏症患者从此有了正式的名字。

 

过敏:持续千年的顽疾
Allergies A Malady for Millennia

现代奇迹

尽管数千年来多种多样的植物和药物被用于医治类似过敏的症状,最早的抗组胺药直到20世纪才出现。

组胺是免疫回应中产生过敏反应的化合物。抗组胺药是被普遍用于抑制这些化合物产生的药物,能帮助我们理想地度过日常生活远离鼻塞困扰。

研究员Daniel BovetAnne-Marie Staub1937年在动物身上首次测试了抗组胺药,但发现其效果对人类而言毒性过强,参见期刊文章《抗组胺药理学》Pharmacology of Antihistamines)。二十年后,研究员找到了一系列能用于临床治疗的抗组胺药,抗敏药物的现代纪元由此诞生。

 

A HISTORY OF ALLERGIES

Ragweed is one of many irritants that plague those with seasonal allergies.

Allergy season is in full bloom, a time of year when legions of allergy sufferers fear and loathe the notion of anything in "full bloom."

Even with the latest drugs made available by modern medicine, allergies are a drag for anyone who has had to endure the itchy, puffy, messy misery that comes with pollen, mold and other invisible antagonists that lurk in our air. Those are just the seasonal allergies. Food allergies and countless other immunological hypersensitivities plague some year-round.

While allergies have frequently been mistakenly cited as a consequence of modern civilization, they have been around for thousands of years.

TO SNEEZE IS TO SIN

A section of a 4,500-year-old cuneiform tablet tracing back to Mesopotamia. This tablet depicts one of the oldest examples of writing.

For as long as there has human civilization, there have been records of allergy sufferers.

Unfortunately for patients in Mesopotamia over 5,000 years ago, the diagnosis likely brought little relief. According to "History of Allergy", priests and physicians were one in the same, so diseases were often attributed to sin. Disease stemmed from three causes: direct action by the gods, withdrawal of divine protection or black magic.

THAT STINGS

Even if it won't kill you, no one would want to get stung by a wasp like this.

Pharaoh Menes of Egypt holds the unfortunate honor of likely being the first famous person in history to die of an anaphylactic reaction.

Around 2600 B.C., Menes was stung by a wasp. This incident must have seemed trivial to the man credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt, introducing papyrus and writing, and founding numerous cities. The sting, however, proved fatal to the pharaoh.

This account of Menes' demise remains controversial, however, as does the question of whether he even existed.

RA BLESS YOU

A portion of the Ebers Papryus appears in this negative.

Perhaps not wanting to lose another pharaoh, real or imagined, the ancient Egyptian devised a number of treatments for various symptoms that could be triggered by allergens.

Dating back to around 1500 BC, the Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical texts in history, contains numerous references for treatments for cough, sinus congestion, asthma symptoms and more. For a runny nose, for example, a palm wine cleanse combined with the topical application of smashed dates was the recommended course of treatment.

AN EPHECTIVE TREATMENT

Ephedra viridis, a species of Ephedra that grows in the Western United States, can be used to derive the drug ephedrine.

Between 3,000 and 4,000 years ago, ancient Chinese physicians began using a medicine so effective it still appears in cold and allergy treatments available today provided the allergy sufferer is 18 years or older and not buying so much of the stuff that you trigger a DEA sweep.

A text translating to "Shen Nong's Scripture on Medicinal Herbs," likely alluding to Emperor Shen Nong, describes 365 different kinds of plants and their various therapeutic uses, according to a presentation at a conference on U.S.-China science policy. One such treatment involved using the berries of the horsetail plant, Ephedra sinica, for symptoms of asthma.

TASTE NOT, WANT NOT

An illustration of stone bust of Hippocrates, the father of medicine.

Hippocrates, credited widely as "the father of medicine", observed around 2,500 how food allergies only affected a handful of people. Here is a passage he wrote on cheese:

"For cheese does not prove equally injurious to all men, for there are some who can take it to satiety without being hurt by it in the least, but on the contrary, it is wonderful the strength it imparts to those with whom it agrees; but there are some who do not bear it well, their constitutions are different and they differ in this respect, that what in their body is incompatible with cheese is aroused and put into commotion by such a thing."

Hippocrates correctly notes that cheese isn't inherently pernicious. Rather, the issue is the tolerances of different people for various kinds of food. It is also clear Hippocrates was a cheese fiend.

MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES

A marble relief of Maimonides hangs over the gallery doors of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Following the collapse of the Roman empire, few developments emerged from Western Europe in the field of medicine. In the Middle East, however, the Byzantine empire preserved Greco-Roman medical traditions and expanded upon them.

Moshe ben Maimon, more commonly known as Maimonides, was a Jewish philosopher, religious scholar and medical practitioner who lived from 1135 to 1204 and served as the personal physician to Sultan Saladin and his family. Maimonides wrote extensively on a number of health ailments, including a treatise on asthma, noting different asthmatic triggers in food and in the environment. He also advocated healthy lifestyle through personal hygiene, avoidance of environmental contagions and relaxation.

THE STRAWBERRY SCANDAL

A sketch of King Richard III.

Immortalized by Shakespeare, King Richard III is a villain for the ages. Could it be that his cruel demeanor was the product of an allergy sufferer who can't find relief?

The answer is no. But Richard III did use his strawberry allergy to rid himself of a political opponent. Prior to an arranged meeting with William Hastings, who served as Lord Chamberlain under Richard's predecessor, King Edward IV, Richard ate some strawberries from the garden of John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury. Upon arriving for the meeting, Richard appeared "fretting, frowning and chewing his lips," as described the New Stateman's Amy Licence, gripped by acute urticaria, or hives.

Richard claimed the reaction was the result of a curse placed on him by Hastings, and ordered the man still loyal to Richard's brother executed. Hastings then promptly lost his head.

FOR MEDICINAL USES ONLY

The coca plant has had medicinal applications for centuries.

When conquistadors arrived on the shores of the New World in the late 15th century and into the 16th century, they encountered a new people and culture they had never experienced before, as well as new medicines not found in Europe.

Indigenous tribes in Mesoamerica and South America used plants, such as the latex sap from the rubber tree, to treat various respiratory ailments. They also believed that tobacco could help open constricted airways. Like ancient Chinese physicians, the tribes also knew of the effectiveness of Ephedra plants. They also introduced cocaine as a palliative for conditions like asthma.

Cocaine would be an active ingredient in a variety of different medications well into the 20th century to treat a range of diseases from toothache to depression and more.

NAME THAT IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDER

A portrait of a young Clemens Von Pirquet.

Though alluded toward in various texts for thousands of years, allergies wouldn't be properly defined until the 20th century.

According to "Allergy: The History of a Modern Malady", Clemens von Pirquet, a young Austian pediatrician, first coined the term allergy in 1906 to describe what had previously been a disparate set of symptoms and hypersensitivities that would manifest reactively to certain outside stimuli.

Von Pirquet's definition of a broad range of immunological disorders was novel and well observed; and therefore his ideas were discarded by critics as quickly as a used tissue. Further immunology research during the 20th century eventually followed and demonstrated the veracity of von Pirqurt's claims, and the term allergy quickly entered the popular lexicon, unsurprising given the sheer numbers of allergy sufferers.

MODERN MIRACLES

Although various plants and medicines were used to treat allergy-like symptoms for thousands of years, the first antihistamines didn't emerge until the 20th century.

Histamines are the compounds involved in immune responses that produce allergic reactions. Antihistamines are the drugs commonly used to suppress the production of these compounds, and allow us all to go about our day ideally without so much as a sniffle.

Researchers Daniel Bovet and Anne-Marie Staub tested the first antihistamines on animals in 1937, but found their effects too toxic for humans, according to the journal article "Pharmacology of Antihistamines." Two decades later, researchers found a number of antihistamines that proved effective for patient use, and the modern era of anti-allergy medication was born.

 

 

 

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览 Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

来源:livescience.com 作者:Tanya Lewis 时间:2015.5.11 译者:Zinc 校对:大古 链接:http://www.livescience.com/50798-animal-mummy-gallery.html The Egyptians are known f... 阅读全文

 

 

  来源:livescience.com

  作者:Tanya Lewis
 
时间:2015.5.11

  译者:Zinc

  校对:大古

  链接:http://www.livescience.com/50798-animal-mummy-gallery.html

 

The Egyptians are known for their human mummies, but they mummified a host of different animals, including cats, birds, crocodiles, and other animals. A team of scientists X-rayed hundreds of Egyptian animal mummies housed in museums throughout England, to get at the artifacts' insides without damaging them.

古埃及人以其制作的人类木乃伊著称,但他们也制作了很多不同的动物木乃伊,包括猫、鸟、鳄鱼等。为了在不破坏这些木乃伊的基础上了解它们的内部构造,一个科学家团队使用X光线扫描了英国境内博物馆藏的埃及动物木乃伊。

 

Animal mummies

动物木乃伊

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

 

The scans of more than 300 mummies revealed clues to how the Egyptians used animals in their devotional practices. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

通过对300多具木乃伊的扫描,科学家们能够了解古埃及人在祭祀时如何使用动物。(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)


Empty-handed

空空如也

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

About a third of the scans revealed complete animal skeletons inside. Another third of the mummies contained partial remains. The remaining third contained no traces of bones at all, but instead other materials, such as mud, sticks, eggshells and feathers. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

在这些扫描件中,约三分之一的木乃伊体内含有完整的动物骨架;三分之一的木乃伊体内有部分动物骨架;最后的三分之一木乃伊体内虽然没有任何骨头的痕迹,但填充了其它材料,如泥土、树枝、蛋壳和羽毛。(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)


Zoo of mummies

木乃伊动物园

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

Credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum

来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊

As many as 70 million animals may have been mummified from 800 B.C. into the Roman period, scientists estimate. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

科学家们推测,从公元前800年到罗马时代,多至七千万动物被做成了木乃伊。(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)


Offerings to the gods

献给神明的祭品

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

Animal mummies were created for a number of different reasons. They may have been mummified because they were important animals during their lifetimes, as household pets buried alongside their owners, or food offerings for humans. But the ones in the study were intended as gifts to the gods. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

制作动物木乃伊的原因多种多样。比如它们在生前的地位非常重要,作为宠物陪葬,或是作为人类的食物。但研究人员更倾向于认为这些动物木乃伊是献给神明的礼物。(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)


Fake or symbolic?

伪造品还是意义非凡?

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

These boneless mummies have traditionally been considered fakes or forgeries. But it's probably more likely that the other materials these mummies contained were just as important as the animal itself, and may have been housed alongside the animals while they were alive, the researchers said. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

长久以来,这些无骨木乃伊被认为是伪造品。但研究人员说,更有可能的是这些木乃伊体内的材料和动物本身同等重要,它们或许是动物生前身边不可缺少的东西。(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)


Mummy exhibit

木乃伊展览

古埃及奇妙动物木乃伊展览
Gallery of Egypt's Mysterious Animal Mummies

Manchester Museum plans to open an exhibit on animal mummies in October. A BBC Horizon program about the project aired May 11 at 9 p.m. BST (4 p.m. ET) on BBC 2. (Image credit: Animal Mummies at Manchester Museum)

曼彻斯特博物馆计划在10月份举办动物木乃伊的展览。更多介绍将会于五月十一日下午九点(东部时间下午四点)在BBC-2台地平线系列节目播放(图片来源:曼彻斯特博物馆的动物木乃伊)

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

古人遗骨揭示英国的麻风病或许源自斯堪的纳维亚 Ancient skeleton shows leprosy may have spread to Britain from Scandinavia

古人遗骨揭示英国的麻风病或许源自斯堪的纳维亚
Ancient skeleton shows leprosy may have spread to Britain from Scandinavia

来源:popular-archaeology.com 时间:2015年5月13日 译者:京晶 校对:阡陌 发布:良辰 链接:http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/spring-2015/article/ancient-skeleton-shows-leprosy-may-have-spread... 阅读全文

 

 

来源popular-archaeology.com

时间2015513

译者京晶

校对阡陌

发布:良辰

链接http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/spring-2015/article/ancient-skeleton-shows-leprosy-may-have-spread-to-britain-from-scandinavia

 

古人遗骨揭示英国的麻风病或许源自斯堪的纳维亚
Ancient skeleton shows leprosy may have spread to Britain from Scandinavia

这具出土于英国埃塞克斯郡Great Chesterford的人骨显现出趾骨收缩和关节损伤的病征,后者可能是麻风病所致。后来的基因学和分子学研究证实,这名死者确实患有麻风病。(图片来源:南安普顿大学)

英国南安普顿大学——或者说一个有南安普顿大学的考古学家参与其中的国际研究团队发现证据,表明英国的麻风病可能是从斯堪的纳维亚传播过来的。

该研究团队以荷兰莱顿大学为首,囊括了来自英格兰历史建筑和古迹委员会(Historic England)、英国南安普顿大学、伯明翰大学、萨里大学(Surrey)、斯旺西大学(Swansea)的学者。他们对上世纪50年代在英国埃塞克斯郡Great Chesterford出土的一具有1500年历史的男性骨骸进行了仔细检查。

死者年约二十多岁,他的骨骸显现出麻风病导致的病变特征如趾骨收缩和关节损伤,这恰是极早英国麻风病病例的表现。研究人员采用现代科学技术,不仅证实了这名男子确实患有麻风病,还发现他可能是斯堪的纳维亚南部地区的移民。

 

南安普顿大学的考古学家索尼亚·扎克热夫斯基(Sonia Zakrzewski)博士解释说,基因检测对于疾病的确诊十分必要:并不是所有的麻风病例都能通过骨骼病变诊断出来。有时候,麻风病并不会在骨骼上留下任何痕迹;还有些时候,麻风病与其它疾病对骨骼的影响十分相似,难以区分。在这种情况下,确诊疾病的唯一办法就是利用基因指纹技术或是寻找麻风杆菌留下的其它化学性征。 

研究人员在骨骼上检测出病菌基因和脂类生物标记物,一方面证实了这名男子确实患有麻风病,另一方面也使得他们得以对致病病菌展开细致的基因学研究。

萨里大学的生物考古学家麦克·泰勒(Mike Taylor)教授指出:并不是所有的考古发掘都能获得高质量的基因样本,但在此例中,从骨骼中分离出来的麻风病病菌的基因样本质量非常足以让我们确定病菌的菌株[1]

研究结果显示,这例麻风病菌的菌株3l谱系,在以前发现的中世纪斯堪的纳维亚和英国南部地区的墓葬中也可见到只是这个病菌出现的时间更早——大约在公元56世纪。

 

古人遗骨揭示英国的麻风病或许源自斯堪的纳维亚
Ancient skeleton shows leprosy may have spread to Britain from Scandinavia

英国埃塞克斯郡Great Chesterford出土的人骨。(图片来源:南安普顿大学)

The Great Chesterford skeleton. Image credit University of Southampton

 

学者在人骨中找到麻风病病菌的脂类分子,不仅证实了基因学的分析结果,还揭示出该病例相应菌株与后来的麻风病菌株不同。伯明翰大学荣誉退休的科学家David Minnikin说:在利华休姆信托基金会(Leverhulme Trust)的支持下,我们找到了脂肪酸脂类生物标记物,从而证实死者是麻风病患。然而,这个脂类生物标示物有其特殊性——它与中世纪晚期的麻风病菌有所区别。

 

男子牙齿的同位素(检测)表明,他可能不是英国本土人,而是在北欧其它地区或斯堪的纳维亚南部地区长大的。这一点也与基因分析结果一致,并提出了一个更有趣的可能——当他移居英国时,他把斯堪的纳维亚的麻风病菌种也带到了英国。

 

项目负责人、莱顿大学的Sarah Inskip博士总结道:放射性碳测年证实,这是利用现代生物分子学方法成功研究过的、英国境内最早的病例之一。考古学家和微生物学家都为此激动不已。它有助于我们理解疾病在古代的传播情况,以及不同品系疾病的演化过程,或许还能帮助我们有朝一日战胜它们。我们计划对不同地区的人骨展开类似的研究,构建有关麻风病起源与早期传播的更加完整的认知体系

 

虽然麻风病如今只是一种热带疾病,但它过去曾席卷欧洲。病菌可能随着人类迁移而四散传播,在西欧的古人骸骨——特别是公元7世纪之后的骸骨中,都可见到麻风病例。然而由于年代过于久远,我们对这些病患的致病原因知之甚少。Great Chesterford人骨的研究为我们提供了了解麻风病早期传播的重要契机。

 

该研究成果将发表在《PLOS ONE》杂志。如需拷贝,请向媒体关系处索取。

 

原文:

University of Southampton—An international team, including archaeologists from the University of Southampton, has found evidence suggesting leprosy may have spread to Britain from Scandinavia.

The team, led by the University of Leiden, and including researchers from Historic England and the universities of Southampton, Birmingham, Surrey, and Swansea, examined a 1500 year old male skeleton, excavated at Great Chesterford in Essex, England during the 1950s.

The bones of the man, probably in his 20s, show changes consistent with leprosy, such as narrowing of the toe bones and damage to the joints, suggesting a very early British case. Modern scientific techniques applied by the researchers have now confirmed the man did suffer from the disease and that he may have come from southern Scandinavia.

Archaeologist Dr Sonia Zakrzewski, of the University of Southampton, explains DNA testing was necessary to get a clear diagnosis: "Not all cases of leprosy can be identified by changes to the skeleton. Some may leave no trace on the bones; others will affect bones in a similar way to other diseases. In these cases the only way to be sure is to use DNA fingerprinting, or other chemical markers characteristic of the leprosy bacillus.”

The researchers tested the skeleton for bacterial DNA and lipid biomarkers to confirm the man had definitely had leprosy and to allow them to carry out a detailed genetic study of the bacteria that caused his illness.

Professor Mike Taylor, a Bioarchaeologist from the University of Surrey, says: "Not every excavation yields good quality DNA, but in this case, leprosy DNA isolated from the skeleton was so good it enabled us to identify its strain."

The results showed the leprosy strain belonged to a lineage (3I) which has previously been found in burials from Medieval Scandinavia and southern Britain, but in this case it originates from a much earlier period, dating from the 5th or 6th centuries AD.

The identification of fatty molecules (lipids) from the leprosy bacteria confirmed the DNA results and also showed it was different from later strains. Emeritus scientist David Minnikin, from the University of Birmingham, says: "With Leverhulme Trust support, we recorded strong profiles of fatty acid lipid biomarkers that confirmed the presence of leprosy. However, one class of the lipid biomarkers had distinct profiles that may distinguish these older leprosy cases from later Medieval examples."

Isotopes from the man's teeth showed that he probably did not come from Britain, but more likely grew up elsewhere in northern Europe, perhaps southern Scandinavia. This matched the results of the DNA, and raises the intriguing possibility that he brought a Scandinavian strain of the leprosy bacterium with him when he migrated to Britain.

Project leader Dr Sarah Inskip of Leiden University concludes: "The radiocarbon date confirms this is one of the earliest cases in the UK to have been successfully studied with modern biomolecular methods. This is exciting both for archaeologists and for microbiologists. It helps us understand the spread of disease in the past, and also the evolution of different strains of disease, which might help us fight them in the future. We plan to carry out similar studies on skeletons from different locations to build up a more complete picture of the origins and early spread of this disease."

Although leprosy is nowadays a tropical disease, in the past it occurred in Europe. Human migrations probably helped spread it, and there are cases in early skeletons from western Europe, particularly from the 7th century AD onward. However, the origins of these ancient cases are poorly understood. The study of the Great Chesterford skeleton provided an important opportunity to shed light on the early spread of leprosy.

The results of the study will be published in the journal PLOS ONE and copies of the paper can be requested from Media Relations.

 



[1]菌株又称品系,表示任何由一个独立分离的单细胞(或单个病毒粒子)繁殖而成的纯种群体及其后代。因此, 一种微生物的每一个不同来源的纯培养物均可称为该菌种的一个菌株。根据菌株的定义,菌株实际上是某一微生物达到“遗传性纯”的标志,一旦菌株发生变异,均应标上新的菌株名称。当进行菌种保藏、筛选或科学研究时,在进行学术交流或发表论文时,在利用菌种进行生产时,都必须同时标明该菌种及菌株名称。这也是文中专家们要确定菌株的原因。

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

技术革新可能不是现代人进入欧洲的原因(Technological innovation may not have led modern human into Europe)

技术革新可能不是现代人进入欧洲的原因(Technological innovation may not have led modern human into Europe)

来源:Past Horizons 时间:2015年4月28日 译者:伊西斯 校对:果园里的瓢虫 编辑:曲清 链接: http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/04/2015/technological-innovatio... 阅读全文

来源:Past Horizons
时间:2015年4月28日
译者:伊西斯
校对:果园里的瓢虫
编辑:曲清
链接:
http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/04/2015/technological-innovation-may-not-have-led-modern-humans-into-europe

 

技术革新可能不是现代人进入欧洲的原因(Technological innovation may not have led modern human into Europe)
来自卡拉河谷(Wadi Kharar)的石器 摄像:(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


日本名古屋大学(Nagoya University)和东京大学(the University of Tokyo)的研究者们认为,尼安德特人的灭绝可能与西亚人带来的先进狩猎武器无关。
他们的研究成果发表在《人类进化杂志》(Journal of Human Evolution,开放下载)上。研究者认为我们的祖先可能并非我们所想的那么特殊,或许我们需要重新思考人类击败尼安德特人最终生存下来的原因。


研究人员调查了距今42000-34000年前的先进石制武器。在人类学家的习惯性认知中,武器的革新使人类得以迁徙欧洲。然而,新的调查结果显示我们祖先的装备并不优于尼安德特人,所以与先前的认知不同,武器革新并非我们迁往欧洲的驱动力。


该研究的第一作者、日本名古屋大学的Seiji Kadowaki博士称,“我们的祖先并没有那么特别,我认为他们打败尼安德特人不仅仅是靠技术优势。我们的研究与现代人全球迁徙的进程相关,重点研究迁至欧洲的现代人带来的文化冲击。”


解剖学意义上的现代人(即晚期智人,anatomically modern humans)走出非洲、扩大栖息范围发生在距今55000-40000年前——这个事件对今天生活着的人们的生物起源(biological origin)有巨大影响。尚有其他学说解释解剖学意义上的现代人的地理迁移,不过总体而言,这一事件被认为是人类发展史上的一件大事。


没那么特别


先前的学说认为解剖学意义上的现代人(即我们的直系祖先)在行为和思考方式上较为特别。这些学说将技术及文化革新视为现代人存活、尼安德特人灭绝的原因。
围绕尼安德特人的灭绝一直存在着重大疑团——为什么他们消失了而现代人存活了下来?我们有相似的解剖构造,所以研究者们历来认为尼安德特人与现代人在行为方式上必有不同。但是新研究表明从西亚迁往欧洲的现代人在行为方式上并无大的改变。


研究人员对约40000年前分布在欧洲南部、西部及西亚地区的早期Ahmarian文化和Protoaurignacian文化中人类使用的石器进行了研究。他们利用细小的尖状器作为狩猎工具的尖端,例如投矛(throwing spears)。研究者们原本将此视为意义重大的技术革新——它帮助了现代人从西亚迁徙到尼安德特人所居住的欧洲。


石制尖状器在欧洲出现的时间可能早于黎凡特(Levant)


然而新研究成果所揭示的时间轴并不支持此项学说。如果工艺的进步导致了人类迁徙,则应有证据表明石制尖状器发现地点和人类迁移路线的方向吻合。但通过进一步观察,研究人员发现石制尖状器在欧洲出现的时间可能比黎凡特(西亚的一处历史区域,地中海东部沿岸诸国和岛屿,包括叙利亚、黎巴嫩、巴勒斯坦等——译者注)早了3000年。所以狩猎工具的革新可能是必要因素,但并非总与迁移相关联——人口在没有技术创新时也能迁徙。


“我们观察了以相似的石制尖状器排序而成的时间轴,发现这些石器在出现于黎凡特前,已经被欧洲的人类使用——这和过去所认为的技术革新促使了人们从非洲迁往欧洲的学说相左。”,Kadowaki博士坦言。


“我们的新发现意味着学术界需要重新思考以往的假说,过去认为我们的祖先迁徙至欧洲并得以繁衍、尼人则未能幸存的原因是来自非洲或西亚的文化与技术革新。”


一些新设想


通过重新研究证据,研究者们发现具有可比性的石制武器在欧洲出现约为42000年前,黎凡特约为39000年前。他们相信时间轴为现代人向欧洲迁移的问题提供一些新思路。例如,现代人可能比过去所认为的更早就已迁至欧洲,并在那里改进了工具。


“我们对新理论感到非常激动。我们认为人类演化的原因是复杂的,不能仅归于技术。我们已重新考察了迁往欧洲的北线路线模型,正在计划重估南线迁徙路径——从东非到南亚”,Kadowaki博士说。


原文:

Researchers, from Nagoya University and the University of Tokyo, Japan, say the demise of Neanderthals may have nothing to do with innovative hunting weapons carried by humans from west Asia.


Their findings published in the Journal of Human Evolution (Open Access), mean that we may need to rethink the reasons humans survived Neanderthals – and that we may not have behaved as differently as we thought.


The researchers looked at innovative stone weapons used by humans about 42,000-34,000 years ago. Traditionally, anthropologists believed that innovation in weapons enabled humans to spread into Europe. However, the new study suggests that the innovation was not a driving force for humans to migrate into Europe as previously thought – they were no better equipped than the Neanderthals.


“We’re not so special, I don’t think we survived Neanderthals simply because of technological competence,” said Dr. Seiji Kadowaki, first author of the study from Nagoya University, Japan. “Our work is related to the processes behind the global spread of modern humans, and specifically the cultural impact of the modern humans who migrated to Europe.”


Anatomically modern humans expanded the geographic area they inhabited out of Africa during a period of time 55,000-40,000 years ago – this event made a huge impact on the biological origin of people living today. There are other theories for the geographical spread of anatomically modern humans, but this is generally accepted as a major event in human history.


Not so special


Previous models assumed that anatomically modern humans – our direct ancestors – were special in the way they behaved and thought. These models considered technological and cultural innovation as the reason humans survived and Neanderthals did not.


There has always been a big question around the demise of the Neanderthals – why did they disappear when humans survived? We have a similar anatomy, so researchers traditionally thought there must have been differences in the way Neanderthals and humans behaved. The new study suggests that humans moved from west Asia to Europe without a big change in their behaviour.


The researchers studied stone tools that were used by people in the Early Ahmarian culture and the Protoaurignacian culture, living in south and west Europe and west Asia around 40,000 years ago. They used small stone points as tips for hunting weapons like throwing spears. Researchers previously considered these to be a significant innovation – one that helped the humans migrate from west Asia to Europe, where Neanderthals were living.


Stone points possibly appeared earlier in Europe than Levant


However, the new research reveals a timeline that doesn’t support this theory. If the innovation had led to the migration, evidence would show the stone points moving in the same direction as the humans. But at closer inspection, the researchers showed the possibility that the stone points appeared in Europe 3,000 years earlier than in the Levant, a historical area in west Asia. Innovation in hunting weapons can be necessary, but it’s not always associated with migration – populations can spread without technological innovations.


“We looked at the basic timeline revealed by similar stone points, and it shows that humans were using them in Europe before they appeared in the Levant – the opposite of what we’d expect if the innovation had led to the humans’ migration from Africa to Europe,” said Dr. Kadowaki.


“Our new findings mean that the research community now needs to reconsider the assumption that our ancestors moved to Europe and succeeded where Neanderthals failed because of cultural and technological innovations brought from Africa or west Asia.”


Several new scenarios


By re-examining the evidence, the researchers showed that the comparable stone weapons appeared in Europe around 42,000 years ago, and in the Levant 39,000 years ago. They believe the timings imply several new scenarios about the migration of modern humans into Europe. For example, they are likely to have migrated to Europe much earlier, and developed the tools there.


“We’re very excited about our new model. We think the causes of human evolution are more complicated than just being about technology. Now that we’ve re-examined the traditional model about the northern migration route to Europe, we are planning to re-evaluate the model on the southern migration route – from East Africa to South Asia” said Dr. Kadowaki.

 

收起全文

考古资讯

DNA告诉你8000年前英国与欧洲之间惊人的联系

DNA告诉你8000年前英国与欧洲之间惊人的联系

来源:华威大学 日期:2015年2月27日 译者:大古 校对:Yuki 编辑:西歪歪 链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150227084555.htm 摘要:DNA揭示了8000年前英国与欧洲之间存在着某种惊人的文化联系。研究学者们在英格兰南部海域的一... 阅读全文

 

来源:华威大学

日期:2015227

译者:大古

校对:Yuki

编辑:西歪歪

链接:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150227084555.htm

 

摘要:DNA揭示了8000年前英国与欧洲之间存在着某种惊人的文化联系。研究学者们在英格兰南部海域的一处水下遗址寻获了大量小麦,却意外地发现这些小麦的所属时期比农耕进入英国的时间还早了2000年。

 DNA告诉你8000年前英国与欧洲之间惊人的联系

Credit: © Diana Taliun / Fotolia

图释:麦穗(图库)。证据显示,在英国人开始种植小麦的2000年前,小麦就已经到达了英国。

图片来源: © Diana Taliun / Fotolia

 

我们一直认为古英国在8000多年前就已经从欧洲大陆分离出来,成为一个孤岛,但是新的研究结果显示,事实可能并非如此。

 

研究学者们在英格兰南部海域的一处水下遗址寻获了大量小麦,却意外地发现这些小麦的所属时期比农耕进入英国的时间还早了2000年。

 

研究团队认为,农业的引进通常被视为历史上的决定性时刻,它几乎推动了所有人类群落的发展,为现代社会的形成奠定了基础。

 

研究学者们在《科学》杂志上发表了文章,声称:除非中石器时代英国人与欧洲之间的社交和贸易网没有被隔绝,不然无法合理解释这些小麦从何而来。这些网络也许是由连接英国东南海岸和欧洲大陆的陆桥构成的,它促进了英国狩猎者与欧洲南部农民之间的交流和贸易。

 

单粒小麦(Einkorn【注1】)——这种当时在南欧普遍存在的小麦品种,被发现于一座位于南英格兰的遗址——Bouldnor Cliff【注2】,这片区域因冰川融化而被淹没,单粒小麦的DNA是从这片区域形成地表的沉积物中采集的。

 

来自华威大学(University of Warwick)的Robin Allaby博士是这项调查的主要负责人,他携手布拉德福德大学(University of Bradford )的Vincent Gaffney教授和华威医学院(Warwick Medical School)的Mark Pallen教授,以及海洋考古信托(the Maritime Archaeology Trust【注3】),伯明翰大学(University of Birmingham)和圣安德鲁斯大学(University of St. Andrews),共同进行这个项目。

 

Allaby博士是华威大学生命科学学院的副教授,他认为单粒小麦的发现证实了中石器时代的大不列颠岛并不是我们之前认为的那样与世隔绝,岛上的居民与新石器时代的南欧人一直保持联系。

 

“在8000年前的英国,人们仍然依靠狩猎采集为生;然而与此同时,发源于南欧的农业正逐渐向整个欧洲传播。”他说道。

 

“尽管单粒小麦在南欧新石器时代非常普遍,但它直到2000年后才在Bouldnor Cliff被发现,并且除此之外从未在英国其他地方见过它的身影。单粒小麦之所以能传播到英国,很可能是中石器时代的英国人与远在欧洲的新石器时代农民还保持联系的关系。

 

“陆桥为这种联系提供了合理性。正因如此,在中石器时代,不要说与世隔绝了,英国在文化上,甚至有可能在物质上与欧洲都建立了联系。正是这种单纯的英国狩猎社会,促使他们开始走进农耕时代,而这种经济上的变化最终形成了现代世界。”

 

“我们使用的新型古代DNA鉴定法在测试灵敏度上具有极大飞跃,让我们发现了这片古代地貌的许多元素。”

参与并领导这项研究的布拉德福德大学(University of Bradford)景观考古学主席Vincent Gaffney教授发表了以下评论:

 “这个发现掀开了英国和欧洲历史的新篇章。不仅让我们意识到农业引入的复杂程度远超想象,且让我们明白英国的狩猎采集社会并非与世隔绝,而是与欧洲大部分地区都有贸易往来,属于广阔社会网络的一部分。”

 “这项研究也提到,科学家和考古学家现在可以着手研究深埋于沉积物中的基因物质,这些物质分布在英国与欧洲之间的史前遗迹中。这不仅让我们了解到更多关于英国引进农耕的情况,同时也揭示了几千年前沿海平原的经济社会状况。”

 “提取沉积物中古代DNA的方式,也为研究不列颠群岛及世界海岸大陆架更加古老的地貌打开了新大门。”

 

联合领队的Mark Pallen教授,是华威大学医学院Pallen小组的组长,他对研究学者们是如何运用宏基因组学方法去研究单粒小麦的DNA的作了如下说明:

“我们选择使用在环境研究和古代DNA研究中不太普遍的宏基因组的方法,这意味着我们提取了整个样本的所有DNA,并进行了排序,而不是将目标锁定在某个特定有机体的条形码序列上。由此可见,在分析DNA序列时,我们只注重研究相关有机体的DNA。”

 

这项调查是以海洋考古信托(the Maritime Archaeology Trust)的研究作为基础,因为他们也是从同一遗址采集沉积物样品。该组织的负责人Garry Momber评论道:

“在我所从事的所有项目中,Bouldnor Cliff是最有意义的一个。通过在索伦特海峡浑浊水域的工作,让我们对英国地貌的形成有了新的理解,这超越了我们的想象。”

8000年前,当时居住在英国的人们遗留下这些物质,而大不列颠最终成为了独立的岛,当时的居民比我们想象中要有经验且懂得更先进的技术。DNA与考古结果相符,证明了英国变成岛之后与欧洲大陆的联系更加紧密。”

 

这项研究发表于《科学》杂志,名为《水下遗址沉积物DNA揭示不列颠群岛8000年前已有小麦》

 

文章来源:

整篇文章的材料由华威大学提供。

注:文章材料可能在内容和长度上有所更改。

 

参考文献:

O. Smith, G. Momber, R. Bates, P. Garwood, S. Fitch, M. Pallen, V. Gaffney, R. G. Allaby. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago. Science, 2015; 347 (6225): 998 DOI: 10.1126/science.1261278

【注】:

1Einkorn(学名:Triticum monococcum)是小麦属中最原始的二倍体栽培种。(参考:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einkorn

2. Bouldnor Cliff,位于索伦特海峡的怀特岛附近,被淹没在水下11米处。(参考:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bouldnor_Cliff

3. The Maritime Archaeology Trust,一个注册的慈善机构,对海洋文化遗存研究、调查和开创性技术的应用有超过20年的经验。(参考:http://www.maritimearchaeologytrust.org/

 

DNA evidence shows surprise cultural connections between Britain and Europe 8,000 years ago

 

The ancient British were not cut off from Europeans on an isolated island 8,000 years ago as previously thought, new research suggests.

Researchers found evidence for a variety of wheat at a submerged archaeological site off the south coast of England, 2,000 years before the introduction of farming in the UK.

The team argues that the introduction of farming is usually regarded as a defining historic moment for almost all human communities leading to the development of societies that underpin the modern world.

Published in the journal Science, the researchers suggest that the most plausible explanation for the wheat reaching the site is that Mesolithic Britons maintained social and trade networks spreading across Europe.

These networks might have been assisted by land bridges that connected the south east coast of Britain to the European mainland, facilitating exchanges between hunters in Britain and farmers in southern Europe.

Called Einkorn, the wheat was common in Southern Europe at the time it was present at the site in Southern England -- located at Bouldnor Cliff.

The einkorn DNA was collected from sediment that had previously formed the land surface, which was later submerged due to melting glaciers.

The work was led by Dr Robin Allaby of the University of Warwick, in collaboration with co-leads Professor Vincent Gaffney of the University of Bradford and Professor Mark Pallen of Warwick Medical School, the Maritime Archaeology Trust, the University of Birmingham and the University of St. Andrews.

Dr Allaby, Associate Professor at the University of Warwick's School of Life Sciences, argues that the einkorn discovery indicates that Mesolithic Britain was less insular than previously understood and that inhabitants were interacting with Neolithic southern Europeans:

"8,000 years ago the people of mainland Britain were leading a hunter-gatherer existence, whilst at the same time in southern Europeans farming was gradually spreading across Europe.

"Common throughout Neolithic Southern Europe, einkorn is not found elsewhere in Britain until 2,000 years after the samples found at Bouldnor Cliff. For the einkorn to have reached this site there needs to have been contact between Mesolithic Britons and Neolithic farmers far across Europe.

"The land bridges provide a plausible facilitation of this contact. As such, far from being insular Mesolithic Britain was culturally and possibly physically connected to Europe.

"The role of these simple British hunting societies, in many senses, puts them at the beginning of the introduction of farming and, ultimately, the changes in the economy that lead to the modern world."

"The novel ancient DNA approach we used gave us a jump in sensitivity allowing us to find many of the components of this ancient landscape"

Commenting on the research's findings Professor Vincent Gaffney, research co-lead and Chair in Landscape Archaeology at the University of Bradford, said:

"This find is the start of a new chapter in British and European history. Not only do we now realise that the introduction of farming was far more complex than previously imagined. It now seems likely that the hunter-gather societies of Britain, far from being isolated were part of extensive social networks that traded or exchanged exotic foodstuffs across much of Europe.

"The research also demonstrates that scientists and archaeologists can now analyse genetic material preserved deep within the sediments of the lost prehistoric landscapes stretching between Britain and Europe. This not only tells us more about the introduction of farming into Britain, but also about the societies that lived on the lost coastal plains for hundreds of thousands of years.

"The use of ancient DNA from sediments also opens the door to new research on the older landscapes off the British Isles and coastal shelves across the world"

Co-lead Professor Mark Pallen, leader of the Pallen Group at the University of Warwick's Medical School, explains how the researchers employed a metagenomic approach to study the einkorn DNA:

"We chose to use a metagenomics approach in this research even though this has not commonly been used for environmental and ancient DNA research. This means we extracted and sequenced the entire DNA in the sample, rather than targeted organism-specific barcode sequences. From this we then homed in on the organisms of interest only when analysing DNA sequences."

The research builds on the work of the Maritime Archaeology Trust, who also collected the sediment samples from the site. The Trust's Director, Garry Momber, commented:

"Of all the projects I have worked on, Bouldnor Cliff has been the most significant. Work in the murky waters of the Solent has opened up an understanding of the UK's formative years in a way that we never dreamed possible.

"The material remains left behind by the people that occupied Britain as it was finally becoming an island 8,000 years ago, show that these were sophisticated people with technologies thousands of years more advanced than previously recognised. The DNA evidence corroborates the archaeological evidence and demonstrates a tangible link with the continent that appears to have become severed when Britain became an island."

The research is published in a Science paper entitled: 'Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8,000 years ago'.

 

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Warwick. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

 

Journal Reference:

O. Smith, G. Momber, R. Bates, P. Garwood, S. Fitch, M. Pallen, V. Gaffney, R. G. Allaby. Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago. Science, 2015; 347 (6225): 998 DOI: 10.1126/science.1261278

收起全文
  来自  解明思   的投稿 

考古资讯

ISIS抹杀古代历史的行为“罪同战犯”(ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime')

ISIS抹杀古代历史的行为“罪同战犯”(ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime')

来源:Live Science 作者:Megan Gannon 时间:2015年3月6日 翻译:铃铛 校对:曲清 链接:http://www.livescience.com/50072-isis-attack-on-ancient-history.html ISIS ... 阅读全文

来源:Live Science
作者:Megan Gannon
时间:2015年3月6日
翻译:铃铛
校对:曲清
链接:http://www.livescience.com/50072-isis-attack-on-ancient-history.html

 

ISIS抹杀古代历史的行为“罪同战犯”(ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime')
ISIS militants destroy two statues of kings from the ancient city of Hatra in the Mosul Museum. Credit: Youtube
ISIS武装分子砸毁两尊摩苏尔博物馆藏哈特拉古城国王石像。图片来源:Youtube

 

早已因斩首处决视频而臭名昭著的极端组织“伊斯兰国”(ISIS)最近将目标转向了考古遗址和遗物。各国领导人斥责其对古迹的毁坏行为等同于“战争罪”。

 

上周(2月最后一周——译者注),ISIS放出一段视频,显示该组织正在洗劫北伊拉克摩苏尔博物馆(Mosul Museum)。昨天(3月5日),伊拉克文化部证实ISIS夷平了位于底格里斯(Tigris River)河岸附近、古代亚述帝国的著名首都之一,拥有3300年历史的尼姆鲁特(Nimrud)注一。

 

“这种对文化遗址的周密破坏是一种战争罪行。”联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜•博科娃(Irina Bokova)在今日的一项声明中说注二。

 

“这是对伊拉克人民的另一种攻击行为。这提醒了我们,目前没有任何东西在这个正在发生文化清洗的国家是安全的。其目的是人类的生命、少数民族以及对人类古代文化遗产的系统性破坏。”博科娃说。她呼吁政治和宗教领袖谴责这场毁坏文物的行为,并补充说她已经提醒联合国安理会主席以及国际刑事法庭检察官。

 

“惊人危险的处境”

 

伊拉克建筑师协会(Iraqi Architects Society)负责人Ihsan Fethi表示,推平尼姆鲁德的行为令人极其震惊,因为尼姆鲁德是美索不达米亚乃至世界上最重要的考古遗址之一。

 

“这是所有文明人都不敢相信会发生的罪行。”他补充。

 

尼姆鲁特占地近2平方英里(5平方公里),宫殿庙宇遍布,还有一座堡垒。该城于公元前13世纪由亚述国王撒缦以色一世(Shalmaneser I)建造。几个世纪之后,它成为新亚述帝国的首都,而新亚述帝国被一些学者看做历史上的第一个真正的帝国。

 

你几乎不需亲自前往尼姆鲁德便可欣赏它伟大的建筑和艺术。巴黎卢浮宫、纽约大都会艺术博物馆等都展出该地的人面带翼怪物拉玛苏(lamassu)的雕塑,还有用来装饰宫殿墙壁的浮雕,复杂的雕刻展现了狮子、众王、诸神、战争。

 

西方考古界对尼姆鲁德的考古发掘历史可追溯至19世纪中期。19世纪40年代末至50年代,Austen Henry Layard爵士将古城的浮雕及其他文物运到大英博物馆等机构和收藏者手上。一百年之后,另一位英国考古学家Max Mallowan在尼姆鲁德指挥考古发掘工作。(他的妻子、悬疑小说家阿加莎•克里斯蒂经常加入考古发掘。)

 

尽管如此,Fethi估计目前为止古城只发掘了百分之十五至百分之二十,很可能还藏有更多秘密待人发现,但至少近期不会有继续发掘的可能性。

 

“古城遭遇惊人危机,”Fethi说,“他们(ISIS)待得时间越长,破坏得就会越多。”

 

Fethi担心ISIS下一个目标会是哈特拉(Hatra)古城注三——另一座联合国教科文组织世界遗产,位于摩苏尔西南部约70英里(110公里)。(不了解哈特拉壮观的庙宇和建筑的人可在电影《驱魔人》(The Exorcist)的镜头里一瞥古城胜景)。

 

记录损失

 

破坏事件对于考古学家和文化遗产专家而言说既悲痛又灰心。

 

“我们可以表达愤怒,强调正在发生的损失多么严重——以及损失的意义——但是除了这些,作出补救是极难的。”不列颠伊拉克研究所的Paul Collins说。

 

目前,一些专家尽可能去尝试估算损失的价值。

 

Christopher Jones是在哥伦比亚大学研究古代近东历史的博士生。他表示,自己下载了ISIS上周洗劫摩苏尔博物馆的视频,逐帧逐帧地细看,截图并做笔记。在他的博客“尼尼微的大门”里,他分两次发表了一篇博文,记述了他所能辨认出的博物馆文物。注四

 

他不得不借助博物馆文物的旧照片和模糊的出版照片(包括旧书和论文,多为阿拉伯语)来查找出被毁坏的文物属性。一些被砸碎的摩苏尔博物馆文物很明显是复制品。

 

你可以从文物碎裂的方式来判断其质地。”Jones说。石膏像容易粉碎,而真正的古代石像摔到地上时很难碎裂。

 

在ISIS的视频里,一些比较引人注目的场景中似乎都是复制品或者石膏像。在视频中,一尊大力神的石膏复制像被推倒在地之后立刻裂成无数小碎片,激起一片白尘。在另一个片段中,挂在博物馆哈特拉大厅墙上的一个面像雕塑被一个穿紫色球衣的男子用大锤凿下之后慢慢坠到地上。Jones为此咨询了研究哈特拉的专家Lucinda Dirven,后者认为这个面像雕塑可能也是一个石膏复制品,原型是砌在古城墙上的面具之一。

 

根据伊拉克文化遗产危机清单中摩苏尔博物馆的藏品目录,上文所提到的大力神塑像是哈特拉大厅展出的四尊石膏复制品中的一尊。但是哈特拉大厅的其它30件文物是真品,包括来自哈特拉古城的四尊国王塑像。这四尊塑像疑似均被摧毁——据Jones说,目前已知有27尊哈特拉国王塑像,损毁4尊就相当于损失了总数的15%。

 

哈特拉大厅旁边还有两个展览厅,一个是亚述艺术厅,展示了来自尼姆鲁德和尼尼微(Nineveh,另一座古代亚述首都)的浮雕和圆雕,另一个是伊斯兰展厅,不过这两个展厅均未出现在视频中。

 

除了博物馆内的镜头,视频中还展示了一些人在尼尼微的奈尔加勒城门博物馆(Nergal Gate Museum)前用电动工具摧毁巨大的拉玛苏守卫石像。这些带翼怪兽石像属于一小批还没有来得及运送到其他博物馆的文物。

 

“这些是为数不多仍树立在原址的拉玛苏石像。”Jones表示。

              
注一  ISIS视频显示尼姆鲁德古城已被完全夷平,可见《卫报》4月11日报道:http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/11/isis-video-destruction-ancient-city-militants-iraq-nimrud

 

注二  《联合国教科文组织总干事谴责对伊拉克尼姆鲁特的破坏》,来源:联合国网站,时间2015年3月10日。http://www.unesco.org/new/zh/media-services/single-view/news/unesco_director_general_condemns_destruction_of_nimrud_in_iraq/#.VUiA9fmqpHw

 

注三  ISIS视频显示哈特拉古城也已被摧毁,详情可见《卫报》4月5日报道:http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/05/isis-video-confirms-destruction-at-unesco-world-heritage-site-on-hatra

 

注四  有关博物馆文物破坏情况请见《尼尼微的大门》:第一部分地址:https://gatesofnineveh.wordpress.com/2015/02/27/assessing-the-damage-at-the-mosul-museum-part-1-the-assyrian-artifacts/
第二部分地址:https://gatesofnineveh.wordpress.com/2015/03/03/assessing-the-damage-at-the-mosul-museum-part-2-the-sculptures-from-hatra/


原文:

Already notorious for videos of beheadings and executions, the extremist group that calls itself the Islamic State, or ISIS, has recently taken aim at archaeological ruins and relics in attacks that international leaders say amount to a "war crime."

 

Last week, ISIS released a video of the group ransacking the Mosul Museum in northern Iraq. Yesterday (March 5), Iraq's Ministry of Culture announced that ISIS had razed one of the famous capitals of the Assyrian empire, the 3,300-year-old city of Nimrud, near the banks of the Tigris River.

 

"The deliberate destruction of cultural heritage constitutes a war crime," UNESCO Director General Irina Bokova said in a statement today.

 

"This is yet another attack against the Iraqi people, reminding us that nothing is safe from the cultural cleansing underway in the country: It targets human lives, minorities, and is marked by the systematic destruction of humanity's ancient heritage," Bokova said. She called on political and religious leaders to condemn the destruction, and added that she had alerted the U.N. Security Council and the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court.

 

'Amazingly dangerous situation'

 

The bulldozing of Nimrud was especially shocking because it is one of the most important archaeological sites not just in Mesopotamia, but the world, said Ihsan Fethi, director of the Iraqi Architects Society.

 

"It was a crime against anything any civilized person would believe," Fethi added.

 

Nimrud covers nearly 2 square miles (5 square kilometers) and has sprawling palaces, temples and a citadel. The city was built by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I in the 13th century B.C. A few centuries later, it became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, considered by some scholars to be the first true empire in world history.

 

You hardly had to go to Nimrud to appreciate its architecture and artwork. Today, museums like the Louvre in Paris and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York display Nimrud's statues of human-headed winged beasts, known as lamassu, as well as intricately carved reliefs showing lions, kings, gods and scenes of battle that once decorated palace walls.

 

Nimrud has a long history of excavations by Western archaeologists, going back to the mid-19th century. Sir Austen Henry Layard brought reliefs from the ancient city to the British Museum and other collections in the late 1840s and 1850s. One hundred years later, another British archaeologist, Max Mallowan, directed excavations at Nimrud. (His wife, the mystery novelist Agatha Christie, often joined the expeditions.)

 

Still, Fethi estimated that only 15 to 20 percent of the city had been excavated, and the site possibly hides more discoveries, which, at least in the near future, have little chance of being explored.

 

"This is an amazingly dangerous situation," Fethi said. "The longer [ISIS] stay, the more destruction we'll see."

 

Fethi worries that the next target could be the ancient city of Hatra — another UNESCO World Heritage Site that was founded in the third century B.C., some 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Mosul. (Those who don't know Hatra for its impressive temples and architecture might know the ancient city from its cameo in "The Exorcist.")

 

Documenting the damage

 

The events have been both heartbreaking and frustrating for archaeologists and cultural heritage specialists watching from afar.

 

"We can express outrage and highlight the enormous loss that's going on — and the significance of that loss — but beyond that, it's extremely difficult to do anything," said Paul Collins of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq.

 

For now, some experts are trying to at least take stock of what may have been lost.

 

Christopher Jones, a doctoral student who is studying the history of the ancient Near East at Columbia University, said he downloaded the video of ISIS pillaging the Mosul Museum last week and went through the footage bit by bit, taking screenshots and notes. On his blog, Gates of Nineveh, Jones published a two-part post describing the objects he could identify.

 

He had to turn to older images from inside the museum and obscure publications — older books and academic papers, mostly in Arabic — to piece together a picture of what was destroyed. Some of the objects that were smashed at the Mosul Museum were clearly replicas.

 

"You can tell from some of them by the way they break," Jones said. Plaster casts tend to shatter, while authentically ancient stone sculptures are much more durable when they're toppled over.

 

Some of the more dramatic scenes in the ISIS video seem to involve replicas or casts. In one part of the video, a plaster copy of a statue of Hercules is pushed to the floor, and it immediately smashes into thousands of little pieces, kicking up a cloud of white dust. In another scene, a sculpture of a face hanging on the wall of the museum's Hatra Hall falls to the floor in slow motion after a man in a purple polo shirt takes a sledgehammer to it. Jones spoke to Lucinda Dirven, an expert on Hatra, who thinks the face could be a plaster cast of one of the masks that was built into a wall at the ancient city.

 

That Hercules statue was listed as one of the four replicas in the Hatra Hall, according to a basic inventory of the Mosul Museum that was shared on the IraqCrisis cultural heritage mailing list. But there were 30 other objects from the same gallery listed as authentic, including four statues of kings from Hatra. All four of those statues seem to have been destroyed — a 15 percent loss of all existing statues of Hatrene kings, as just 27 were known, Jones said.

 

Besides the Hatra Hall, the Mosul Museum has two other galleries: one dedicated to Assyrian art with reliefs and statues from Nimrud and Nineveh (another ancient Assyrian capital) and an Islamic hall, which was not shown in the video.

 

That video also cut to footage taken beyond the walls of the museum, at Nineveh. It showed men using power tools to destroy the colossal lamassu that stood guard at the Nergal Gate Museum. The winged statues were among the few that hadn't already been shipped off to other museums.

 

"Those were some of the few lamassu that were still in situ," Jones said.


 

收起全文

考古资讯

航拍飞行器揭露约旦古墓被盗情况 Dron revela el saqueo de antigüedades en Jordania

航拍飞行器揭露约旦古墓被盗情况 Dron revela el saqueo de antigüedades en Jordania

日期:2015年4月20日 原文链接: http://www.informador.com.mx/cultura/2015/584821/6/dron-revela-el-saqueo-de-antiguedades-en-jordania.htm 译者:果子 校对:仓鼠 Chad Hill操控航拍飞行器飞跃五千年古墓。... 阅读全文

日期:2015420

原文链接:

http://www.informador.com.mx/cultura/2015/584821/6/dron-revela-el-saqueo-de-antiguedades-en-jordania.htm

译者:果子

校对:仓鼠

航拍飞行器揭露约旦古墓被盗情况 Dron revela el saqueo de antigüedades en Jordania

Chad Hill操控航拍飞行器飞跃五千年古墓。AP/S.Mcneil


o    该区域发现的瓷罐被收藏家渴求

 

通过绘图定位盗墓者的藏匿路线及盗墓发生的大概时间

 

FIFA,约旦(201543日)在约旦南部一青铜时代的大型墓地,考古学家找到一种独特的方法来探测黑暗世界中的古墓被盗情况。调查者们正在根据遥控飞行器拍摄到的图片,描绘被盗时的确切地点以及大约发生的时间。

 

距今已有五千年历史的FIFA墓地,建立于约旦死海一平原上,其中包含近万座墓穴,为该区域众多考古遗迹之一。

 

基于遥控飞行器在墓中拍摄的照片以及与取得信任的盗墓者交谈后,这些考古学家寻着这些陶罐和其他被盗物品的踪迹找到了中间人以及买家们。考古学者希望得到黑市更多的理解,希望这样扼制盗墓现象。

 

这是一项复杂诡谲的侦查工作,从离约旦死海不远的盗墓点,到遍布世界各地的收藏家与买主。

 

从这些照片上侦测出了该墓地最近被盗的地点。芝加哥德保罗大学的考古学者Morag Kersel指出,这些图片能与出现在一些商人店里的青铜时期的罐子相联系。他带队“追陶寻罐”项目,也与约旦古物部门信息共享旨在终结盗墓事件。

 

近日上午,该小组成员徒步走遍这些已被毁坏的墓葬,时不时踩到骸骨嘎吱嘎吱的响,同时一架小型六轴航拍器在他们上空嗡嗡作响。据专家表示,近年来遥控飞机在考古学上的使用日渐普及,从而逐渐取代了飞艇、风筝和航空球用于从空中观察地面挖掘情况。

 

康涅狄格大学考古学者Chad Hill,制作了在约旦使用的遥控飞行器,他操控飞行器潜入古墓中还未曾被绘图的地方。根据飞行器拍照到的图像,Hill能更详细地看出盗墓者怎样破坏了墓地。

Hill说,“时间让我们得以发现变化,不仅仅是“某人挖了一巨坑”,还能发现石块被移到了哪里。”

“这种空间上的解决方法,事实上到近年来才成为可能。”他补充道。


原文:

o    Las vasijas que se pueden encontrar en la zona son codiciadas por coleccionistas

A través de un mapeo ubicarán la ruta del hurto y un aproximado de cuándo sucedió


FIFA, JORDANIA (03/ABR/2015).- En un extenso cementerio de la Edad de Bronce en el sur de Jordania, los arqueólogos han hallado una manera única de detectar el oscuro mundo del saqueo de antigüedades. Mediante fotografías tomadas por un dron, los investigadores están trazando exactamente dónde "y más o menos cuando" los ladrones robaron estas tumbas antiguas.



El cementerio en Fifa, de cinco mil años de antigüedad, está en una llanura del Mar Muerto de Jordania y contiene cerca de 10 mil tumbas, parte del vasto patrimonio arqueológico de la región.


Con base en las imágenes el dron y conversaciones con algunos saqueadores luego de ganarse su confianza, los arqueólogos tratan de seguir el rastro de vasijas y otros objetos robados hasta los intermediarios y compradores. Los arqueólogos tienen la esperanza de obtener una mejor comprensión del mercado negro y tal vez frustrar futuros saqueos.



Es un sofisticado trabajo de detective que empieza en el propio sitio, no muy lejos del Mar Muerto en Jordania y acaba entre los coleccionistas y compradores en todo el mundo.

Las fotografías aéreas detectan los puntos donde han ocurrido los saqueos más recientes en el cementerio. Esas imágenes pueden vincularse entonces con ollas de la Edad de Bronce que aparecen en tiendas de comerciantes, dijo Morag Kersel, arqueólogo de la Universidad DePaul en Chicago. Kersel, que dirige el proyecto "Sigamos las Vasijas", también comparte los datos con el Departamento de Antigüedades de Jordania a fin de combatir el saqueo.

En una mañana reciente, los miembros del equipo recorrieron a pie las tumbas devastadas, a veces haciendo crujir los huesos antiguos con sus botas, mientras un diminuto helicóptero de seis aspas zumbaba por encima. El uso de aeronaves teledirigidas se ha vuelto cada vez más común en los últimos años en la arqueología, en sustitución de dirigibles, cometas y globos para observar sitios de excavación desde el aire, según los expertos.

 


Chad Hill, un arqueólogo de la Universidad de Connecticut y quien construyó el dron utilizado en Jordania, lo dirigió hacia una parte del cementerio que no había sido mapeada todavía. El robot aéreo tomó fotografías que le permitieron a Hill ver con gran detalle cómo los saqueos han alterado

"Podemos ver el cambio a través del tiempo, no sólo 'alguien cavó una fosa enorme' y ver a dónde fueron movidas las piedras", dijo Hill. "Es un nivel de resolución de datos de los espacios que en realidad nunca fue posible hasta el último par de años", agregó.


 

 


收起全文
  来自  张楠   的投稿 
    人人小站

    TA关注的小站11

    • 不正常人类研究中心
    • 我信异想才有日会天开
    • 种群性精神病收容站
    • 二分之一天堂
    • 21Grams4U
    • 美丽翘缏缏儿
    • 这个小站很邪恶
    • 考古资讯
    • AMAY IN EDEN
    • 天真的人类学家
    X