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新研究:现代人至少分两拨走出非洲 Modern humans left Africa in at least two waves

新研究:现代人至少分两拨走出非洲  Modern humans left Africa in at least two waves

作者:Daniel Zadik 时间:2014年4月30日 译者:点点 编辑:伏维阁主 编译自:http://theconversation.com/out-of-africa-modern-humans-left-the-home-continent-in-at-least-two-waves-25834 数学模型指出... 阅读全文

作者:Daniel Zadik

时间:2014430

译者:点点

编辑:伏维阁主

编译自:http://theconversation.com/out-of-africa-modern-humans-left-the-home-continent-in-at-least-two-waves-25834

 

数学模型指出,现代人(也就是智人)分两条路线走出非洲。最早一拨现代人走出非洲的时间可能将上溯到13万年前。


新研究:现代人至少分两拨走出非洲  Modern humans left Africa in at least two waves

图片:这位巴布亚新几内亚“胡力温格”部落的居民,是“海岸流民”后裔。(来源:WikiCommons

 

现代人起源于非洲,而后迁徙到世界各地,这早已成为公认的事实。他们首先通过阿拉伯半岛,迁徙到亚洲和欧洲。还有部分人来到远东,最终到达美洲和太平洋诸岛。


然而这样一个简单的描述,并不足以解释亚洲和大洋洲为何会有许多不同人种。现在研究人员通过基因数据和考古资料,可能已经找到了答案:现代人至少分两拨走出非洲。

 

总体而言,整个亚洲地区的军民在外貌上都十分相似。但是部分生活在太平洋岛屿和偏远地区的居民,外貌却与大多数亚洲人大相径庭。他们有时被统称为“尼格利陀人”或“小黑人”(Negritos。虽然这叫法有点奇怪,但却是被广泛接受的学界术语)。他们与巴布亚人、美拉尼西亚人及澳大利亚原住民一样,比生活在周围的其他族群拥有更深的肤色和更卷曲的头发。

于是有学者提出所谓“海岸流民”理论:第一批定居在阿拉伯半岛的现代人,大概是东非的渔民,他们乘船越过红海来到中亚。在这片新土地上,他们依然坚持自己沿海生活的传统,不愿意进入内陆。在人口逐渐增多之后,大海就成为了一个可靠的食物来源,而船只也给予了他们移动的灵活性。他们逐渐沿南亚海岸扩散,穿越入海口到达太平洋岛屿,并最终发现澳洲。后来,部分人群在亚洲内陆定居,采取了新的生活方式,拥有了越来越多的人口。他们也向南部扩散,逐渐取代或吸收了曾经生活在沿海地区的海岸流民,只有偏远地区除外。

 

上述假说似乎已经解决了问题,直到最近才受到遗传学研究的挑战。遗传学研究把每个“尼格利陀”族群和周边近邻归为一组,而不是和其他“尼格利陀人”或澳大拉西亚人(指生活在大洋洲的居民——编者注)。那么全亚洲的“尼格利陀人”为何会拥有相似的外貌特征?难道他们各自进化出相似特征,以适应类似的环境?如果真是这样,他们的近邻为什么跟他们长得不一样?

 

《美国国家科学院论文集》最近公布了一项新研究(戳这里),解决了上述证据之间的矛盾。科学家借助数学模型,分析了亚洲和澳大拉西亚人的基因组成和头骨形状,并测试了多种假说。测试模型必须足够简单,而且尽可能涵盖所有情况。所以它们须满足以下条件:

 

1.      人群向东迁至内陆,并从那里向南扩散

2.      人群沿“海岸流民”路线迁徙,然后向北蔓延

3.      人群分别按照上述两种路线迁徙,但没有交集

4.      人群分别按照上述两种路线迁徙,在途中相遇融合

 

新研究:现代人至少分两拨走出非洲  Modern humans left Africa in at least two waves

图片:人类迁徙的四种模式 [来源:Reyes-Centeno / 2014年美国国家科学院院刊]

 

现实情况当然要复杂得多。成千上万人离开非洲,迁徙融合,并未遵循一个整体规划。但是如果某个模型得出了最接近事实的结果,那么它无疑最接近真相。

 

研究发现,第4种模型可以更好地解释“尼格利陀人”的基因数据和头骨。也就是说,现代人很可能分两拨走出非洲——一拨人走沿海路线,另一拨人走内陆路线。

 

“尼格利陀人”很可能是“海岸流民”和内陆祖先的混血后代。澳大利亚人、美拉尼西亚人和巴布亚人似乎仅是“海岸流民”的后裔。而其他亚洲人群-——包括达罗毗荼语系诸民族(主要生活在南亚——编者注)和大部分南印度人,其中许多曾被认为是“海岸流民”的后裔——似乎主要是内陆祖先的后裔。

最关键的问题是时间。如果澳大拉西亚人没有内陆祖先的血统,那么他们的祖先必须在内陆人出现之前经过亚洲——事实似乎确实如此。研究表明,“海岸流民” 大约在5万年前(当内陆祖先刚刚开始迁徙)抵达澳大利亚,在大约13万年前走出非洲。

 

也就是说,第一拨现代人走出非洲的时间,可能要比科学家过去的估算要早得多,而且和现代人的起源时间非常接近(第一例考古证据来自大约20万年前)。有趣的是,在大约13.5万年前,东非遭遇了一系列大干旱,也许这正是海岸流民们走出非洲的契机。

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考古资讯

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰 Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰  Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

日期:2013年9月17日 作者:Tom Chivers 翻译:京晶 校对:伏维阁主 链接:http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100236194/mary-anning-dorsets-semi-forgotten-heroine-of-science/ ... 阅读全文

日期:2013917

作者:Tom Chivers

翻译:京晶

校对:伏维阁主

链接:http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/tomchiversscience/100236194/mary-anning-dorsets-semi-forgotten-heroine-of-science/

 

 

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰  Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

图片:从查茅斯海滩远眺金冠崖(Golden Cap)。

(本文图片全部由原作者Tom Chivers提供)

 

今天我(原文作者)想谈的,是一位杰出的女科学家——玛丽·安宁(Mary Anning)。

 

她来自英国多塞特郡西部的海滨城市莱姆里杰斯(Lyme Regis)。在莱姆里杰斯和查茅斯(Charmouth)两城之间,有一道巨大的石灰岩和页岩悬崖,名为“蓝色里阿斯”(侏罗纪分早、中、晚三世。在欧洲,早侏罗纪世又被称为里阿斯世——译者注)。它已经有两忆年的历史了;早在三叠纪末期、侏罗纪早期,它就横亘于此。当时这里还不是一处迷人的度假胜地,而是一片温暖的浅海,生命的温床。

 

若你有机会亲自来到这里,你不妨去查茅斯与莱姆之间的海滩上漫步一番——就像我在过去32年里无数次做过的那样(因为我的外祖母是在附近的村子里长大的)。在这里,你很可能会被化石绊倒——我绝不是在夸夸其谈。你可以在悬崖下散落的石堆里找到螺旋状的海贝(也就是菊石,现代鹦鹉螺的祖先)和光滑的锥壳(也就是箭石,与现代乌贼相似)。在查茅斯-莱姆海滩上,你可能会看到正在享有野餐的家庭和堆沙子的儿童;与此同时,你可能会一脚踢到有1.85亿年历史的侏罗纪软体动物的遗骸。这真是一种相当奇妙的感觉,至少我是这样认为的。

 

 

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰  Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

图片:查茅斯-莱姆海滩上的菊石化石。

 

不过,玛丽·安宁在1811年发现的东西尤其引人注目。这位本地地毯商的女儿,发现了一具化石骨架。当时人们认为,这样巨大的东西一定是“龙”的骨架。虽然她的兄弟约瑟夫最早发现头骨,但只有12岁的玛丽·安宁不辞辛劳,花费10年功夫,终于挖掘出余下的骨架。如今我们把这具骨架的主人称为“鱼龙”;更具体一点说,是“泰曼鱼龙”(学名Temnodontosaurus platyodon)。它是一种生活在海洋里的爬行动物,身长达到17英尺(约合5.2米);它也是一头凶猛的捕食者。玛丽·安宁发现的骨架,是人类历史上发现的第一条鱼龙。不久之后,她还发现了第一具蛇颈龙骨架(另一种海洋爬行动物),以及第一具翼龙骨架(一种会飞的爬行动物)。(特此注明:上面提到的一众远古爬行动物,都不是“恐龙”。)

 

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰  Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

图片:玛丽·安宁发现的鱼龙化石,如今陈列在自然历史博物馆。

 

当时人们已经对《圣经》的权威产生质疑。玛丽·安宁的发现,给这场持续不休的争论带来了颠覆性的转折。人们忽然发现,地球上曾经出现过与已知生物全然不同的物种。虽然过去

古生物化石也时有发现——例如鸭嘴龙的大腿骨,还有不可胜数的三叶虫和菊石,但是安宁的发现无疑最震撼人心。她为我们提供了坚实的科学证明:这些物种曾经存在,但是早已灭绝。在猛犸象和其它古生物化石出土之后,法国动物学家乔治·居维叶(Georges Cuvier)指出,地球上曾经发生过数次生物灭绝事件。但是他的观点与《圣经》里“上帝完美地创造了整个世界”的说法截然相悖。如果我们按照《圣经》推论,那么猛犸象等古代生物理应存活至今,至少是生活在人迹罕至的地区。但是玛丽·安宁在多塞特郡荒野发现的鱼龙化石,却让这一推论的可信度大为下降。她的惊人发现,也为查尔斯·达尔文提供了一片思想的沃土:随着时光推移,物种也将改变。这已经成为再清楚不过的事实。达尔文的任务,是在此基础之上,搞清物种如何改变、为何改变。

 

读者您不妨亲自循着查茅-莱姆海滩,来一次化石之旅;不过你必须仔细留意涨潮和退潮的时间。山体滑坡常会让新化石露出地表,但这也意味着你必须倍加小心。我曾经是一个痴迷于恐龙和远古世界、对“一百万年”完全没有概念的孩子。我曾经亲手发掘出一块剑龙化石——这段经历着实不同寻常。我曾和双亲、祖母一道,整日进行发掘。就在几周以前,我还和妻子以及她的娘家人来这里寻找化石。(我曾经得到过一块鱼龙椎骨化石,和安宁发现的那块没什么两样。传说那块化石是我叔叔在这片海滩上找到的。不过我一直怀疑他其实是从查茅斯化石商店买来的。)每次我在海滩上寻找化石的时候,我总会不由回想——在200年以前,玛丽·安宁也曾来到这里,做和我一样的事。

 

终其一生,玛丽·安宁都没有获得她应得的认可。只因为她是女性,英国皇家地理学会将她拒之门外。她发现的生物,没有一种是用她的名字命名的(不过在她生前,已经有一位名叫路易斯·阿加西斯(Louis Agassiz)的博物学家用她的名字命名了两种鱼类,分别是“Acrodus anningiae”和“Belenostomus anningiae”。在她去世之后,人们又用她的名字命名了几种古老的爬行动物,以纪念她的科学成就。)但是玛丽·安宁最终在贫困交加中去世,终年只有47岁。虽说人们并未把她完全遗忘,但我觉得这位杰出的女科学家,应该被更多人了解和纪念。

 

玛丽·安宁:几乎被人遗忘的科学女杰  Mary Anning, Dorset's semi-forgotten heroine of science

图片:在查茅斯海滩上寻找化石的玛丽·安宁,远处的金冠崖依稀可见。


 

 

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考古资讯

西班牙发现7000年前洞穴岩画 7,000-year-old cave paintings found in Spain

西班牙发现7000年前洞穴岩画  7,000-year-old cave paintings found in Spain

时间:2014年5月20日 作者:Alex Dunham 译者:伏维阁主 来源:The Local 链接:http://www.thelocal.es/20140520/7000-year-old-cave-paintings-unearthed-in-spain 考古学家在西班牙东部地区发现了12幅史前岩画,描绘了7 ... 阅读全文

时间:2014年5月20日

作者:Alex Dunham

译者:伏维阁主

来源:The Local

链接:http://www.thelocal.es/20140520/7000-year-old-cave-paintings-unearthed-in-spain

 

考古学家在西班牙东部地区发现了12幅史前岩画,描绘了7 000年前人类狩猎的景象。

 

西班牙发现7000年前洞穴岩画  7,000-year-old cave paintings found in Spain

图片:岩画中的公牛,颜色已经过增强处理。(来源:Vilafranca市政厅)

 

维拉弗兰卡(Vilafranca)巴伦西亚市(Valencian)市政厅代表在本周二宣布了这项重大发现。如此重量级的发现实属罕见。而历史上的此类第一例重大发现,也出于此地。

 

目前考古学家仍在本地区继续搜寻岩画,但是他们已经发现了许多杰出的作品,细致地描绘了史前人类狩猎的景象,画中出现了公牛、羊和在后面追赶的弓箭手。不过在必要的安全防护措施建立起来之前,岩画的具体发现地点仍然不得而知。

 

去年4月,西班牙南部地区一处有5 000年历史的岩画遭到窃贼破坏。窃贼觊觎这件列名“联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录”的艺术品,试图把它从洞穴墙壁上剥离下来。

 

考古学家已经在西班牙地中海沿岸发现了数百处史前岩画遗址。根据联合国教科文组织的统计,西班牙拥有的史前岩画数量居欧洲之冠。

 

西班牙发现7000年前洞穴岩画  7,000-year-old cave paintings found in Spain

图片:岩画中的弓箭手。(来源:Vilafranca市政厅)

 

安达卢西亚洞穴学联合会(FAE)主席何塞·安东尼奥·贝罗卡尔(José Antonio Berrocal)表示:“目前大多数岩画遗址都处于无人管理的状态,我们有必要增强监管。虽然它们在理论上受到法律保护,但却缺乏相关政策支持。”

 

这位洞穴研究专家介绍说,“显然你不能给每个洞穴都安排警力。但我们确实需要建立一个可以持续运作的管理系统,安排警员定期前往洞穴查看。就目前来看,关闭洞穴可能是我们唯一的选择——如果我们想要保护这些重要的世界文化遗产。”

 

世界教科文组织网站上说,西班牙岩画“代表了人类发展过程中的一个关键阶段……其绘画风格和创作主题都独具特色。”

 

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玛丽·安宁215岁诞辰特稿:出生地莱姆里吉斯被评选为英国最佳化石搜集地 Lyme Regis voted best place to hunt fossils

玛丽·安宁215岁诞辰特稿:出生地莱姆里吉斯被评选为英国最佳化石搜集地  Lyme Regis voted best place to hunt fossils

时间:2014年5月9日 译者:伏维阁主 编译:http://www.bridportnews.co.uk/news/11203874.UPDATE__Lyme_Regis_voted_best_place_to_hunt_fossils/?ref=var_0 今天是英国古生物学家和化石收集者玛丽&安宁2... 阅读全文

时间:2014年5月9日

译者:伏维阁主

编译:http://www.bridportnews.co.uk/news/11203874.UPDATE__Lyme_Regis_voted_best_place_to_hunt_fossils/?ref=var_0


今天是英国古生物学家和化石收集者玛丽·安宁215岁诞辰。此前不久,她出生和工作的城市莱姆里吉斯被BBC旅游杂志《Countryfile Magazine》评选为英国最佳化石搜集地。

 

玛丽·安宁215岁诞辰特稿:出生地莱姆里吉斯被评选为英国最佳化石搜集地  Lyme Regis voted best place to hunt fossils

图:google今天为纪念玛丽·安宁诞辰而设计的涂鸦。她在莱姆里吉斯发现的侏罗纪海洋化石,改变了当时人们对古生物学和地球史的看法。(来源:Google)

 

玛丽·安宁215岁诞辰特稿:出生地莱姆里吉斯被评选为英国最佳化石搜集地  Lyme Regis voted best place to hunt fossils

图:今年5月举行的莱姆里吉斯化石节。(来源:Bridport News)

 

近日莱姆里吉斯(Lyme Regis)获选成为“英国十大最佳化石发掘地”之首,肯特的赫恩海湾(Herne Bay)和埃塞克斯的Walton-on-the-Naze分别名列其后。

 

莱姆里吉斯博物馆策展人大卫·塔克(David Tucker)表示,这条新闻对莱姆里吉斯来说意义非凡,它能鼓励更多人关注化石收集。“莱姆里吉斯地区的化石收集史已有超过200年了。而在过去20年中,化石收集活动的热潮有增无减,这完全得益于电子科技的飞速发展——比如我们现在可以在电视屏幕上观看恐龙复原动画。”

 

“莱姆里吉斯是现代古生物学的故乡。化石搜集活动在本地一直非常流行。由于海岸侵蚀,人们常能在沙滩上找到化石。本地的化石搜集活动也十分安全,因为到处都设有落石警告等危险预警标志。而我们莱姆里吉斯博物馆的原址所在,就是维多利亚时期的著名化石收集者玛丽·安宁的家。”

 

莱姆里吉斯以侏罗纪大型海洋生物化石闻名于世。去年4月,化石搜集者在蒙默思海滩的侏罗纪岩层中出土了一块鱼龙头骨化石。今年1月,一场大风暴袭击了莱姆里吉斯的侏罗纪海岸(Jurassic Coast),剥离了表面的岩层。于是莱姆里吉斯在今年2月又迎来了另一场化石盛宴。数百名化石搜集者趁风暴间歇设法进入海滩展开发掘。而莱姆里吉斯海滩上的化石搜集活动,也在今年3月被评选为世界最棒的海滩活动之二,排名仅次于位列第一的菲律宾浮潜。

 

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复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

时间:2014年4月20日 译者:伏维阁主 编译自:http://www.thesacredpage.com/2014/04/crucifixion-in-ancient-world-and-why.html 今天是春分月圆之后的第一个星期日,也就是基督教传统中的复活节,以纪念耶稣被钉死在十字架上然后复活的事迹。那么为什么耶稣会被钉... 阅读全文

 

时间:2014420

译者:伏维阁主

编译自:http://www.thesacredpage.com/2014/04/crucifixion-in-ancient-world-and-why.html

 

今天是春分月圆之后的第一个星期日,也就是基督教传统中的复活节,以纪念耶稣被钉死在十字架上然后复活的事迹。那么为什么耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?且让我们从考古学的角度来探索一番。


复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

图1:耶稣受十字架苦刑

图片来源:http://www.trabalhinhos.blogspot.com/

 

传播恐怖的利器


“十字架苦刑”拥有强大的震慑力量,如同宣告:这就是反抗罗马统治的下场。罗马人喜欢用十字架苦刑来对付政敌,目的是羞辱他们。大规模的十字架苦刑直到公元前71年才开始出现。当时斯巴达克斯和他的6 000名追随者被钉死在亚壁古道边的十字架上,象征着罗马帝国的绝对胜利——这是大规模十字架苦刑第一次见于文字记载。而在公元前332年的泰尔围城战之后,亚历山大大帝把2 000名泰尔市民送上十字架。


一般来说,十字架苦刑主要用于惩处逃跑的奴隶和罪犯。生活于罗马时代的希腊作家普鲁塔克写道:“每个被判处死刑的罪犯都会背上十字架。”十字架苦刑还常被用于惩罚背叛者。鉴于耶稣与巴拉巴(Barabbas)革命关系匪浅,所以耶稣以“犹太人之王”的罪名被钉死在十字架上,绝不是个巧合——罗马人似乎想借此宣称:这就是公然挑战凯撒权威的下场。

 

考古学证据


关于十字架苦刑的考古学证据相当罕见,其中最重要的证据可以追溯到公元1世纪。1968年,考古学家发掘出约哈南(Yohanan Ben Ha’galgol)的遗骨。这名年龄在24~28岁之间的年轻男子似乎就死于十字架苦刑。他的双腿都已折断,在他的脚跟里还留着一枚铁钉。铁在当时价值十分高昂,所以罗马人通常会把铁钉从尸体上移除再利用。但是约哈南脚上的铁钉末端已经弯曲,显然是碰到了某种坚硬的物体(很可能是木头上的节瘤)。


学者据此复原了约哈南之死。十字架苦刑的具体实施方法不只一种。生活于公元1世纪的犹太历史学家约瑟夫斯(Titus Flavius Josephus)记录了多种罗马十字架苦刑体位。其中第3种似乎最符合约哈南的情况。


复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

图2:罗马十字架苦刑体位

图片来源:thesacredpage


如上所述,十字架最开始是耻辱的象征,所以早期基督教徒可能并不愿意描绘耶稣受刑的场景。事实上,我们目前只发现了两件关于耶稣受十字架苦刑的早期记录,而它们的历史都相当晚近。第一件是雕刻艺术品,位于公元5世纪建成的罗马圣撒比纳教堂(Santa Sabina)的木门之上,描述了耶稣和两个小偷一起接受十字架苦刑。另一件也是公元5世纪制成的装饰性雕刻艺术品,现藏于大英博物馆。那是一个象牙雕成的骨灰盒,在耶稣右边站着圣母玛利亚和圣若望,在他左边站着一名罗马士兵。

 

复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

图3:罗马圣撒比纳教堂木门装饰图案

图片来源:thesacredpage


复活节特辑:为何耶稣会被钉死在十字架上?

图4:象牙骨灰盒装饰图案

图片来源:thesacredpage

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熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年前的古代官道遗迹(1200年前の古代官道跡 熊本市大江遺跡群)

熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年前的古代官道遗迹(1200年前の古代官道跡 熊本市大江遺跡群)

资讯日期:4/5/2014 文章来源:熊本日日新聞 文章翻译:大闸蟹 校译编辑:狐狸 豌豆 狐狸 原文链接:http://kumanichi.com/news/local/main/20140405001.xhtml 熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年... 阅读全文

资讯日期:4/5/2014
文章来源:熊本日日新聞
文章翻译:大闸蟹
校译编辑:狐狸 豌豆 狐狸
原文链接:http://kumanichi.com/news/local/main/20140405001.xhtml





熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年前的古代官道遗迹

熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年前的古代官道遗迹(1200年前の古代官道跡 熊本市大江遺跡群)


发掘者认为大江遗迹群出土的遗迹是距今约一千二百年前的古代官道(西海道驿路)。并列排在中间的黑色木桩为南北向,由此可知官道是笔直的南北走向。
(大江遺跡群から出土した約1200年前の古代官道(西海道駅路)とみられる遺構。中央に並ぶ黒い突起の列が南北方向を示しており、官道が南北に真っすぐに走っていたことが分かる=熊本市中央区大江)

熊本市大江遗迹群 发现一千二百年前的古代官道遗迹(1200年前の古代官道跡 熊本市大江遺跡群)



熊本市4日确认了在中央区大江的大江遗迹群里发现的一处遗迹结构为距今约一千二百年前的古代官道(西海道驿路)遗迹的一部分。在县内已发现的十几处西海道驿路遗迹结构中,这是面积最大、保存状况最好的一处。

官道是7世纪后叶,由国家在全国范围内修筑的主干道路。在九州被称为“西海道驿路”,它的公务作用是通过连结大宰府和各国府,保证紧急情况时各地联络通畅以及运输赋税物品等。


此次的调查区域为,熊本学园大学附属中学南侧约2千平方米。随着该大学附属高中新校舍的开工建设,熊本市于2013年12月开始启动调查工作。研究者根据周边已发现的遗构等推断出新校舍位于西海道驿路的道路之上。

已发现的驿路遗迹宽约11米,长约60米,呈南北向笔直延伸。在横截面为V字形的水渠状遗迹中,最深处可达1.5米。中央夯实、宽约2~3米的路面为通行部分,在此发现了反复修整的痕迹以及貌似车辙的2道条形洼坑。

熊本市市文化振兴科文化遗产保护主任原田範昭说:“这条驿路自7世纪后叶开始修筑,9世纪前叶被改造成水渠状之后便一直被掩埋在这里,且在中世之前一直作为道路使用。从修补痕迹及路面上留下的巨石碎块等遗迹现象可以看到当时人们的努力”。熊本城调查研究中心文化遗产保护主管鹤嶋俊彦也表示:”遗迹与推测得出的路线惊人的一致。从这里不仅可以看出驿路是直线型路线,而且还能看出200年间的驿路制度(交通系统)的变化,意义深远。“

文化振兴科将于6日11时,13时,15时分别召开3场现场说明会。(浪床敬子)












原文: 1200年前の古代官道跡 熊本市大江遺跡群

 大江遺跡群から出土した約1200年前の古代官道(西海道駅路)とみられる遺構。中央に並ぶ黒い突起の列が南北方向を示しており、官道が南北に真っすぐに走っていたことが分かる=熊本市中央区大江
 
熊本市は4日、同市中央区大江の大江遺跡群から、約1200年前の古代の官道(西海道駅路)跡の一部とみられる遺構を確認したことを明らかにした。県内で確認されている十数カ所の西海道駅路の遺構の中で、最も検出面積が大きく、残存状態も良いという。

官道は7世紀後半に国家が全国に整備した主要幹線道路。九州では「西海道駅路」と呼ばれ、大宰府と各国府を結んで緊急時の連絡や納税品の運搬など公的な目的に使われた。
 今回の調査区は、熊本学園大付属中南側の約2千平方メートルで、同大付属高新校舎建設に伴い、市が昨年12月から調査。周辺で確認された遺構などから推定される西海道駅路ルート上に位置している。

見つかった道路跡は幅約11メートル、長さ約60メートルで、南北に真っすぐに延びている。V字に掘り込んだ切り通し状で、最深部は1・5メートル。中央の地面を突き固めた幅2~3メートルの路面が通行部分で、補修を繰り返した跡や、轍[わだち]らしき2本の筋状のくぼみも見つかった。

「7世紀後半に整備され、9世紀前半に切り通し形に改築された後、埋没しながら中世まで道路として機能していたようだ。補修したり、路面上の巨石を破砕したりした形跡などから、当時の人たちの努力の跡がかいま見える」と市文化振興課の原田範昭・文化財保護主事。鶴嶋俊彦・熊本城調査研究センター文化財保護主幹も「推定ルートに見事に一致し、直線ルートがイメージできるほか、200年間の駅制(交通システム)の改変が見えて興味深い」と話す。

同課は6日の11時、13時、15時の計3回、現地説明会を開く。(浪床敬子)


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  来自  王昴擘   的投稿 

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尼安德特人的饮食极其接近现代人类 Alimentation de Néandertal... très proche de celle d'Homo sapiens

尼安德特人的饮食极其接近现代人类
Alimentation de Néandertal... très proche de celle d'Homo sapiens

来源:Hominid&s 翻译:玉垒关 校对:阡陌 链接:http://www.hominides.com/html/actualites/alimentation-neandertal-identique-sapiens-0808.php 说一千道一万,其实尼安德特人和智人饮食习惯没太大不同 图宾根大学的研究者和他们的法国同行... 阅读全文

来源:Hominidés

翻译:玉垒关

校对:阡陌

链接:http://www.hominides.com/html/actualites/alimentation-neandertal-identique-sapiens-0808.php

说一千道一万,其实尼安德特人和智人饮食习惯没太大不同

 图宾根大学的研究者和他们的法国同行重新审视了先前化石的同位素分析结果

 

为啥四万年前尼安德特人被解剖学意义上的现代人类所取代?一种流行的假设认为,现代人范围更广的食谱是他们同尼安德特人的竞争中最具决定性的优势。而地质化学的分析结果似乎也证实了这一结论。可实际上,和尼安德特人化石相比,现代人化石骨骼里具有更高的氮的重同位素比例。这一事实,让人首先联想到的是,当尼安德特人还专注于吃猛犸象、野牛之类的大型食草动物时,现代人已经把鱼收入食谱中了。

尼安德特人的饮食极其接近现代人类
Alimentation de Néandertal... très proche de celle d'Homo sapiens

(图片:用于该项研究的狼下颌骨碎片,Mousiter遗址。图宾根大学,Hervé Bocherens拍摄

 

然而,这些研究并没有考虑到的一点,是基于陆生食物链的同位素上可能存在的差异性。事实上,环境因素,尤其是干燥的环境,就有可能使得植物里重氮的含量增加。而这种增加使得食草动物及其猎食者骨骼中的重氮含量的比例也随之增加——哪怕前两者并没有改变其饮食习惯。德国图宾根大学以及法国Dordogne地区Eyzies-de-Tayac 史前自然博物馆的研究者们在《人类进化期刊》上公布的一项新研究表明:当最早的现代人类出现在法国西南部时,不论是食草动物,如驯鹿、鹿、马、野牛,还是狼之类的食肉动物,它们的骨骼化石中,氮的同位素含量都存在明显变化。而在动物群体中出现的这种变化和同时期史前人类身上发生的变化高度一致。这显示出,现代人和尼安德特人的食谱并没有绝对的区别,更确切地说,是环境的改变导致了食物来源中同位素的含量不同。此外,同位素改变这一事件,从年代上,与现代人取代尼安德特人的年代相吻合,这表示环境因素的变化——比如干旱的情况的加重,实际上更利于现代人类安居,而不利于尼安德特人乐业。

 


 尼安德特人的饮食极其接近现代人类
Alimentation de Néandertal... très proche de celle d'Homo sapiens

 

图表表示:在尼安德特人和现代人过度阶段,食草动物、狼以及史前人类的同位素差异。插图:图宾根大学,Hervé Bocherens

 

 

这些新的研究结果和其它一些研究成果相吻合,揭示出尼安德特人具有先前人们并未意识到的一些才能:他们开发了广泛的食物来源。(尼安德特人和现代人)这两种史前人类的生物学差距看起来越来越小,在这种背景下,尼安德特人灭绝的真实情况却仍然难以解释。(尼安德特人灭绝的真相)很可能不仅仅只是因为一个人种比另一个人种具有了某一种优势行为。

原文

Après tout, les habitudes alimentaires entre les Néandertaliens et les humains modernes n'étaient pas si différentes.

Des chercheurs de l'université de Tübingen et leur collègue français remettent en cause l'interprétation initiale des analyses isotopiques dans les ossements.

Dent de loup trouvée au MoustierPourquoi les Néandertaliens ont été remplacés par les humains anatomiquement modernes il y a environ 40 000 ans ? Une hypothèse en vogue estime qu'un spectre de ressources alimentaires plus large pour les humains modernes leur a donné un avantage décisif dans la compétition avec les Néandertaliens. Les résultats d'analyses géochimiques ont semblé confirmer cette différence alimentaire. En effet, un taux plus élevé d'isotopes lourds de l'azote a été mesuré dans les ossements d'humains modernes par rapport à ceux de Néandertaliens, ce qui a suggéré dans un premier temps que les humains modernes ont inclus du poisson dans leur alimentation tandis que les Néandertaliens étaient spécialisés sur la viande de grands herbivores, comme le mammouth ou le bison.

Cependant, ces études n'ont pas pris en compte les possibles variations isotopiques à la base des chaînes alimentaires terrestres. En effet, des facteurs environnementaux, notamment l'aridité, peuvent provoquer une augmentation du taux d'azote lourd dans les plantes, ce qui conduit à une hausse de ce taux dans les herbivores et leurs prédateurs même en l'absence de changement de type d'alimentation. Une étude récemment publiée dans Journal of Human Evolution par des chercheurs de l'université de Tübingen (Allemagne) et du Musée national de Préhistoire aux Eyzies-de-Tayac (Dordogne, France) a révélé que le contenu isotopique de l'azote dans les ossements d'animaux, aussi bien herbivores, tels que rennes, cerfs, chevaux et bisons, que carnivores, comme les loups, ont clairement changé au moment de la première apparition des humains modernes dans le sud-ouest de la France. Les changements observés sur la faune sont très similaires à ceux mesurés sur les humains préhistoriques de la même époque ce qui montre qu'il n'y a pas eu nécessairement de modification dans l'alimentation entre Néandertaliens et humains modernes, mais plutôt un changement d'environnement qui a conduit à des différences isotopiques pour les mêmes ressources alimentaires. Par ailleurs, cet événement isotopique qui coïncide chronologiquement avec le remplacement des Néandertaliens par les humains modernes pourrait indiquer que des facteurs environnementaux, tels qu'une augmentation de l'aridité, ont pu favoriser l'installation des humains modernes aux détriment des Néandertaliens.

 

Ces nouveaux résultats rejoignent ceux d'autres études récentes qui montrent que les Néandertaliens avaient des capacités plus étendues qu'on ne le pensait auparavant et exploitaient des ressources alimentaires diverses. Ainsi les différences biologiques entre les deux types d'humains préhistoriques paraissent de plus en plus réduites. Dans ce contexte, les circonstances exactes de l'extinction des Néandertaliens restent encore inexpliquées et sont probablement plus complexes qu'une simple supériorité comportementale d'un type humain par rapport à l'autre.

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  来自  马翊斐   的投稿 

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古人类食谱新探 Paleo Diet May Have Included Some Sweets, Carbs

古人类食谱新探  Paleo Diet May Have Included Some Sweets, Carbs

早在人类掌握耕种技术之前,部分古人类就已经开始大量摄入碳水化合物了。 时间:2014年1月6日 来源:科学在线(LiveScience) 作者:Tia Ghose 译者:加蓝 校对:伏维阁主 链接:http://www.livescience.com/42346-hunter-gathere... 阅读全文

早在人类掌握耕种技术之前,部分古人类就已经开始大量摄入碳水化合物了。


时间:201416

来源:科学在线(LiveScience

作者:Tia Ghose

译者:加蓝

校对:伏维阁主

链接:http://www.livescience.com/42346-hunter-gatherers-had-tooth-decay.html

 

古人类食谱新探  Paleo Diet May Have Included Some Sweets, Carbs

 

图片:摩洛哥Grotte des Pigeons洞穴出土的骨骼显示,大量牙齿存在腐蚀问题,可能是食用橡子所致。

来源:Isabelle De Groote

 

最新研究表明,曾生活于现在摩洛哥境内的古代狩猎采集者,存在蛀牙和牙齿缺损等问题。根据美国《国家科学院院刊》(PNAS)在今年16日发布的研究报告,科学家在大约15 000年前的古人类骨骼上发现了龋齿。究其原因,可能是他们曾大量食用富含碳水化合物的橡子。

 

研究报告作者汉弗莱(Louise Humphrey),是一位来自伦敦国家历史博物馆的古生物学家。他介绍说,这项发现表明,早在人类掌握耕种技术之前,部分人类就已经开始大量摄入碳水化合物了。

 

长期定居生活

 

古人类食谱新探  Paleo Diet May Have Included Some Sweets, Carbs

 

图片:俯瞰 Grotte des Pigeons

来源:Ian Cartwright

 

考古学家在摩洛哥北部的一个名为“Grotte des Pigeons”的大洞穴中,发现了狩猎采集者的骨骼遗骸。涂有赭色的小珠和其他器物显示,在至少8 00010 000年前,人类曾经间歇性居住于这个洞穴。人们在洞穴前部生活,在后部安葬死者。

 

该洞穴为考古学界所知,已有一个世纪。考古学家在此发掘出大约 100 具遗体。但在 2004 年,汉弗莱和他的同事又在洞穴的后部发现了 14 具遗体。连同博物馆的旧有收藏,研究者共分析了 52 套古人类牙齿,其历史可以追溯到 15 000 ~ 13 900 年前。

 

这群狩猎采集者们不大注意口腔卫生,半数牙齿已被严重腐蚀,只有 3 个人没有蛀牙,有些人还有颌骨穿孔。另外,90% 的人门牙缺失,显然是因为某种宗教仪式之故。

 

那么,蛀牙和牙齿问题的罪魁祸首是什么?居然是甜橡子!

 

汉弗莱介绍说,洞穴前部沉积物分析显示,这里的古人类曾大量摄入蜗牛和松子,但最重要的是,他们还食用富含碳水化合物的橡子,它的味道有点像甜栗。研究团队还发现,古人类可能用草来编制篮筐,储存橡子。汉弗莱告诉本刊:“橡子是不错的零食,一小筐一小筐装好排成一排。”

 

甜坚果同时也为转糖链球菌(Streptococcus mutan)提供了食物,这是引起牙齿腐蚀的首要因素。阿肯色大学古人类学家温加尔(Peter S. Ungar)虽然并未参与此项研究,但却为我们解释了转糖链球菌和牙齿问题的关系:转糖链球菌在分解糖的过程中会产生酸类物质,侵蚀牙齿表面的珐琅层,从而导致蛀牙。

 

新的饮食习惯

 

过去,大多数科学家认为,狩猎采集者的食谱只包括低碳水化合物和高蛋白。只有在农业革命之后,人类才大量食用高糖含量的碳水化合物。但是新发现似乎暗示,人类早在农业诞生之前,就喜欢吃甜食和碳水化合物了。

 

莱切斯特大学的考古学家维恩(Marijke van der Veen)介绍说,有其他证据表明,在某些旧石器时代的部落,人们也会“吃一些淀粉和脂肪含量很高的种子、坚果和浆果”。

 

但这些发现也许是特例。现在,大约 90% 的美国成年人患有蛀牙,但只一小部分古人类受此困扰,其比率低于 2%。维恩说:“相关研究让我们了解到,我们现在的口腔环境,和我们的祖先太不相同。”


原文:

The teeth from skeletons unearthed in the Grotte des Pigeons cave in Morocco reveal evidence of extensive tooth decay and other dental problems, likely a result of their acorn-rich diet.
Credit: Isabelle De Groote

Ancient hunter-gatherers from the area that is now Morocco had cavities and missing teeth, a new study finds.

The rotten teeth on the ancient skeletons, which date back to about 15,000 years ago, probably resulted from a carbohydrate-rich diet full of acorns, according to the study, described today (Jan. 6) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The findings show that at least some ancient populations were loading up on carbs thousands of years before the cultivation of grain took hold, said study co-author Louise Humphrey, a paleobiologist at the Natural History Museum in London.

Long occupation

Grotte des Pigeons viewed from the surrounding hills

Credit: Ian Cartwright

The skeletal remains of the hunter-gatherers were found in a large cave known as Grotte des Pigeons, in northern Morocco. Ochre-stained beads and other artifacts have shown that humans occupied the cave intermittently from at least 80,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago, with people living in the front of the cave and burying their dead in the back.

Though archaeologists have known of the cave for about a century and had already excavated about 100 burials, in 2004, Humphrey and her colleagues found a new patch of 14 burials tucked into the back of the cave.

The researchers combined those finds with cave skeletons that were already in museum collections, analyzing 52 sets of adult teeth that date to between 15,000 and 13,900 years ago.

The hunter-gatherers did not have good oral hygiene. Half of the teeth showed evidence of severe tooth decay, and only three hunter-gatherers had no cavities. The ancient people also had cavities and abscesses that ate holes through their jaws, and 90 percent of the skeletons were missing incisors, apparently because of a ritual removal process.

The culprit? Sweet acorns.

Analysis of sediments from the front of the cave revealed the ancient people feasted on snails, pine nuts and, crucially, carbohydrate-rich acorns that might have tasted a bit like sweet chestnuts, Humphrey said. The team also found evidence of grasses likely used to make baskets — perhaps to store those acorns.

"They're quite good snack foods," Humphrey told LiveScience. "Acorns form neat little storable packages of food."

But the sweet nuts probably also provided food for Streptococcus mutans, the plaque-causing culprit in tooth decay.

These bacteria produce acid as a byproduct of breaking down sugars. This acid then attacks tooth enamel and leads to cavities, Peter S. Ungar, an anthropologist at the University of Arkansas who was not involved in the study, wrote in an email.

New diet

Most scientists believe that hunter-gatherers ate a diet low in carbohydrates and rich in protein, and that it was only during the agricultural revolution that carbohydrate consumption increased.

But the new findings suggest humanity's sweet tooth may be much older than that.

For instance, new evidence has revealed that other Paleolithic communities "ate a range of starchy and fat-rich seeds and nuts, as well as berries," Marijke van der Veen, an archaeologist at the University of Leicester who was not involved in the study, wrote in an email to LiveScience.

Still, the carb-loading cave dwellers were probably the exception, not the rule.

"While about 90 percent of adults in the U.S. suffer from cavities, little more than a handful of early human ancestor teeth have them," Ungar told LiveScience. In contrast, less than 2 percent of Stone Age foragers had cavities, he said.

"This study, and others like it, make clear the fact that our oral environments are not those to which our teeth initially evolved," Ungar said.

Editor's Note: This story was corrected to reflect that the beads found in the cave were ochre-stained, not oak-stained, and to  that the pine nuts were not fermented.

 

 

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新发现!古代庞贝富人会吃长颈鹿和海胆 Ancient Pompeii's Elite Ate Giraffe & Sea Urchin, New Research Suggests

新发现!古代庞贝富人会吃长颈鹿和海胆  Ancient Pompeii's Elite Ate Giraffe & Sea Urchin, New Research Suggests

最新研究表明,古代庞贝平民的饮食十分丰富。而庞贝富人的菜单上,甚至还有长颈鹿! 时间:2014年1月3日 来源:LiveScience 作者:Tia Ghose 译者:80 校对:伏维阁主 链接:http://www.livescience.com/42309-food-eaten-by-pompeii-resid... 阅读全文

最新研究表明,古代庞贝平民的饮食十分丰富。而庞贝富人的菜单上,甚至还有长颈鹿!

 

时间:2014年1月3日

来源:LiveScience

作者:Tia Ghose

译者:80

校对:伏维阁主

链接:http://www.livescience.com/42309-food-eaten-by-pompeii-residents.html

 

新发现!古代庞贝富人会吃长颈鹿和海胆  Ancient Pompeii's Elite Ate Giraffe & Sea Urchin, New Research Suggests

 

图片:俄国画家布留洛夫的名画“庞贝的末日”

来源:Wikipedia

 

庞贝是一座被火山掩埋的古罗马城市。最近,研究人员在庞贝的下水道里发现了食物残留,并由此得知,庞贝中产阶级和一般民众的饮食虽然廉价却很健康。而稍微富裕一点的庞贝居民,还会食用更加精致的料理。过去人们普遍认为,古罗马贵族会吃外国佳肴,但穷人只能靠鸟食充饥。新发现无疑推翻了这个假说。

 

 “在大多数人看来,庞贝人就像是倒霉的旅鼠。他们要么吃从街上随便找来的东西,要么就围着燕麦粥度日。但如今这个看法已被推翻。庞贝人拥有更优质的生活,至少城市居民如此。”研究参与者、辛辛那提大学古典学教授伊莱斯(Steven Ellise)如是说道。

 

公元79年,庞贝消失在维苏威火山的岩浆之下。但在那之前,她是一座繁荣的城市。那里曾有一座人来人往的城门Portia Stabia。它附近的20余座商铺,便是伊莱斯及其同事的主要发掘目标。他们在食品店后面的厕所和污水沟中,发现了厨房烹饪残留物,还有人类的粪便。其历史甚至可以追溯到公元前4世纪——当时庞贝建城未久。

 

食物残留表明,庞贝平民的饮食虽然简朴,却并不单一。他们的菜单上有小扁豆、橄榄、坚果和鱼,偶尔还有少量腌肉。

 

伊莱斯说:“这些商铺外表看起来没什么差别,都是热闹的生意场所。但我们在它们背后的下水道中里却发现了大不一样的东西,说明庞贝人的饮食习惯,明显受到社会经济差别的影响。”比方说,研究人员在中心商铺的下水道里,发现了进口食物的残留,包括贝类、海胆,甚至有一块长颈鹿的腿骨。

 

 “这是我们在罗马发现的唯一一块长颈鹿骨头。”伊莱斯说,“这只长颈鹿先被屠宰,然后被运到这间典型庞贝餐馆的后厨。这个发现,不仅能让我们了解古罗马时期珍稀动物的远程交易情况,还让我们得以窥见庞贝居民饮食的多样化。”

 

研究小组还发现了进口香料的痕迹。香料的来源相当广泛,有些甚至来自印度尼西亚。


 

原文:

The commoners of the ancient city of Pompeii may have eaten a varied diet, with the wealthier even dining on giraffe, new research suggests.

Remains of food scraps found in the drains of Pompeii, Italy, a Roman city wiped out by a volcano, revealed that the middle- and lower-class residents dined on cheap but healthy foods, while slightly wealthier citizens dined on delicacies.

The new findings belie the common belief that the Roman elite dined on exotic delicacies while poor Romans starved on birdseed.

"The traditional vision of some mass of hapless lemmings — scrounging for whatever they can pinch from the side of a street, or huddled around a bowl of gruel — needs to be replaced by a higher fare and standard of living, at least for the urbanites in Pompeii," study co-author Steven Ellis, a classics professor at the University of Cincinnati, said in a statement.

Pompeii was a bustling Roman city that was buried in ash after the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79. Ellis and his colleagues excavated about 20 shop fronts near one of the once-bustling gates of Pompeii known as the Portia Stabia. The latrines and cesspits behind the food sellers revealed charred food waste from the kitchens, as well as human waste, that dated as far back as the fourth century B.C., when Pompeii was still in an early stage of development.

Along with grains, the waste revealed that the commoners of Pompeii ate a simple, but fairly varied, Mediterranean diet that included lentils, olives, nuts and fish, as well as the odd scrap of salted meat.

More upscale restaurants could be distinguished by the wider array of delicacies they served.

"The material from the drains revealed a range and quantity of materials to suggest a rather clear socioeconomic distinction between the activities and consumption habits of each property, which were otherwise indistinguishable hospitality businesses," Ellis said.

For instance, the drains at a more central property contained traces of imported foods such as shellfish, sea urchin and even a giraffe's leg.

"This is thought to be the only giraffe bone ever recorded from an archaeological excavation in Roman Italy," Ellis said. "How part of the animal, butchered, came to be a kitchen scrap in a seemingly standard Pompeian restaurant not only speaks to long-distance trade in exotic and wild animals, but also something of the richness, variety and range of a nonelite diet."

The team also found traces of exotic and imported spices that came from far-flung regions such as Indonesia.

 

 

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重见天日!古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓 Ancient Egyptian Chief Brewer's Beautiful Tomb Discovered

重见天日!古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓  Ancient Egyptian Chief Brewer's Beautiful Tomb Discovered

在尼罗河西岸,一座属于古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓重见天日。根据日本考古队的报告,墓中壁画描绘了3000年前古埃及人的日常生活和宗教活动的景象。 时间:2014年1月3日 来源:National Geographic 作者:Elizabeth Snodgrass 译者:80 编校:伏维阁主 链接:http://news.... 阅读全文

在尼罗河西岸,一座属于古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓重见天日。根据日本考古队的报告,墓中壁画描绘了3000年前古埃及人的日常生活和宗教活动的景象。

 

时间:2014年1月3日

来源:National Geographic

作者:Elizabeth Snodgrass

译者:80

编校:伏维阁主

链接:http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140103-egyptian-tomb-discovery-brewer/?rptregcampaign=20131016_rw_membership_r1p_us_dr_c1&rptregcta=reg_free_np

 


重见天日!古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓  Ancient Egyptian Chief Brewer's Beautiful Tomb Discovered

 

图片:Khonso Im-Heb(光头者)和他的妻子在举行宗教仪式,旁边站着两位来自死亡国度的神灵:奥西里斯(左上)和阿努比斯(右上)。

 

 

重见天日!古埃及酿酒师的华丽坟墓  Ancient Egyptian Chief Brewer's Beautiful Tomb Discovered


图片:在这幅详尽描绘宗教场景的壁画中,墓主人Khonso Im-Heb和他的妻子(中间两人)正在接受儿子(右侧)的献祭。

来源:Supreme Council of AntiquitiesAP

 

墓主人名为Khonso Im-Heb,掌管祭拜埃及女神姆特的粮仓和酿酒厂。

 

200712月,东京早稻田大学教授Jiro Kondo带领日本研究人员,在国王谷皇家陵墓附近的El Khokha地区展开发掘。人们本就知道,这里曾经是古埃及贵族的埋葬地。如今因为北部库纳村(Qurna)迁徙的缘故,这一代的现代建筑已被全部清除。

 

考古队在清扫一位18王朝皇家官员的墓葬前厅(TT47)时,无意中发现了Khonso Im-Heb这座T形墓的入口。在酿酒师墓穴的墙壁上,装饰着罕见、保存完好而精美异常的古埃及人日常生活图画,描绘了酿酒师与妻子儿女的日常活动和宗教仪式。

 

埃及文物部部长穆罕默德·亚伯拉罕(Mohamed Ibrahim)表示,在今后的发掘活动中,该墓穴将得到重点保护。埃及政府计划对其加以修复,在未来开放给参观者。

 


 

原文:

 

Khonso Im-Heb, bare-headed, and his wife are shown in ritual scenes with two gods associated with the underworld and death: Osiris (top left) and Anubis (top right).

 

The stunning tomb of an ancient Egyptian brewer has been found on the west bank of the Nile. Paintings on the walls depict scenes of worship and daily life from 3,000 years ago, reports a Japanese archaeology team.

 

The tomb belonged to Khonso Im-Heb, who was head of granaries and beer-brewing for the worship of the Egyptian mother goddess, Mut.

 

In December 2007, the Japanese researchers, led by Jiro Kondo ofWaseda University in Tokyo, began excavating in El Khokha, near the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings.

The area had recently been cleared of modern houses during the removal of Qurna village, just to the north, and was already known as a locale for tombs of ancient nobles.

 

PHOTOGRAPH BY SUPREME COUNCIL OF ANTIQUITIES, AP

This detail of a ritual scene shows Khonso Im-Heb and his wife (both center) receiving an offering from his son (right).

 

While clearing the forecourt to a tomb numbered TT47, which had belonged to an 18th-dynasty royal official, the team discovered the entrance to Khonso Im-Heb's T-shaped tomb.

 

The walls of the brewer's tomb are decorated with rare, beautifully preserved scenes of daily life, such as interactions between the brewer and his wife and children, and depictions of their ritual practices.

 

Egypt's Minister of Antiquities, Mohamed Ibrahim, has ordered the site to be secured during the remaining excavations and would like to restore the location for eventual tourism.

 

 

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纽约植物园标本数字化项目 New York Botanical Garden Digitizes Biodiversity History

纽约植物园标本数字化项目  New York Botanical Garden Digitizes Biodiversity History

作者:Lindsey Kratochwill 来源:大众科学网(Popular Science) 时间:2013年12月26日 译者:京晶 编校:伏维阁主 链接:http://www.popsci.com/article/science/new-york-botanical-garden-digitizes-biodiversi... 阅读全文

作者:Lindsey Kratochwill

来源:大众科学网(Popular Science

时间:20131226

译者:京晶

编校:伏维阁主

链接:http://www.popsci.com/article/science/new-york-botanical-garden-digitizes-biodiversity-history

 

 

纽约植物园标本数字化项目  New York Botanical Garden Digitizes Biodiversity History

 

图片:对于美国纽约植物园(New York Botanical Garden)来说,这件漂亮的植物标本有着特殊的意义——它是纽约植物园数字化项目收录的第200万件标本。大家叫它紫色猪笼草purple pitcher plant  3P是也这头韵押得真不错)。标本采集自纽约Duchess郡。

来源:纽约植物园数字化标本馆

 

植物标本中保存着丰富的生物多样性信息,但大多数植物标本都被锁在自然历史博物馆的仓库里。全球四大植物标本收藏机构之一的纽约植物园(New York Botanical Garden NYBG),正把馆藏超过730万件植物标本输入在线数据库,让所有人都能方便查阅。

 

NYBG的植物标本收集,始于1900年前后。在一开始,私人收藏家和标本制作者就向植物园贡献了10多万件标本。每年又许多新标本加入馆藏,工作人员也亲自前往世界各地采集标本。标本都被置于钢制标本箱之内,保存在标本室里。标本室占据了五层楼,室内始终保持恒温和恒湿。这些标本能为我们提供丰富的历史信息。NYBG的收藏品中,甚至还包括乔治·华盛顿·卡弗(George Washington Carver)的蘑菇标本和达尔文的苔藓标本。

 

NYBG的植物标本数字化项目,始于上世纪九十年代中期。随着数字化技术水平不断提高,NYBG标本数字化的速度也越来越快。起初,工作人员为了给标本拍摄照片,必须搭建大型摄影室,并配备大型照明灯和照相机。现在,拍摄工作改在专门拍摄珠宝首饰的光箱中进行。专业光箱不仅拥有标准照明,还能直接将照片传入电脑。在十多年前项目刚开始时,工作人员每年只能收录2-3万件标本。但随着技术进步,以及人力投入增加,现在NYBG每年收录的标本数目已经超过10万。在去年秋天,工作人员完成了第200万件标本的数字化处理。

 

NYBG数字化项目信息部主管沃森(Kimberly Watson)在接受大众科学网(Popular Science)采访时说:在大约一年半前,我们还想过让工作人员手动输入标本的标签信息。现在我们已经可以先行拍照,然后用光学字符识别软件来处理文字内容了!

 

NYBG收藏的许多标本都是植物压制而成,贴在标准大小的纸板上,然后像存储档案那样保存起来。除维管束植物之外,NYBG还收藏了真菌、藻类和地衣类植物的标本。虽然工作人员会根据访问者的要求,优先收录某些标本,但他们希望能将全部标本数字化。

 

目前,大量数字化工作都是根据访客需求进行的,”NYBG植物标本馆馆长泰尔(Barbara Thiers)说,我们大概每周都会收到一个特别请求。我们也收到了不少反馈意见。虽然现在数据库的访问量起伏不定,但至少有人已经在访问和使用我们的标本数据了!

 

多年以来,美国国家科学基金会(National Science Foundation)一直大力资助自然科学标本数字化工作。NYBG1997年起就得到基金会的连续资助。基金会还集合多家研究所之力,共同开展数字化项目。同时也召开研讨会,交流分享数字化工作的经验。

 

虽然目前NYBG数据库收录的植物标本数量,还不能完全应付植物学或者DNA研究的需求,但研究者可以使用在线数据库,开拓新的研究方向。

 

泰尔说:我们一开始并不知道,这些数据将来会被用于怎样的研究。但现在我们已经看到了种种可能。数据库同时收录了标本的采集时间和地点。研究者可以利用这些信息,研究植物在过去150年里如何变化。他们还可以把这些信息,与同一时期的降雨量、土壤化学成分、水文地理和其它植物生长相关因素一并加以考察和研究。

 

[我要看更多植物标本数字化图片!]

 

[我要去围观这个华丽丽的数据库!]

(友情提示:连接速度有点慢 / 有时候会挂掉)


 

原文:

 

This fantastic-looking flower is special for NYBG—it was the two-millionth specimen digitized. It's commonly known as the purple pitcher plant (great alliteration) and was collected in Duchess County, New York. New York Botanical Garden C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium

 

There's a trove of biodiversity information out there, but much of it is locked in natural history collections. To make all this plant data more accessible, the New York Botanical Garden—one of the four largest herbariums in the world—is turning its more than 7.3 million specimens into a browsable digital database.

 

NYBG's herbarium opened its doors around 1900, and from day one, collectors and other private herbaria had already brought in more than 100,000 specimens. New collections continue to come in each year, and curators also go out into the field to collect specimens from around the world. Inside steel cabinets, in a climate-controlled rooms on each of the five floors of the herbarium are specimens that hold interesting looks into plants' pasts. Notably, the collection even includes fungi gathered by George Washington Carver and a moss specimen from Charles Darwin.

 

The digitizing project began in the mid 1990s, and since then, the technique has been refined, and as a result sped up significantly. In the beginning, large studio set ups with big lights and a camera helped capture the specimen images. Now, NYBG uses a light box that was originally designed for photographing jewelry. The box has even, standardized lighting, and feeds the image data directly to a computer. When the team began this project more than 10 years ago, they were digitizing about 20,000 to 30,000 specimens per year. With upgraded technology and increased man power, they can capture more than 100,000 per year. This fall, the team digitized their two-millionth specimen.

 

"Prior to the last year and a half or so, we would have someone sitting at a computer to capture by hand the specimen data from the labels," Kimberly Watson, NYBG information manager for digitization tells Popular Science. "Now, we're able to take photographs and process the data through optical character recognition software."

 

Many of NYBG's specimens are pressed plants, which are glued to standard-size sheets and stored in archival conditions. In addition to vascular plants, there are also a panacea of fungi, algae, and lichen. And while the botanical garden may get requests for certain specimens to be digitized—which it honors—the team tends to digitize the specimens as projects.

 

"We do a lot of imaging on demand now," says Barbara Thiers, director of the William and Lynda Steere Herbarium at NYBG. "We must get a request per week for online data. We got lots of feedback about the project, though after a while people don't tell you on a regular basis. But we know it's being used."

 

The National Science Foundation has been funding efforts for digitizing natural science collections for years—NYBG in particular has received continuous funding since 1997. NSF has brought many of these institutions to work together around specific digitizing projects, and for workshops to share best practices.

 

While the digital herbarium may not be enough for researchers who require physical samples, or DNA from the specimens, the online database could further research in new ways.

 

"As it turns out, there are a lot of possible uses for the data we didn't necessarily envision when we started," Thiers says. Because the specimen data includes when and where it was collected, researchers can begin to use that data to see how plants have changed over the last 150 years, and layer that information with other datasets such as rainfall, soil chemistry, hydrology, and other factors critical for plants to grow.

 

 

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考古资讯

从全球标准化与本地化的角度思考和食入选世界遗产(和食の世界遺産登録で考えたこと−グローバル標準化と現地適応化の視点から)

资讯日期: 12/12/2013 文章来源: livedoor ニッセイ基礎研究所 原文链接:http://blogos.com/article/75810/ 文章翻译:sharon 校对编辑:豌豆 狐狸 从全球标准化与本地化的角度思考和食入选世界遗产 ... 阅读全文

资讯日期: 12/12/2013
文章来源: livedoor ニッセイ基礎研究所
原文链接:http://blogos.com/article/75810/
文章翻译:sharon
校对编辑:豌豆 狐狸




从全球标准化与本地化的角度思考和食入选世界遗产

2013年12月4日,联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)公布了将“和食:日本传统饮食文化”列入非物质文化遗产名录的决定。这是日本继歌舞伎、能乐之后的第22种入选非物质文化遗产名录的非物质文化遗产。该名录中,同样与饮食文化有关的,已有法国美食学、地中海菜肴、墨西哥传统菜肴,以及土耳其keşkek(类似麦粥的菜肴)等。

凭借本次入选,可提升国际上对日本饮食文化的评价、让日本人能够重新认识和食的优点,亦可增加海外和食爱好者的数量。并期待以此为契机,吸引更多的外国游客并扩大农业水产品的出口。

同时,这则消息亦有值得我们思考的地方,那就是在国际市场推广中的两个重要命题:“全球标准化”和“本地化”。在提供国际化的商品・产品和服务(以下称为“产品、服务等”)时,既需要利用全球化观点对产品和服务等进行标准化、通用化以确保效率和质量,另一方面又要适应并满足不同国家和地区消费者对产品・服务的不同需求。如何使这二者平衡共存是非常重要的一点。

目前,和食因其营养健康、卖相美观,在日本之外,和食也广受众多国家的民众欢迎。据农林水产省的推算统计,截至2013年3月,在日本国外的日本餐馆数量约为55,000家。但在这些餐馆中,出现了越来越多的让日本人看了会大吃一惊地问道“这是和食吗?”的古怪菜式和烹饪方法。因此,此次推行和食标准化可谓意义重大。

另一方面,近年来,包含亚洲新兴国家在内,在位于海外各国中的高级日本料理店里,来自当地富裕阶层和中产阶级的顾客已成为消费的主力军,他们在店内的人均消费已经超过了居住在当地的日本人以及观光客。在这种环境下,为了迎合当地顾客的喜好而对菜肴的味道以及烹饪方法进行本地化改良的事例也时有耳闻(虽然和这次入选世界遗产名录无关,但有这样一个事例可作为参考:源自日本的杯装方便面,在其他国家里出现了外观类似,但味道及面条长短等细节都为了适应当地人的需求和喜好而做出调整的产品)。

此次入选,虽然为和食总结出了(1)使用种类丰富的新鲜食材并尊重食材原味,(2)营养均衡的健康饮食生活,(3)注重表现自然之美和季节变化,(4)与一年中的节庆仪式密切相关这四个特质,但实际上会因不同场合,而对制作方法和菜肴做出一些调整。虽然可以想见政府、和食界相关人士会大力推动对和食的宣传和普及,但想让多数外国人根据日本人的喜好和做法来适应、改变恐怕不易,再加上文化差异方面的影响,要实现这一想法将会难上加难。另一方面,海外的日式餐厅为了满足越来越多的顾客的需求,也在迎合本地人的喜好方面,在菜肴和烹饪方法上下了不少工夫,要让他们停止这种努力亦不现实。

和食入选世界遗产、进行标准化后会出现怎样的效果,同时,为适应当地习惯,会出现怎样的烹饪方法和菜肴特色都很令人期待。




原文:
和食の世界遺産登録で考えたこと−グローバル標準化と現地適応化の視点から

13年12月4日、国連教育科学文化機関(ユネスコ)により「和食;日本人の伝統的な食文化」が無形文化遺産に登録されることが決定された。日本からの同登録は、歌舞伎や能楽などに続き22件目とのことであり、食関連の無形文化遺産では、既にフランスの美食術、地中海料理、メキシコの伝統料理、トルコのケシケキ(麦粥のようなもの)の伝統が登録されていた。

今回の登録により、日本の食文化が国際的にさらに評価され、日本人自身が和食の良さを再確認し、外国でも和食のファンがさらに増えることは喜ばしいことである。また外国人観光客の増加や農水産物の海外輸出拡大の契機となることも望みたい。

同時に、そのニュースを聞いて考えたことがある。それは国際マーケティングにおける重要命題である「グローバル標準化」と「現地適応化」に関するものである。国際的に製品・商品やサービス(以下「製品・サービス等」)を提供する上では、グローバルな観点で対象製品・サービス等を標準化・共通化することが効率や質の確保という観点から求められるが、同時に製品・サービス等が提供される各国・地域の市場における消費者のニーズを満たす適応化が求められ、その両立・バランスのあり方が重要であるということである。


和食が健康食であり見た目にも美しい等の理由から、今や海外の多くの国で一般的に知られ人気のある料理となっており、海外の日本食レストランは、農水省の推計で13年3月時点で約55,000店あるといわれている。中には、日本人から見て「これが和食なのか」と驚くような料理や調理法が見られる機会も増えていることから、今回その標準化が行われることの意義は大きいといえる。

他方、近年、アジア新興国を含む海外の高級な日本料理店でも、現地の富裕層・中間層の顧客が多数を占めるようになっており、それらが支払う平均単価が日本人の現地居住者や観光客よりも高額であり、現地顧客の嗜好に合わせて料理の味や調理法を現地適応しているケースが増えていると聞く(今回の世界遺産の件には該当しないが、参考になる事例として、日本発のカップヌードルも、外見は各国のものが類似しているが、味や麺の長さなどを現地のニーズ・嗜好に合わせて変えているということもある)。

今回の登録では、(1)多様で新鮮な食材とその持ち味の尊重、(2)栄養バランスに優れた健康的な食生活、(3)自然の美しさや季節の移ろいの表現、(4)年中行事との密接な関わりの4点がその要件とされているが、実際に調理し料理として提供される場合には多くのバリエーションがありうるといえる。政府や和食提供者などの関係者は、広報・普及活動に一層注力することが予想されるが、外国人の多くを日本人の嗜好ややり方に合わせるよう変えることは文化的な差異もあり容易ではないだろう。その一方で、海外の和食レストランにおいて、より多くの顧客を満足させるために現地の嗜好に合った調理法や料理を工夫するという動きも止めることはできないと考えられる。

世界遺産への登録による標準化の効果に期待をしつつ、どのような現地適応のハイブリッドな調理法や料理が出現するのかも興味深いポイントである。

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  来自  王昴擘   的投稿 

考古资讯

约旦出土了70本金属材质的书,将会改变圣经的历史 I 70 libri di metallo trovati in Giordania potrebbero cambiare la storia biblica

约旦出土了70本金属材质的书,将会改变圣经的历史
I 70 libri di metallo trovati in Giordania potrebbero cambiare la storia biblica

来源:luniversovibra 原文时间:2013.12.19 更新时间2014.01.02翻译:LISA 校对:填字游戏原文链接:http://luniversovibra.altervista.org/70-libri-di-metallo-trovati-giordania-potrebbero-cambiare-la-storia-biblica... 阅读全文

来源:luniversovibra  原文时间:2013.12.19 更新时间2014.01.02

 翻译:LISA 校对:填字游戏

原文链接:http://luniversovibra.altervista.org/70-libri-di-metallo-trovati-giordania-potrebbero-cambiare-la-storia-biblica/

约旦出土了70本金属材质的书,将会改变圣经的历史
I 70 libri di metallo trovati in Giordania potrebbero cambiare la storia biblica

此次的发现,可能是继“死海古卷”之后关于圣经历史研究中最重要的发现。这个装订成册的70本小册子,每个都用用金属串联,可能揭示了基督教建立初期的一些秘密。

专家们在对他们的真实性的判断上产生意见分歧,但是专家们认为如果证实了他们的真实性,那么他们的出现将是继1947年出土“死海古卷”之后最重要的一个发现。

书册的大小不超过一张信用卡,内容的大部分是图片,符号还有一些文字,反映耶稣和他的受难以及复活的事迹。另外还有几本册子被密封起来,这激起了人们的疑虑,认为他们是否能真正的解释圣经《启示录》中那些遗失的秘密。

这些书是5年前在约旦一个偏远地区的山洞中被发现,这里证实了在公元70年,耶路撒冷沦陷后基督教难民曾逃难于此。之前在该地区还曾发现过其他大约在相同时期的重要文件。

这些金属材质文件的制作时间大概是公元一世纪。这一推断是基于腐蚀情况而判定的,并且一些专家认为是不可能出现人为手段的。

如果这一时间被证实了,那么他们将会是最早的基督教时代的书籍,早于圣保罗书信。

这本书可能讲述了耶稣生前最后几天的生活,让学者兴奋的是,他或许还能解答许多问题,因为之前他们有很多不真实的成分在里面。

 David Elkington是一位研究古代史和宗教考古的英国学者,也是为数不多对书进行检验的学者,他认为:“这是基督教历史中最重要的发现。这是令人兴奋的,因为我们手中可能已经拥有教会早期圣徒们的资料。”

但是书中的奥秘不是唯一需要解答的谜题。今天,它的起源也是一个需要解答的谜题。

约旦出土了70本金属材质的书,将会改变圣经的历史
I 70 libri di metallo trovati in Giordania potrebbero cambiare la storia biblica

在约旦的贝都因人发现它们之后,被一名以色列人购买了,并将它们带到以色列地区,现在已经全部找到。约旦政府多次在高级别会议上就他们的重返回国和维护进行商谈。Philip Davies,是英国谢菲尔德大学的圣经学研究的权威教授,他认为有确凿证据说明该书是起源于基督教,因为这些金属板可能是圣城耶路撒冷的地图。

教授说:“当我看到他们的时候非常震惊。它的表面明确是基督教图案。在前面有一个十字架,后面是一个坟墓(是耶稣的),有一个开放的小房子,后面是城墙。这个书还描画了墙壁,这些都非常明确的表明是耶路撒冷。它表现的应该是耶稣在城墙外的十字受难。“

负责这个项目的英国团队担心,因为以色列的书籍“持有者”可能让部分的书进入黑市买卖。但是拥有这些书的人却否认说,这些书已经在他们家族流传超过100年了。

Margaret Barker博士,前旧约研究协会的主席说:“启示录中所说的被封印的书和被打开的书只能由耶稣。其他同时期的文献讲述关于封印的书,内容都是涉及耶稣传授给亲近圣徒的大智慧和经典。这是此次发现的背景。”

 

注释:

死海古卷:Dead Sea Scrolls,或称死海经卷、死海书卷、死海文书),是为目前最古老的希伯来文圣经抄本(旧约),除了《圣经·以斯帖记》以外的《旧约全书》全部内容都能在死海古卷中找到,还含有一些今天虽然被天主教承认、但被新教认为是外典(包括次经及伪经)的经卷,此外,当中也有一些不是《圣经》的文献。

死海经卷的被发现于在公元1947年。有个少年牧羊人的一头羊进入了死海附近的洞穴里,为了叫那头羊出来,牧童因而对洞里投掷石头,结果打破洞穴里的瓦罐,因而发现这些古经卷。撒母耳主教收购的死海山洞里的古经卷,直到19482月才送到美国东方研究学院和耶鲁大学,被近东语言研究院院长Burrows博士进行查核。其后的十年间,在11座洞穴挖掘出了装有古卷的瓦罐,共找到约四万个书卷或书卷残篇。

学者从希伯来古文字体的对照上,鉴定死海古卷的年代约于公元前三世纪到公元一世纪(公元前250年至公元68年)(另有人说从公元前170年到公元前58年,没有公元后)。由于完成年代距今已有二千多年,残破不堪。出土的死海古卷中,最长的有8.148米。若包括头尾部分,推测至少有8.75米长。

目前,主要的八部经卷都存放在以色列博物馆;其余的则保存在耶路撒冷的洛克斐勒博物馆(Rockefeller Museum)。


原文:

Una scoperta, che potrebbe essere la più grande dopo quella dei Rotoli del Mar Morto, ha allertato gli studiosi di storia biblica. Un’antica collezione di 70 piccoli libri, rilegati con filo, potrebbero rivelare i segreti dei primi giorni del cristianesimo.

Gli esperti sono divisi nel giudizio circa la loro autenticità, ma dicono che se verificate come autentiche sarebbero una delle scoperte più importanti tanto da rivaleggiare in importanza con la scoperta dei Rotoli del Mar Morto, nel 1947.

 

Non più grandi di una carta di credito, le pagine dei libri mostrano immagini, simboli e parole che sembrano riferirsi al Messia ed alla sua crocifissione e resurrezione. Inoltre, alcuni dei libri sono sigillati, suscitando dubbi sul fatto che possano effettivamente essere la raccolta perduta dei codici citati nel Libro delle Rivelazioni della Bibbia.

I libri sono stati scoperti cinque anni fa in una grotta situata in una zona remota della Giordania, dove è noto che i profughi cristiani fuggirono dopo la caduta di Gerusalemme nel 70 dC. Documenti importanti, rispetto allo stesso periodo, sono stati precedentemente scoperti nella zona.

I testi metallurgici iniziali indicano che alcuni dei libri risalgono circa al primo secolo dopo Cristo. Questa stima è basata sulla forma di corrosione che si è verificata e che secondo gli esperti è impossibile da raggiungere artificialmente.

Se tale data sarà confermata, i libri sarebbero i prima dell’era cristiana, anticipando gli scritti di San Paolo.

 

La prospettiva che i libri possano contenere le storie sugli ultimi giorni della vita di Gesù’, ha eccitato gli studiosi, anche se stanno prendendo la questione con le pinzette a causa del fatto che in precedenza ci sono stati molti casi di falsi sofisticati.

David Elkington, uno studioso inglese di storia antica e di archeologia religiosa e uno dei pochi a esaminare i libri, ha detto che potrebbero essere “la più grande scoperta nella storia del cristianesimo. E’ eccitante pensare che abbiamo in mano gli elementi che possono essere stati detenuti dai primi santi della Chiesa”.

Ma i misteri presenti nelle loro pagine non sono l’unico enigma da risolvere. Oggi, le sue origini sono un enigma.

Dopo la loro scoperta da parte di un beduino giordano, il tesoro è stato acquisito da un israeliano, che lo ha portato con se nei confini di Israele, dove tutt’ora si trova. In ogni caso, il governo giordano è in trattativa ai massimi livelli per rimpatriare e salvaguardare la collezione.

Philip Davies, professore emerito di studi biblici alla Sheffield University, ha detto che c’è una forte evidenza che i libri hanno un origine cristiana, perché le placche mostrano una mappa della città santa di Gerusalemme. 

“Quando l’ho vista sono rimasto scioccato”, ha detto. “E’ chiaro che questa è una immagine cristiana. C’è una croce in primo piano e dietro di essa una tomba [di Gesù], un piccolo edificio con un’apertura e dietro le mura della città. Il libro descrive anche le pareti e quasi certamente si riferisce a Gerusalemme. Si tratta di una crocifissione avvenuta al di fuori delle mura della città “, ha detto il professore.

Il team britannico attualmente responsabile della scoperta teme che il suo attuale “detentore” israeliano possa prendere in considerazione di vendere alcuni dei libri in nero. Ma l’uomo che tiene i libri nega e sostiene che fanno parte della sua famiglia da oltre 100 anni.

La Dr Margaret Barker, ex presidente della Società per lo Studio dell’Antico Testamento, ha dichiarato: “L’Apocalisse parla di libri che sono stati sigillati e verranno aperti solo dal Messia. Altri testi dello stesso periodo parlano di un libro sigillato contenente racconti di grande saggezza e di una tradizione segreta passata da Gesù ai suoi discepoli più vicini. Questo è il contesto di questa scoperta”.

 

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考古资讯

2013年十大考古发现(下)

2013年十大考古发现(下)

作者:Archaeology Magzine 来源:Archaeology Magzine 译者:古城秋色 chenwei 校对:伏维阁主 chenwei 时间:2013.12.10 链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-... 阅读全文

作者:Archaeology Magzine

来源:Archaeology Magzine

译者:古城秋色 chenwei

校对:伏维阁主 chenwei

时间:2013.12.10

链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-angkor-wat-jamestown

 

6. 北美最古老的岩画(美国内华达洲温尼马卡湖)


2013年十大考古发现(下)

 

图片:岩石浸没在内华达州温尼马卡湖湖面之下,表面形成了一层碳酸盐矿物。对矿物的分析表明,这些岩画至少有一万年的历史,是北美最古老的岩画。

来源:Larry Benson

 

早期印第安人通常被认为是探险先驱和出色的猛犸象猎手。最近,内华达州温尼马卡湖(Winnemucca Lake)底几何岩画的测年结果表明,他们原来还是优秀的艺术家!

 

科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)古生物气象学家拉里·本森(Larry Benson)率领研究团队,成功鉴定出岩画表面碳酸盐矿物层的年代。结果表明,这些艺术品至少是在一万年前创造出来的,但随后被逐渐上升的湖水淹没,表面为碳酸盐覆盖。本森说,“我们知道这些岩画很古老,但没想到会这么古老。”在本森看来,早期印第安人雕琢出这些图案的年代,可能早至15 000年前。

 

这些印第安艺术家究竟想表达些什么?我们目前还不清楚。岩画图案似乎有些是云和闪电,有些是菱形,还有一些可能表示树木。不论这些岩画想要表达,现在皮拉米德湖的派尤特印第安部落(the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe,对温尼马卡湖流域拥有管辖权)仍将它们视若神圣。



7. 重绘高棉帝国(柬埔寨暹粒)


2013年十大考古发现(下)

 

图片:最近,研究人员对柬埔寨西北部的吴哥窟寺庙群进行了一次雷达测绘。结果显示,在茂盛的森林之下,隐藏着一片棋盘式古老城区,一直延伸至护城河以外。

来源:Damian Evans,悉尼大学

 

考古学家运用航空激光遥感技术,透过森林,发现了掩藏其下的吴哥古城,对高棉帝国中心地区又有了新的认识。过去学者曾一度认定,高棉城市都有城墙或护城河包围,形成一种棋盘式布局。

 

悉尼大学博士后达米安・埃文斯(Damian Evans)带领研究小组,运用激光雷达技术(LIDAR),发现吴哥城市规划的范围要远远超过护城河。如图所示,我们在吴哥窟护城河两边都能发现城镇化的证据。因此,12世纪高棉首都吴哥城的面积,其实是我们此前所知的3倍。如图所示,经过正式规划的城区面积有13多平方英里,远远超越城墙所围绕的那3.5平方英里地。这片城区容括了离市中心1英里远的吴哥窟,它比吴哥城本身的历史还要早100年。

 

本次发现为吴哥衰亡论提供了佐证——高棉帝国发展太快,以致于财力上入不敷出。埃文斯解释道:“吴哥的城市架构和20世纪的大城市十分相似——规模庞大,人口稀疏,只不过那时还没有汽车。在这样的城市里,人口一般集中在城市中心,而周边的广袤地区的人口密度很低。”

 


8. 殖民地食人者(弗吉尼亚州詹姆斯敦)


2013年十大考古发现(下)

 

图片来源:Don Hurlbert,史密森学会及弗吉尼亚文保协会

 

考古学家在美国维吉尼亚州的詹姆斯敦(Jamestown )发现了一个14岁少女的头骨,头骨上的四处刀痕清晰可见。这些痕迹可以证明,新世界(指美洲)殖民进程中人食人的故事并非凭空虚构。

 

詹姆斯敦是新世界的第一个永久殖民地。考古学家找到6份记录,描述了当年殖民者相食的惨剧——1609至1610年间的严冬,300名殖民者面临极度饥荒。前詹姆斯敦镇长乔治·珀西(George Percy)在1625年写道:“余粮已尽……掘墓寻尸以食之。”

 

威廉·凯尔索(William Kelso)是弗吉尼亚文保协会的考古学家。他从1994年起就致力于詹姆斯敦的考古挖掘。对于珀西这段骇人听闻的描述,凯尔索起先并不相信——直到今年春天,他的团队在一处垃圾场中发现了这个14岁少女的头骨,上面有明显的屠砍痕迹。这座垃圾场是当时绝望的殖民者存放食材的地方,他们的食材还包括马和家狗的尸体。这位少女现在被称为简(即无名氏)。考古学家起初认为,她是殖民者中的上层贵族,可是她的骨骼中铅含量却很低。詹姆斯敦的富人使用锡盘盛放食物,因此他们都有一定程度的铅中毒。

 

简的遗骸是美国殖民史上人食人的首例实物证据。“毫无疑问,食人事件确实发生过。我们可以由此看出,当时的殖民地是多么令人绝望。” 凯尔索如是说道。



9. 最古老的港口城市(埃及Wadi el-Jarf)

 

2013年十大考古发现(下)

 

图片:在红海附近,考古学家发现了埃及最早的港口和莎草纸。

 

Wadi el-Jarf距离苏伊士110英里,临近红海。考古学家在开启一个深入基岩的地下储藏室后,意外地发现了船只、绳索和陶器的碎片。它们的历史可以追溯到法老胡夫统治下的第四王朝。在希腊文里,胡夫也被称为基奥普斯(Cheops),他于公元前2551年至2528年间在位,吉萨大金字塔就是由他兴建的。

 

刻有基奥普斯的名字的大石块和石灰岩石板堆叠在一起,形成一个L型码头,从陆地一直延伸到水底。曾属于巨型船只的石灰石锚,证明埃及曾从西奈半岛进口黄铜和石料,运往尼罗河河谷。这次考察的领队,巴黎索邦大学(University of Paris-Sorbonne)埃及学家皮埃尔·塔雷特(Pierre Tallet)表示,“我们知道许多古埃及内陆港口,但 Wadi el-Jarf码头比已知最早的类似建造还要早1 000多年。”

 

在数以百计的残片中,塔雷特和他的同事还发现了10张保存完好的莎草纸。它们是在埃及发现的最早莎草纸,可惜已难以复原。其中一件残片上,留有一位名叫Merrer的古王国官员的日记,他参与了大金字塔的建造工作。塔雷特说,虽然这份莎草日记对金字塔实际建造的细节鲜少描述,但却“精确地记录了当时日常工作的状况。”



10. 动物小伙伴(德国施托尔珀,英格兰坎布里亚郡 ,加洲圣地亚哥)


2013年十大考古发现(下)

 

图片:今年,至少有三种动物为考古活动提供了宝贵的协助,它们是:A) 一只误闯古代武士墓穴的獾;B) 帮助考古学家从无法发掘的古罗马工事里挖出文物的鼹鼠;C) 在太平洋发现一枚罕见豪厄尔鱼雷的海豚。

来源:Felix Biermann, Alan Antczak, David Cothran

 

对于长着大长腿的人类来说,野外工作从来不是件容易事,但有些穴居动物天生就是掘洞高手。在欧洲两处遗址发掘现场,这些多毛的小伙伴为考古学家提供了宝贵的协助。一只灌在德国北部发现了九座900年历史的墓穴,墓主包括一名装备奢华的武士。考古学家费利克斯·比尔曼(Felix Biermann)接手了墓穴的后续发掘工作,他说,“如果不是因为这只灌,我们或许无从得知这墓穴的存在,更别说发掘了。” 在英格兰坎布里亚郡(Cumbria),洞穴鼹鼠从公元2世纪的惠特利城堡(Whitley Castle)地下掏出不少宝物,让我们更了解古罗马人的生活。在此之前,惠特利城堡仅有过两次发掘。而现在它已成为遗产保护地,人类考古学家无法再来此发掘。看到陆地上的小伙伴大显身手,经过特别训练的探雷海豚也不甘示弱,它们在圣地亚哥的海岸外发现了一枚19世纪的豪厄尔鱼雷(Howell torpedo)。美国海军一共生产了50枚豪厄尔鱼雷,在此之前只有两枚被人发现。


 

 

原文:


6. North America’s Oldest Petroglyphs (Winnemucca Lake, Nevada)


(Courtesy Larry Benson)

The analysis of carbonate that crusted over petroglyphs when they were covered by the waters of Winnemucca Lake in Nevada indicates that the rock carvings are at least 10,000 years old, making them the oldest in North America.

Paleoindians are often thought of as pioneering explorers or expert mammoth hunters. But new dating of geometric rock carvings in Nevada’s Winnemucca Lake basin now suggests they were also accomplished artists.

A team led by University of Colorado paleoclimatologist Larry Benson was able to date the carbonate crust that covers the petroglyphs. Benson concluded that the artwork must have been created more than 10,000 years ago, before the carvings were submerged beneath the lake’s higher waters and covered in carbonate. “We knew they were old,” he says. “We just didn’t know they were that old.” According to Benson, it’s possible that paleoartists made the carvings as early as 15,000 years ago.

Just what those artists meant to depict is unclear. Some of the petroglyphs may represent clouds and lightning, others are diamond- shaped, and there are some patterns that might represent trees. Whatever the inspiration for the carvings, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, which owns the Winnemucca Lake basin, considers them sacred to this day. 



7. Remapping the Khmer Empire (Siem Reap Province, Cambodia)


(Courtesy Damian Evans, University of Sydney)

Lidar mapping of the area surrounding the Angkor Wat temple complex in northwestern Cambodia shows that beneath thick forest cover an ancient city-block-style grid extends beyond the site’s moat.

Airborne laser sensing peered beneath vast stretches of centuries-old tree cover to reshape archaeologists’ understanding of the ancient Angkor region, once the epicenter of the Khmer Empire. Previously, scholars believed Khmer cities and temple complexes were enclosed spaces with walls or moats surrounding gridded “downtowns.”

Using lidar, a team led by Damian Evans, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Sydney, showed that these grids extended beyond the fortifications, creating much bigger urban landscapes. For instance, the mapping project turned up evidence of urbanization on both sides of Angkor Wat’s famed moat. Meanwhile, the twelfth-century A.D. Khmer capital Angkor Thom has now quadrupled in size. Imaging showed that its city-block structure extended far beyond the three-and-a-half square miles contained within its walls. It actually encompass more than 13 square miles of formally planned urban space, including within it Angkor Wat, which predated Angkor Thom by 100 years and sits a mile south of the city’s center.

The findings lend support to the theory that Angkor fell because it grew beyond its means. “What you have is an urban structure that is analogous to the giant, low-density megacities that have developed in the twentieth century with the advent of the car,” Evans explains, “a dense urban core surrounded by a vast lower-density periphery, or ‘sprawl.’”



8. Colonial Cannibalism (Jamestown, Virginia)


Courtesy Smithsonian Institution/Don Hurlbert and Preservation Virginia

Four butchery marks found on the skull of a 14-year-old girl who died at Jamestown constitute the first evidence for cannibalism during the colonization of the New World.

Six different accounts from Jamestown, the first permanent New World colony, describe episodes of cannibalism among colonists. Former Jamestown president George Percy wrote in 1625 that, during the brutal 1609–1610 winter that caused mass starvation among 300 settlers, “notheinge was Spared to mainteyne Lyfe … as to digge upp deade corpes outt of graves and to eate them.”

William Kelso, an archaeologist with Preservation Virginia who has excavated Jamestown since 1994, doubted Percy’s horrific descriptions—until this spring, when his team found the butchered skull of a 14-year-old girl buried in a trash pit along with the remains of horses and dogs, other sources of food for the desperate colonists. Jane, as the girl is now known, was originally thought to have been an upper-class settler, but recent analysis found her skeleton has low lead levels. The rich at Jamestown ate from pewter dishes, essentially giving themselves lead poisoning.

Jane’s remains are the first physical evidence of cannibalism at any American colony. “There’s no doubt cannibalism happened,” says Kelso. “It says how close to failure this colony came.”



9. World’s Oldest Port  (Wadi el-Jarf, Egypt)


(Courtesy Pierre Tallet)

Evidence of Egypt’s earliest port (above) and its oldest papyrus (top) were found close to the Red Sea.

While excavating an underground storage system cut into bedrock at Wadi el-Jarf, nearly 110 miles south of Suez and close to the Red Sea, archaeologists discovered fragments of boats, ropes, and pottery. The artifacts date to the reign of the 4th Dynasty King Khufu, or Cheops, builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, who ruled from 2551 to 2528 B.C.

Beginning on the shore and continuing underwater, an assembly of large blocks and limestone slabs inscribed with Cheops’ name form the remains of an L-shaped jetty. Limestone anchors from numerous large ships testify to voyages launched to export copper and stones from the Sinai Peninsula to the Nile Valley. “Ancient inland harbors are known on riversides, but the jetty of Wadi el-Jarf predates by more than 1,000 years any other known structure of this kind,” says expedition leader Pierre Tallet, a University of Paris-Sorbonne Egyptologist, about the 4,500-year-old harbor.

Tallet and colleagues also found 10 very well-preserved papyri among hundreds of fragments. The documents, which are proving difficult to reassemble, are the oldest papyri ever found in Egypt. One fragment is a diary written by Merrer, an Old Kingdom official involved in the building of the Great Pyramid. Though actual details of the pyramid’s construction are scarce, Tallet says, "the journal provides a precise account for every working day."



10.  Critter Diggers (Stolpe, Germany; Cumbria, England; San Diego, California)


(iStockphoto, Courtesy Felix Biermann, iSockphoto, © English Heritage, Courtesy Alan Antczak, U.S. Navy photographer, U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class David Cothran) 

A trio of animals offered assists to archaeologists this year: A) a badger stumbled upon the graves of nine ancient warriors, B) moles unearthed artifacts at a Roman fort where archaeologists can no longer dig, and C) dolphins zeroed in on a rare Howell torpedo in the Pacific.

 

Fieldwork can be uncomfortable for long-legged humans, but burrowing animals are built for digging. Furry creatures have provided invaluable assists at two different European sites. In northern Germany, a badger discovered nine remarkable 900-year-old burials, including that of a richly outfitted warrior. “There was no knowledge of these graves and no reason to investigate without the badger’s assistance,” says archaeologist Felix Biermann, who continues to dig the site. In Cumbria, England, burrowing moles have pushed up ancient objects at second-century Whitley Castle, uncovering invaluable evidence of Roman life at the fort. There have only been two previous digs, and Whitley Castle is now a protected site that human archaeologists can never explore. And not to be outdone by their terrestrial counterparts, specially trained mine-hunting dolphins discovered a nineteenth-century Howell torpedo off the coast of San Diego. Only 50 Howells were made, and only two had previously been found.

 

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考古资讯

2013年十大考古发现(上)

2013年十大考古发现(上)

作者:Archaeology Magzine 来源:Archaeology Magzine 译者:古城秋色 chenwei 校对:伏维阁主 chenwei 时间:2013.12.10 链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-... 阅读全文

作者:Archaeology Magzine

来源:Archaeology Magzine

译者:古城秋色 chenwei

校对:伏维阁主 chenwei

时间:2013.12.10

链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-angkor-wat-jamestown

 

1. 理查三世的骨头(英格兰莱斯特)


2013年十大考古发现(上)

 

图片:骨架脊柱侧弯,是考古学家认为这是查理三世遗骸的原因之一。

来源:莱斯特大学

 

2012年9月,英国莱斯特大学考古小组(ULAS)在一个停车场地下发现了一具遗骸。这具遗骸的出土地点、战斗伤痕和畸形脊椎似乎都在表明:这就是查理三世(1483年 – 1485年在位)。不过证据仍不充分。考古小组组长理查德・巴克利(Richard Buckley)回应道:“我们当然会使用适当的科学手段来证明这一点。” 所以这些遗骸还接受了多项测试,包括放射性碳年代测定、稳定同位素分析以及骨骼形态学检查。

 

所有测试结果都与历史记录相符。最终,与理查三世直系血亲的基因比照结果,把这个问题一锤定音。巴克利宣布:“毋庸置疑,我们可以确认,这就是理查三世。”

 

可就在遗骸身份确认后不久,另一考古小组宣布,他们已精确定位了博斯沃思战场(Bosworth Field)的位置。理查三世在这里迎来了自己生命的终结。新确定的战场位置与原地点相距一英里远。出土器物包括大量武器、炮弹和铠甲,以及一枚银制徽章。这枚徽章极可能属于理查三世的一名骑士。

 

无论是在历史学家口中,还是在大文豪莎士比亚笔下,理查三世的身心都十分扭曲。但在过去500年来,他从未得到过如今天这般的关注。“当然,我们无法对他的性格做出任何判断,” 巴克利说,“虽然那才是大家最想要知道的。”


2013年十大考古发现(上)

 

图片来源:莱斯特大学

 

理查三世只是今年“英国停车场系列发现”之一。在格雷菲尔斯(Greyfriars)理查三世的发掘地,考古学家还发现了一具棺椁,内棺为铅制,套棺为石制。同样在莱斯特的另一个停车场地下,有一片1 700年历史的古代墓地。而在苏格兰的沥青地面下,藏着8个人的遗骸,他们很可能是中世纪某骑士的家属。棺材里还有一块刻着十字架和剑的精美石头。

 

 

 2. 直立人头骨(格鲁吉亚德马尼西)


2013年十大考古发现(上)

 

图片:考古学家在格鲁吉亚德马尼西(Dmanisi)共发掘出5颗古人类头骨,其中最后一颗在2005年出土。这5颗头骨表明,直立人不同个体间可能存在很大差异。因为这次发现,科学家可能会考虑重新划分180至150万年前的古人类。

来源:格鲁吉亚国家博物馆

 

考古学家在格鲁吉亚的德马尼西地区,发掘出一颗有180万年历史的古人类头骨。古人类学家分析发现,这颗头骨可能会改写古人类的人种划分。它是考古学家在这块100英尺见方的区域发现的第5颗头骨,出土于2005年。虽然这5颗头骨外形差异较大,但科学家相信,它们都属于直立人(Homo erectus, 最早迁徙出非洲的古人类)。

 

最后发现的这颗头骨,头盖骨较小,只有现代人类平均大小的一半,而其面部则相对较大。瑞士苏黎世大学(University of Zurich)的古人类学家克里斯托夫·佐里科夫(Christoph Zollikofer)指出,如果这块头盖骨和面部骨头是在不同地区发现的,那么根据现行的分类标准,它们很可能被划分为不同人种。而这5颗头骨之间也存在很大差异,说明直立人个体之间的外貌差异,要大于目前许多科学家所想。

 

这些直立人头骨都有大约150至180万年的历史。佐里科夫认为,从它们的外形及大小的变化范围来看,它们可能属于同一人种。他解释说,人们一直认为,之前在非洲出土的化石(也属于这一时期),分属于能人(Homo habilis)、鲁道夫人 (H. rudolfensis) 和匠人(Homo ergaster)。或许我们应该重新考虑,将它们都划入直立人属。

 

 

3. 古罗马建筑发展史(意大利加贝伊)


2013年十大考古发现(上)

 

图片:在罗马城外古城加贝伊,考古学家发现了古罗马最早的大型砖石建筑遗迹。

来源:Anna Gallone/The Gabii Project

 

加贝伊古城位于罗马以东11英里处。密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的考古学家在此发掘出一座大型建筑群——这代表了罗马纪念性建筑的最早成就,其历史可追溯到公元前4~前3世纪,比绝大多数罗马城内大型建筑都要悠久。这座砖石建筑呈三层阶梯状结构,总面积达22 000平方英尺(合2 044平方米),与古时一个街区的大小相仿。另外,精美的柱廊和壁画、绘有几何图案的地板以及华丽的楼梯都完美融入了这座建筑非凡的设计之中。

 

因为挖掘工作尚未完成,所以我们目前还无法确定,这座建筑究竟是公共设施,还是私人庭院。加贝伊项目负责人马塞洛·摩哥塔(Marcello Mogetta)认为,无论鉴定结果如何,这座建筑在罗马考古史上都史无前例。总所周知,罗马共和国以反对奢华之风闻名于世。如果这是座私人住宅,那么它的宏大规模会令当时意大利任何一座贵族豪宅望尘莫及,甚至比庞贝或罗马城的建筑还要宏伟。

 

摩哥塔表示,那时的公共建筑还使用木制承重柱或其他易腐原料。所以“如果我们能确认这是座公共设施的话,我们就将开启建筑史上新的篇章。加贝伊建筑的发现,可能会将公民社会纪念性建筑的出现时间大大提前。”

 


4. 瓦里女权帝国?(秘鲁瓦尔梅卡斯蒂略)


2013年十大考古发现(上)


图片:在秘鲁前印加时期文化瓦里一座保存完好的墓室中,考古学家发现了瓦里帝国数位王后的遗骸。墓室里还有丰厚的陪葬品,例如一只雪花石膏雕琢而成的饮水杯,以及一只有1 200年历史的陶瓶。

来源:Patrycja Przadka Giersz

 

在秘鲁北部瓦尔梅卡斯蒂略的中心地带,米沃什·吉尔兹(Milosz Giersz)和来自华沙大学(University of Warsaw)及秘鲁天主教宗座大学( Pontifical Catholic University)的联合考古小队,发掘出一个瓦里墓葬群,墓室中埋葬着3至4位瓦里王后。与她们一同下葬的,还有40位以坐姿埋葬的贵族女性,7位散坐其间的殉葬者,以及1 300多件人工制品,包括通常只有男性贵族才能佩戴的耳环,和黄金白银打造的编织工具。

 

吉尔兹表示,“这是我们第一次发现与瓦里女性有关的,装满贵重物品的墓室。”他介绍说,考古学家在墓室里还发现了用棉纱和驼毛织成的纺织品。在瓦里人看来,它们是比黄金更为贵重的祭品。吉尔兹估计,这座陵墓的历史可追溯至公元750年。陵墓中也发现了男性贵族的遗骸,但其墓室规模要小的多。这些墓葬或许能帮助我们了解瓦里上层女性的地位。

 


5. 泥沼遗尸(爱尔兰莱伊什)


2013年十大考古发现(上)


图片:考古学家在爱尔兰卡舍尔(Cashel)的沼泽地发现了一具鞣尸。它有约4 000年历史,是欧洲最古老的鞣尸。

来源:Eamonn Kelly

 

在爱尔兰卡舍尔的一处泥炭沼泽里,考古学家发现了一具古代遗尸。在拿到碳14测年结果后,他们都大吃一惊。原来,这具保存完好的“卡舍尔人”遗体,是欧洲最古老的鞣尸,比之前被称为最古老鞣尸的那一具还要早600年。这位生活在青铜时代早期(约公元前2 000年)的“卡舍尔人”,显然死于暴力。CT扫描显示,他有两处脊椎破损、胳膊骨折,背部还有斧头多次砍击的痕迹。爱尔兰国家博物馆考古学家埃蒙·凯利(Eamonn Kelly)认为,从“卡舍尔人”的埋葬地点(在当时的地域交界处)和受伤情形看来,他死于一场献祭仪式。这同时也说明了,把青年男性充为牺牲(与地域统治权和自治权有关的宗教仪式)的做法,不只盛行于铁器时代(公元前500年至公元400年)。在那以前1 500年,它就已然兴起。



原文:


1. Richard III’s Last Act (Leicester, England)


(Courtesy University of Leicester)

One clue that led archaeologists to believe that they had found the remains of King Richard III was the scoliosis, or curvature of the spine, seen in the uncovered skeleton.

In September 2012 a skeleton discovered beneath a parking lot by University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS) offered tantalizing but circumstantial clues—including its location, battle wounds, and spinal deformity—connecting it with King Richard III (r. 1483–1485). “Of course we had to prove it through proper scientific analysis,” says Richard Buckley, director of ULAS. So the remains were subjected to radiocarbon dating, stable isotope analysis, and detailed osteological examination.

All results were consistent with historical accounts, and genetic comparison with two descendants of Richard’s bloodline provided a final verdict in February. “We could say that beyond reasonable doubt it was Richard III,” says Buckley.

Shortly after the identity of the remains was confirmed, another group of archaeologists announced that they had pinpointed the precise location of Bosworth Field, where Richard met his end, a mile away from the location where the battle was originally believed to have taken place. Among the finds there were a cache of weapons, cannonballs, armor, and a silver badge that may have been carried by one of Richard’s knights.

Cast by both historians and Shakespeare as twisted in both mind and body, Richard III hasn’t received this much attention in more than 500 years. “Of course, what we can’t do is say anything about his character,” says Buckley. “That’s what everybody always wants to know.”

 

Richard III was just the first in a series of finds beneath parking lots in the United Kingdom this year. At Greyfriars, the Richard III site, archaeologists also uncovered a medieval lead coffin nestled inside a larger stone one. Elsewhere in Leicester another parking lot yielded a 1,700-year-old cemetery. And, in Scotland, yet another patch of asphalt held the remains of eight people—perhaps relatives of a medieval knight also buried there, whose grave contained an ornate stone carving of a Calvary cross and sword.


2. Homo erectus Stands Alone (Dmanisi, Georgia)


(Photo courtesy of Georgian National Museum)

Five skulls found within a 100-square foot area at the site of Dmanisi—the last of which (above) was recovered in 2005—illustrate the diversity of Homo erectus individuals. The findings might lead to a recategorization of hominin remains dating back 1.8 to 1.5 million years.

The analysis by paleoanthropologists of a skull dated to 1.8 million years ago, found at the site of Dmanisi in Georgia, could result in the recategorization of ancient hominin species. The skull, originally excavated in 2005, is the fifth one to be found within a 100-square-foot area. Taken together, these five individuals, although highly variable in appearance, are believed to provide a snapshot of Homo erectus, the first human species to migrate out of Africa.

The most recently discovered skull has a small brain case, roughly half the size of that of the average modern human, but a very large face. According to existing standards of classification, if those two parts of the skull had been found as fragments at separate sites, they may have been assigned to two different species, says Christoph Zollikofer, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Zurich. Now, he says, the fact that the five skulls differ widely shows that Homo erectus individuals were far more diverse in appearance than many scientists had thought.

 

Based on the range of skull shapes and sizes from Dmanisi, Zollikofer believes that all Homo fossils that date to roughly 1.8 to 1.5 million years ago likely belonged to a single human species. All African fossils of that time period, he explains, variably attributed to Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, and Homo ergaster, should be considered part of the species Homo erectus.


3. Roman Buildings Grow Up (Gabii, Italy)


(Courtesy Anna Gallone/The Gabii Project)

At Gabii, outside Rome, archaeologists found the earliest evidence of Roman large stone–block construction.

Eleven miles east of Rome, in the ancient city of Gabii, archaeologists unearthed a building complex that may represent the earliest instance of Roman monumental architecture. This enormous structure, dating to the fourth or third century B.C., was excavated by a team from the University of Michigan and predates most of the grand monuments of Rome itself. The large stone–block construction sprawls across three man-made terraces, enveloping a space of more than 22,000 square feet—roughly an entire ancient city block. The exceptional design features colonnades, geometrically patterned floors, wall paintings, and a grand staircase.

Because the site has not yet been fully excavated, it remains to be determined whether this complex served a public or private function. Regardless of the outcome, according to Marcello Mogetta, managing director of the Gabii Project, this structure is unprecedented within the archaeology of the Roman Republic—a period traditionally esteemed for its rejection of opulence and grandeur. If the complex is a private residence, its sheer size makes it unlike any contemporary aristocratic Roman house in Italy, and larger than even those of Pompeii and Rome.

 

“If the interpretation as a public building were confirmed, we would be moving into uncharted territory,” says Mogetta, adding that political buildings of the time were still being built with wooden posts and perishable materials. “The Gabii structure would provide a much earlier example of the desire for monumental architecture in a civic context.”


4. A Wari Matriarchy? (Castillo de Huarmey, Peru)


(Courtesy Patrycja Przadka Giersz)

Within an unlooted tomb of the Wari civilization, a pre-Inca culture of Peru, archaeologists found the remains of several of the empire’s queens, accompanied by lavish offerings such as a cup that had been carved out of alabaster and a 1,200-year-old decorated ceramic flask.

At the center of Castillo de Huarmey in northern Peru is a burial complex where Milosz Giersz and a team of archaeologists from the University of Warsaw and the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru uncovered chambers containing the remains of three, or possibly four, royal women of the Wari Empire. They were accompanied by 40 noblewomen buried in a sitting position, seven sacrificed individuals whose bodies had been thrown over the seated burials, and more than 1,300 artifacts, including ear ornaments typically worn by royal men and weaving tools made of gold and silver.

“This is the first time in an archaeological excavation that we have found a tomb full of prestige goods related to Wari women,” Giersz says, adding that cotton and camel-wool textiles also found as grave goods were considered by the Wari to be more valuable offerings than gold. Giersz estimates that the tomb dates to A.D. 750. Burials of royal men have been found at the site, but thus far not in chambers of this size. The tomb could answer questions about the roles that women played at the highest levels of Wari society.


5. Oldest Bog Body (County Laois, Ireland)


(Courtesy Eamonn Kelly)

The oldest bog body found in Europe was discovered in Ireland’s Cashel Bog and dates to roughly 4,000 years ago.

When radiocarbon dating results came in on a body discovered by a peat cutter in the middle of Ireland’s Cashel Bog, they elicited surprise. “Cashel Man” is the oldest fleshed bog body in Europe, predating the former holder of that title by at least 600 years. Cashel Man lived in the Early Bronze Age, around 2000 B.C., and clearly died a violent death. CT scans revealed that his spine was shattered in two places, a sharp blow had broken his arm, and he had been struck multiple times in the back with an ax. Archaeologist Eamonn Kelly of the National Museum of Ireland believes that Cashel Man’s burial on an ancient regional border, and the nature of his injuries, are evidence that the practice of sacrificing young men—a ritual connected with kingship and sovereignty well known from the Iron Age (500 B.C. to A.D. 400)—is 1,500 years older than previously thought.

 

 

 

 

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考古资讯

2013年十大考古发现(导言) ARCHAEOLOGY's editors reveal the year's most compelling stories

2013年十大考古发现(导言)  ARCHAEOLOGY's editors reveal the year's most compelling stories

作者:Archaeology Magzine 来源:Archaeology Magzine 译者:古城秋色 校对:伏维阁主 chenwei 时间:2013.12.10 链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-angkor-w... 阅读全文

作者:Archaeology Magzine

来源:Archaeology Magzine

译者:古城秋色

校对:伏维阁主 chenwei

时间:2013.12.10

链接:www.archaeology.org/issues/116-features/1573-richard-iii-homo-erectus-angkor-wat-jamestown

 

2013年十大考古发现(导言)  ARCHAEOLOGY's editors reveal the year's most compelling stories

导言

 

2013年最广为人知的考古发现,莫过于英国莱斯特(Leicester)停车场地下遗骨主人的鉴定结果——它属于那位臭名昭著的暴君理查三世。这一发现无可争议地当选为本刊“2013年十大考古发现”之首。

 

但是,科学研究的对象并不一定是被莎士比亚描写过的历史名人。在埃及、罗马这样的考古热点城市,同样有令人兴奋的新发现。在红海海岸,考古学家揭开了埃及最古老港口的面纱。在罗马城外20英里处,考古学家发现了这座城市的首座纪念性建筑——它标志性的艺术风格与古罗马建筑十分相似。

 

除此之外,考古学家还在美国詹姆斯敦(Jamestown)发现了食人的证据,说明移民新世界是多么艰险的事业。而早期殖民者所面对的,又是怎样一片荒凉贫瘠的土地。在柬埔寨西北部,考古学家对吴哥窟周边地区进行的航空测绘,完全改变了我们对古高棉帝国及其发展历程的认识。另外,在以完好保存古人类遗骸著称的爱尔兰中部,研究人员发现了最古老的泥炭鞣尸,距今有4 000余年。

 

这些考古发现的历史跨度达上千年,散布世界各地,在2013年被考古学家带到我们面前。它们传达了考古学一直以来的宗旨——细致探索人类创造的一点一滴,展示人类历史非同寻常的广度与多元性。这些考古发现中最古老的一件,是在格鲁吉亚出土的头骨。它们很可能会改变科学家们对我们最早祖先的认识——远在文明发于滥觞之前,更遑论理查三世。

 

原文:

 

Introduction

 

The most celebrated archaeology story in recent memory is the 2013 confirmation that bones thought to belong to King Richard III, found beneath a parking lot in Leicester, were, in fact, those of the infamous English monarch. Naturally, it leads our Top 10 Discoveries of 2013.

 

But a discovery needn’t involve a historical figure whose life was dramatized by no less a personage than Shakespeare in order to make the cut. In archaeological hot spots such as Egypt and Rome, the news was every bit as exciting. On the coast of the Red Sea, archaeologists uncovered Egpyt’s oldest port. And just 20 miles outside Rome, the discovery of that city’s first monumental architecture—the iconic building style so tightly associated with the ancient Romans—was announced.

 

Elsewhere, evidence for cannibalism at Jamestown revealed what a perilous enterprise the colonization of the New World was, and on what tenuous ground the fate of the American colonies rested. In northwestern Cambodia, aerial mapping of the environs of Angkor Wat has changed our understanding of the growth and nature of the ancient Khmer Empire. And, in central Ireland, a part of the world known for its well-preserved ancient human remains, the oldest bog body was found, dating back some 4,000 years.

 

This year’s discoveries span millennia, come to us from far-flung locales, and offer what archaeology can always be counted on to deliver: a close look at the astounding diversity and range of human innovation and creativity. The oldest among these finds, skulls unearthed in Georgia, may alter scientists’ understanding of our earliest ancestors—long before civilization emerged or kings such as Richard III ruled.

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考古资讯

尼安德特人也能像我们一样说话?! Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests

尼安德特人也能像我们一样说话?!  Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests

来源:BBC 新闻网 时间:2013年12月20日 作者:Melissa Hogenboom 译者/编校:伏维阁主 来源:http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25465102 科学家通过研究尼人的舌骨(颈部一块马蹄形骨骼)化石,发现尼人可能也会说话! ... 阅读全文

来源:BBC 新闻网

时间:2013年12月20日

作者:Melissa Hogenboom

译者/编校:伏维阁主

来源: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25465102

 

科学家通过研究尼人的舌骨(颈部一块马蹄形骨骼)化石,发现尼人可能也会说话! 


尼安德特人也能像我们一样说话?!  Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests


图片:尼人可能也有复杂的语言系统!

来源:BBC新闻网(下同)
 

 

考古学家在1989年出土了第一块尼人舌骨,他们发现这块骨头和我们智人的十分相似。之后学界一直有人怀疑,尼人是不是也能和我们的祖先一样说话?但直到现在,科学家才利用数字建模技术,还原尼人舌骨的工作机制。科学家称,他们的研究“极大地支持了”尼人拥有复杂语言系统的理论。该研究已发表于Plos One期刊。

 

舌头需要有舌骨支持。如果想要开口说话,舌骨必不可少。但除人类之外的其他灵长动物没有这种语言结构。

 

最近,一个由多国专家组成的研究团队,利用三维X光成像与计算机建模技术,分析了一组尼人的喉部骨骼化石。他们通过数字建模,来研究舌骨与周围其他骨头如何协动。

 

来自澳大利亚新英格兰大学的学者Stephen Wroe说:“这真是一次重大进展!证明 Kebara 2号舌骨不只长得跟智人的舌骨差不多,功能也与之类似。” 他还告诉BBC新闻网,这个新突破不仅会改写我们对尼人的认识,还将改变我们对人类的看法。“常有人说,语言能力是我们人之为人的基本特征。如果尼人也拥有语言能力,那么他们毫无疑问也是人类。”

 

尼安德特人也能像我们一样说话?!  Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests


图片:有6万年历史的尼人遗骨(友情提示1:这是复制品。友情提示2:这张图里看不到舌骨啦)

 

过去人们曾一度认为,复杂的语言系统直到10万年前才演化出来,而且智人是唯一拥有复杂语言系统的生物。但在1989年考古学家发现尼人舌骨之后,这一观点也随之改变。这块舌骨出土于以色列的Kebara洞穴。

 

最近,考古学家也陆续发现了其他年代更久远的舌骨化石,它们属于智人与尼人的近亲海德堡人(Homo heidelbergensis)—— 他们生活在50万年前的西班牙。虽然还未建模,但Wroe 教授说,他们的舌骨可能也和智人、尼人的舌骨非常相似。也就是说,语言的起源可能远远早于我们先前认为的10万年前。他还补充道,他的研究并不一定能证明尼人真的可以像智人一样说话。“我们非常谨慎,不打算证明任何没有确凿证据的问题。但我确实认为,我们的研究将会引起大量专家学者的注意,或许能为大家最终解决这一问题提供帮助。”

 

尼安德特人也能像我们一样说话?!  Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests

   

图片:尼人生就一张大脸,长着大眉弓,无下颔

 

尼人比智人要矮也更加强壮。他们没有下颔,也没有向后倾的前额。他们并不是我们的直系祖先,但 DNA 研究显示,欧洲人有 1%~4% 的基因可能来自尼人。

 

今年早些时候,来自荷兰马克斯普朗克研究所的科学家 Dan Dediu 曾撰文评议,尼人和智人的语言能力非常相似。他指出,我们现在的研究不单证明了尼人和我们有相似的舌骨,而且它们“不只在结构上相似,在功能性上也相似。” 他对 BBC 新闻网说:“研究者固然十分小心谨慎,但我认为他们的研究已经明确指出,语言能力的起源至少可以追溯到我们和尼人的共同祖先。“ 但同时他也强调,这还只是我们在此问题上取得的第一个突破。我们还需要研究其他现存的灵长类动物,才能更好地理解语言的变异。

 

 

原文:

Neanderthals may have had complex language

An analysis of a Neanderthal's fossilised hyoid bone - a horseshoe-shaped structure in the neck - suggests the species had the ability to speak.

This has been suspected since the 1989 discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid that looks just like a modern human's.

But now computer modelling of how it works has shown this bone was also used in a very similar way.

Writing in journal Plos One , scientists say its study is "highly suggestive" of complex speech in Neanderthals.

The hyoid bone is crucial for speaking as it supports the root of the tongue. In non-human primates, it is not placed in the right position to vocalise like humans.

An international team of researchers analysed a fossil Neanderthal throat bone using 3D x-ray imaging and mechanical modelling.

This model allowed the group to see how the hyoid behaved in relation to the other surrounding bones.

Stephen Wroe, from the University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia, said: "We would argue that this is a very significant step forward. It shows that the Kebara 2 hyoid doesn't just look like those of modern humans - it was used in a very similar way."

He told BBC News that it not only changed our understanding of Neanderthals, but also of ourselves.

"Many would argue that our capacity for speech and language is among the most fundamental of characteristics that make us human. If Neanderthals also had language then they were truly human, too."

60,000-year-old Neanderthal remains (replica pictured) also included a hyoid bone (not visible)

It was commonly believed that complex language did not evolve until about 100,000 years ago and that modern humans were the only ones capable of complex speech.

But that changed with the discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid bone in 1989. It was found in the Kebara Cave in Israel and is very similar to our own,

Much older hyoid fossils have also recently been discovered, attributed to the human and Neanderthal relative Homo heidelbergensis. They were found in Spain and are over 500,000 years old .

These have yet to be modelled, but Prof Wroe said they were likely to be very similar to those of modern humans and Neanderthals, so could take back the origins of speech still further.

He added that his work would not necessarily be accepted as proof that Neanderthals spoke.

"We were very careful not to suggest that we had proven anything beyond doubt, but I do think it will help to convince a good number of specialists and tip the weight of opinion."

Neanderthals had large faces with massive brow ridges and no chin

Neanderthals were stockier and shorter than modern humans, with no chin and backwards sloping foreheads. They are not regarded as direct human ancestors but DNA analysis has revealed that between 1% and 4% of the Eurasian human genome seems to come from Neanderthals .

Dan Dediu, from the Max Plank Institute for Psycholinguistics, Netherlands, published a review article earlier this year suggesting that Neanderthals and modern humans shared a similar capacity for language.

He said that the current study brought more weight to the conclusions that Neanderthals had very similar hyoid bones to us, "not only in form but also in what concerns their mechanical properties".

"The authors themselves are understandably cautious in drawing strong conclusions, but I think that their work clearly supports the contention that speech and language is an old feature of our lineage going back at least to the last common ancestor that we shared with the Neanderthals," Dr Dediu told BBC News.

He stressed, though, that the latest study was only a first step and that future work on other living primates were necessary to better understand the range of variation within modern humans.

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狄更斯笔下的九大病症 9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens

狄更斯笔下的九大病症  9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens

来源:大英百科在线(Britannica) 作者:Kara Rogers 译者:80 编校:伏维阁主 原文链接:http://www.britannica.com/list/13/9-diagnoses-by-charles-dickens 图片:狄... 阅读全文

来源:大英百科在线(Britannica)

作者:Kara Rogers

译者:80

编校:伏维阁主

原文链接:http://www.britannica.com/list/13/9-diagnoses-by-charles-dickens


 狄更斯笔下的九大病症  9 Diagnoses by Charles Dickens


图片:狄更斯

来源:Getty Images


英国小说家查尔斯·狄更斯可谓描写疾病症状的佼佼者。他善于运用委婉的修辞和语言来描写疾病。从医学角度解读他的作品,诊断角色,几乎成了历史学家和医生的习惯。在某些情况下,狄更斯的描写甚至超前于医生的诊断——这更证明了他高超的洞察力。我们即将为您介绍狄更斯笔下的9个角色,以及狄更斯对他们病症的描述。

 

9. 《圣诞颂歌》中的埃比尼泽:真菌中毒

 

在《圣诞颂歌》中的圣诞前夜,吝啬鬼埃比尼泽(Ebenezer Scrooge)重返过去,在幻觉中看到了现在和未来。第二天,回到50多岁的埃比尼泽变得异常大方快乐。在他看到幻觉的那夜,埃比尼泽曾抱怨说自己消化不好。一些人认为这是麦角菌中毒的证据;而麦角曾一度是黑麦面包的常见污染物(译者注:设置在狄更斯时期的BBC电视剧《开膛街》第一季第三集的案子,就是混入麦角的黑麦面包引发的麦角菌中毒事件)。另一些人则认为埃比尼泽可能中风了,或者患了失智症或暂时性的精神错乱。

 

8. 《圣诞颂歌》中的小蒂姆:维生素D缺乏症

 

不管《圣诞颂歌》中埃比尼泽的幻觉是什么造成的,它都救了小蒂姆(Tiny Tim)的命。埃比尼泽在幻觉中受到警告:“如果黑暗不散,小蒂姆坐的地方将会只剩下一把空椅。”狄更斯借这番话警告埃比尼泽,他必须变得大方起来——比如说增加小蒂姆的父亲鲍勃的薪水,这样这个家庭就有能力购买更多食物。而且更重要的是,他们就有能力购买鱼油。如此一来,如果小蒂姆真的像现代医生诊断的那样,患有维生素D缺乏症,他的跛腿情况或许会得到不小的改善。我们并不确定小蒂姆为什么会缺乏维生素D。肾小管酸中毒(RTA)或软骨病,甚至软骨病加肺结核(都是19世纪伦敦儿童的常见病)都有可能造成这种症状。

 

7. 《荒凉山庄》中的库鲁克先生:失读症

 

 “他可以写出所有的字母;当他看到单独的字母时,他也认得大部分……但他就是不能把它们放在一起。”

 

狄更斯以上述这番话,来描写《荒凉山庄》中商店主人库鲁克先生(Krook)的阅读能力。有些人提出,这可能是有史以来关于失读症的第一次文字记载。如果真是这样的话,那么狄更斯对失语症的记录,要比医学文献早了将近30年。同时库鲁克还有酒精依赖症状,他的死亡方式也不同寻常——人体自燃。

 

6. 《艾德温·德鲁德之谜》中的杰克:药物成瘾

 

《艾德温·德鲁德之谜》里的唱诗班指挥杰克(Jack Jasper)在鸦片的作用下,梦到了他内心深处最黑暗的欲望——勒死他的侄子埃德温(Edwin Drood)。同所有鸦片上瘾者一样,他试图将梦境化为现实。有心理学家怀疑梦境(特别是受药物影响的梦境),也许代表着人类内心深处的某种渴求,比如对食物和性的欲望。也许杰克对埃德温的未婚妻罗莎(Rosa Bud)的爱慕之情,也是促使杰克最终杀掉埃德温的原因之一(作家本人在作品完成前就去世了,所以我们可能永远无法得知,究竟是谁导致了埃德温的失踪)。在描写梦境、欲望和上瘾(现在已成为一种疾病症状)方面,狄更斯似乎是非常精准的。

 

5. 《远大前程》中的亚瑟·赫薇香:震颤性谵妄症

 

 “和康佩森一起来的还有一个人,他名叫亚瑟……他身体极度衰弱,看起来就像游魂一般。”

 

在《远大前程》当中,狄更斯通过对亚瑟(Arthur Havisham,赫薇香小姐同父异母的哥哥)的描写,再次说明了成瘾的后果——身体和精神状况急剧下降。亚瑟受到“某些恐怖状况”的折磨,医生将之与震颤性谵妄症画上等号——这种症状常由戒酒造成,在酗酒人群中较为常见。正如它的名字所示,该症状的特征包括精神状态不稳定(谵妄)和身体颤抖(震颤性)。这两个症状都能在亚瑟身上找到。狄更斯的描写虽然委婉,但却道出了一个奇妙的“狄更斯症状”。


4. 《匹克威克外传》中的“胖小子”乔伊:肥胖肺换气不足综合症(OHS,也称匹克威克综合症)

 

在《匹克威克外传》中,狄更斯写道:“一个小伙子,一个惊人的胖小子……站在毯子上,腰板挺得很直;他双眼紧闭,好像睡着了一般。”

 

这段关于“匹克威克综合症”或“肥胖肺换气不足综合症”的描述堪称经典。虽然早在狄更斯描写“胖小子”Joe之前,就有关于该病主要生理症状的文字记录(过度肥胖和反常的白天困乏),但人们却是在很久以后才发现了这一症状与书中人物的联系——20世纪初,加拿大医生威廉·奥斯勒(William Osler)爵士在他所著的教科书《医学原则和实践》中首次提到。于是,在《匹克威克外传》(1837)出版了一个多世纪之后,“肥胖肺换气不足综合症”终于有了一个更通俗的名字——匹克威克综合症。


3. 《我们共同的朋友》中的布拉德利·韩德斯通:癫痫

 

 “您病得可不轻,韩德斯通先生!”

 “这没什么,先生。它很快就会过去。我已经习惯了这突如其来的晕眩。”

 

《我们共同的朋友》中的校长布拉德利•韩德斯通(Bradley Headstone)被认为患有癫痫。的确,他那“突如其来的晕眩”很可能就是一次癫痫发作。韩德斯通并非狄更斯笔下唯一的癫痫患者。《雾都孤儿》中又邪恶又虚弱的僧侣,以及《荒凉山庄》中的女仆佳斯特(Guster)都曾经历过“癫痫发作”。有些人甚至猜测,狄更斯本人也曾受癫痫发作或类似症状的困扰,所以他对该病症了如指掌——但我们目前还没有任何实质证据来支持这种说法。

 

2. 《大卫·科波菲尔》中的乌利亚·希普:肌张力障碍


“当他试图表达强烈的情感时,他的身体就会扭动,真是十分难看。”

 

在狄更斯提到《大卫·科波菲尔》中的坏蛋乌利亚•希普(Uriah Heep)时,常会使用“扭动”一词。有人认为,希普的持续扭动是“肌张力障碍”的标志。肌张力障碍是因不自觉的肌肉收缩而造成的重复动作。在社交场合,这些和肌张力障碍有关的反常扭动十分令人反感。狄更斯对此的描写非常到位。正像特拉伍德(Trotwood)小姐在希普面前说的那样,“如果您是一条鳗鱼,先生,就请您像鳗鱼一样生活;如果您是人类,就请控制好您的四肢,先生!看在上帝的份上!”


1. 《大卫·科波菲尔》中的毛切尔小姐:侏儒症

 

同样在《大卫·科波菲尔》中,读者们还会遇到一位侏儒症病患——理发师毛切尔小姐。和坏心肠的希普不同,毛切尔小姐可是个正面角色。然而狄更斯一开始似乎打算把她刻画成一个道德败坏的女人,但却遭到他当时的邻居——希尔(Jane Seymour Hill)夫人,一位侏儒症病患——的强烈反对。希尔夫人似乎曾用官司威胁过狄更斯,毛切尔小姐的种种美德大概正是狄更斯对她的补偿。后来,这个角色被当做是残疾人权利的标志,也是小说家给予弱势群体尊严的代表。


 

原文:

 

English novelist Charles Dickens had a knack for expertly portraying the symptoms of medical conditions. He also had a tendency to slip those descriptions into his works in subtle terms, such that historians and physicians have made it something of a hobby to interpret them medically and attempt to diagnose afflicted characters. In some cases, Dickens’s descriptions actually predated those offered by medical doctors, revealing his skill for observation. "Dickensian diagnoses" ascribed to nine of the novelist’s characters are explored in this list.

 

9. Ebenezer Scrooge

Fungus poisoning

On Christmas Eve in A Christmas Carol, miser Ebenezer Scrooge relives his past and has visions of the present and future in a series of vivid hallucinations. The following day, as detailed by Dickens, the mature-age (presumably 50-something) Scrooge was atypically generous and joyful. Scrooge’s complaint of indigestion on the night of the visions has been interpreted by some as evidence of poisoning with the hallucinogenic fungus ergot, which once was a common contaminant of rye bread. Others have suggested that Scrooge may have experienced a stroke or been afflicted by dementia or brief psychotic disorder.

 

8. Tiny Tim

Vitamin D deficiency

Whatever it was that ailed Scrooge, his visions in A Christmas Carol may have saved Tiny Tim Cratchit’s life. Indeed, Scrooge was warned, "If these shadows remain unchanged, I see an empty chair where Tiny Tim once sat." With this, Dickens suggests that if Scrooge were to be generous—to, for instance, raise Bob Cratchit’s wages—then the family would be able to afford more food. And, more important, they might have been able to buy fish oil, which, if modern-day physicians are correct in their assertions that Tiny Tim suffered from vitamin D deficiency, would have helped strengthen the boy's crippled legs. Why Tiny Tim may have lacked vitamin D is uncertain, though the condition may have been caused by renal tubular acidosis or rickets, or even by a combination of rickets and tuberculosis, which were common among London’s children in the 19th century.

 

7. Mr. Krook

Dyslexia

"He can make all the letters separately and he knows most of them separately when he sees them...but he can’t put them together."

That was how Dickens described the reading ability of shopkeeper Mr. Krook in Bleak House. Some have postulated that it might have been the first written description of dyslexia, and if that is the case, then Dickens penned it some three decades before the term itself reached the medical literature. Krook also suffered from alcohol dependency and died a most unusual death, having spontaneously combusted.

 

6. Jack Jasper

Drug addiction

In The Mystery of Edwin Drood, choirmaster Jack (John) Jasper, in the grips of opium, dreams his darkest desire—to strangle his nephew, Edwin Drood—an act that the opium addict ultimately seeks to realize. While still a mystery, some psychologists suspect that dreams, particularly those associated with drug use, may represent the origin of a craving or desire, such as for food or sex. Perhaps of significance, then, was Jasper’s love for Rosa Bud, Drood’s fiancée, which may have driven Jasper to kill Drood (though, the identity of the person responsible for Drood's disappearance is unknown; the author died before completing the novel). Thus, Dickens appears to have been spot-on in his portrayal of dreams, desire, and what is now a recognized medical condition—addiction.

 

5. Arthur Havisham

Delirium tremens

"There was another in with Compeyson, as was called Arthur…He was in a decline, and was a shadow to look at."

In Great Expectations, with the character Arthur Havisham, Dickens again demonstrates his knowledge of the consequences of addiction, namely its tendency to lead to physical and mental deterioration. Arthur suffered specifically from "the horrors," which physicians have equated with delirium tremens, a condition brought on by alcohol withdrawal and often seen in people who suffer from chronic alcoholism. As its name suggests, defining features of the condition include changes in mental state ("delirium") and shaking or shivering ("tremens"). Arthur suffers from both, as Dickens describes succinctly in the novel, making for a subtle yet intriguing treasure among Dickensian diagnoses.

 

4. Joe

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

In The Pickwick Papers, Dickens described "…a boy—a wonderfully fat boy…standing upright on the mat, with his eyes closed as if in sleep."

It is a classic description of what is now known as Pickwickian syndrome, or obesity hypoventilation syndrome. While its primary physical features, obesity and atypical daytime drowsiness, appear to have been described prior to Dickens’s portrayal of Joe the fat boy, the first reference to the syndrome in relation to the novel appears to have made later, in the early 1900s, by Canadian physician Sir William Osler in an edition of his textbook The Principles and Practice of Medicine. The name Pickwickian syndrome entered into popular use more than a century after The Pickwick Papers was published in book form (1837).

 

3. Bradley Headstone

Epilepsy

"You are quite ill, Mr. Headstone!"

"It is not much, sir. It will pass over very soon. I am accustomed to be seized with giddiness."

Bradley Headstone, the schoolmaster in Our Mutual Friend, is thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Indeed, his being "seized with giddiness" likely represented a seizure. Headstone was not alone among Dickens characters in his condition. Monks, a sinister and sickly character in Oliver Twist, and Guster, a maid in Bleak House, were prone to "fits" as well. Some have speculated that Dickens himself may have been afflicted by epilepsy or a similar condition, which would have given him thorough insight into the disorder. The claim, however, remains unsubstantiated.

 

2. Uriah Heep

Dystonia

"He had a way of writhing when he wanted to express enthusiasm, which was very ugly."

"Writhing" was used frequently by Dickens in his descriptions of the villain Uriah Heep in David Copperfield. Heep’s constant wriggling and twisting has been interpreted by some as indicative of the physical disorder known as dystonia. Dystonia is characterized by repetitive movements resulting from the involuntary contraction of muscles. The unusual twisting movements and postures associated with dystonia can be socially disturbing, for sufferers and observers alike, which Dickens captured well.

As Miss Trotwood exclaims in Heep’s presence, "If you’re an eel, Sir, conduct yourself like one. If you’re a man, control your limbs, Sir! Good God!"

 

1. Miss Mowcher

Dwarfism

Also in David Copperfield, readers encounter a character affected by dwarfism, the hairdresser Miss Mowcher. Unlike the sinister Heep, Miss Mowcher is a heroine. However, Dickens seems to have initially portrayed the hairdresser as immoral, a notion that was strongly disapproved by his neighbour at the time, Mrs. Jane Seymour Hill, a dwarf herself. Hill appears to have threatened to sue Dickens over the matter, which might explain Miss Mowcher’s redeeming qualities. The character ultimately came to be recognized as a symbol for the rights of the disabled and is representative of the novelist’s inclination to bestow decency upon his poor or enfeebled characters.

 

 

 

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又见维京:双人墓,还有无头奴隶! Double graves with headless slaves

又见维京:双人墓,还有无头奴隶!  Double graves with headless slaves

作者:Mari Kildahl 来源:Nordic Science / University of Oslo 时间:2013年12月10日 译者:80 校对:伏维阁主 原文链接:http://sciencenordic.com/double-graves-headless-slaves 在维京时代,不少奴隶都被砍头... 阅读全文

作者:Mari Kildahl

来源:Nordic Science / University of Oslo

时间:20131210

译者:80

校对:伏维阁主

原文链接:http://sciencenordic.com/double-graves-headless-slaves

 

在维京时代,不少奴隶都被砍头处死,然后和他们的主人一同下葬。一千年前的维京穷人究竟如何生活?新的遗骨分析方法将为我们带来答案。

 

又见维京:双人墓,还有无头奴隶!  Double graves with headless slaves

 

图片:1975年,人们在Tomma地区发掘出三具来自铁器时代的完整遗骨。瑙曼认为这是一处家庭墓地。墓中的儿童和两个成年人之间,可能存在亲属关系,甚至很可能来自同一户人家。但是那孩子的饮食明显与两个成年人不同。

来源:Annica Thomsson

 

生活在公元400-1050年剑的挪威平民是如何生活的?我们是否还能了解更多?考古学者瑙曼(Elise Naumann)回答:“是的。”她运用同位素分析法检验古挪威人遗骨,有了若干新发现。她检测的十具遗骨,均来自挪威Flakstad地区。其中至少有三具来自双人或三人墓葬,而且都缺少头颅。

 

她结合古基因和同位素分析,提出这样一个理论:那些无头尸骨生前是奴隶。他们在陪葬前会被砍头处死。瑙曼说:“生活在那个时代的社会成员,彼此间有巨大的地位差异。这个发现让我们了解到更多信息:对于生活在古挪威的大部分人来说,生活无疑十分艰苦。只有极少数人享有特权。”不过瑙曼也指出,维京奴隶为主人陪葬,并不是什么新闻了,而且他们的确有可能在下葬前被砍去头颅。 “我们研究的是维京的早期墓葬。我们常发现奴隶的手脚都会被绑起来。”

 

那么,这个发现究竟新在何处?在于对科学分析方法的运用。我们由此可以对古人和古代社会产生更加深入的了解。考古学家将同位素分析和骨骼学分析结合运用,让我们得以了解古挪威人的饮食和健康状况。古基因研究则为我们提供了基因和宗谱的相关信息。

 

不同饮食 不同人生

 

瑙曼研究了56具遗骨,它们分别来自单人、双人或三人墓葬,且大部分出土于挪威最北端的三个郡,下葬时间在公元4001050年之间。瑙曼说:“以前几乎没人用同位素分析法研究过这个时期的考古证据。”同位素分析法,再加上古基因检验,不仅为我们提供了关于古挪威人饮食习惯的信息,还向我们揭示了他们的社会关系。来自Flakstad的遗骨就是这样一个例子。

 

她说:“基因分析显示,葬在Flakstad的人并无亲属关系。而同位素分析显示,他们的饮食情况存在很大差异。”鱼在这些无头尸骨生前的饮食习惯中占据重要地位,就和维京穷人一样。墓中其他人则更倾向于食用产自陆地的食物,比如肉类。

 

又见维京:双人墓,还有无头奴隶!  Double graves with headless slaves

 

图片:瑙曼正在检验铁器时代的人类遗骨

来源:Anne StalsbergNTNU Vitenskapsmuseet

 

瑙曼的研究显示,和穷人相比,有一定地位的维京人会食用更多肉食和其他动物产品。在铁器时代的斯堪的纳维亚,动物肉类在宗教活动中具有特殊含义——这也为研究人员提供了理论根据。 “饮食差别不仅关乎人们具体吃了些什么,还事关生死。不同的饮食,反映了不同的社会地位和不同的人生。”

 

瑙曼的目标之一,是为我们揭秘普通维京人的生活。她说:“富人的坟墓往往受到更多关注,因为他们的墓中通常由较多陪葬品,可供考古学家研究。而遗骨分析,则让我们更加了解没什么陪葬物的穷人的生活……同位素分析结果一目了然,不受任何人为因素影响。”

 

维京人的生命历程

 

瑙曼的研究表明,食物和肉类分配,在铁器时代的挪威社会结构分化中占有重要地位。她说:“现在我正在写一篇新文章。维京双人墓正是我这篇文章的切入点。”

 

即便是同一户人家,也可能存在巨大的饮食差距。同位素分析还显示,这种差异存在于男女之间,也存在于成人和儿童之间。瑙曼说:“男人更常旅行,所以他们食用的鱼会更多一些。”

 

 “将孩子寄养在社会地位较低的人家(例如奴隶或仆人家),也许是维京社会的一种普遍现象——虽然我们还不能十分肯定。这可能影响到儿童的饮食,或许也能解释同位素分析结果——很多维京人在成年前后拥有不同的饮食习惯。”

 

 “我们有望通过同位素分析,进一步了解维京人的生命历程。我希望在这方向继续研究下去。在我看来,同位素分析的考古学应用,具有无限潜能。


译者补充:

 

无独有偶,在20052007年间,挪威奥斯陆大学解剖学教授佩尔·霍尔克(Per Holck)也通过古DNA检测和骨骼学分析,重新检验了著名的奥斯伯格船葬遗骨,并根据两具遗骨的食性分析推翻了关于墓主身份和地位的早期理论。

 

奥斯伯格长船(Oseberg Ship)于1904年出土自挪威斯拉根附近的利勒·奥斯伯格农场(Lille Oseberg)。这是一艘可以追溯到公元9世纪前期的维京“Karvi”——一种类似于当今游艇的船只,主要用于在海岸线附近,同我们印象中维京海盗所乘的、可跨过北海乃至大西洋的“knörr”略有不同。托奥斯陆海峡中特有的蓝黏土Blue clay)的福,奥斯伯格长船船体保持完整,只是由于不堪土壤重压而裂成碎片,直到1926年才全部修复完成。

 

除了长船本身及其附件——比如船桨、锚、桅杆等等,奥斯伯格船葬还出土了包括货车、冰橇、床、纺织品和厨房用品在内的一系列物品。唯一的遗憾是该墓葬曾在中世纪早期被盗过(桅杆上留有一个盗洞痕迹),所有珠宝都不见了踪影,但大多木制随葬品都带有精美的木雕,在维京研究初期对维京时代艺术的理解提供了无比重要的物质证据。

 

不过奥斯伯格长船真正让人感到兴奋和疑惑的却是墓主人的身份。墓中一共出土两具尸骨,一具几近完整,一具仅剩下几根骨头;二者均为女性,较完整的那一具的死亡年龄在50到80岁之间,另一具尸骨则为25至50岁。受维京和中世纪时期北欧文献的影响,最早主持发掘的考古学家加布里埃尔•阿道夫•古斯塔夫森教授(Gabriel Adolf Gustafson)先入为主地认为“老年女人”为墓主,是一位“身份显赫的女人,一个首领的妻子或女儿;换言之,这是一位女王”,而“年轻女人”则为 “一个奴隶或女仆,但我们不知道她是否是被迫为女主人陪葬的”。

 

古斯塔夫森教授于1915年去世,但他的理论却流传了下来,并被加以粉饰:当挪威考古学家安东•威廉•布勒格(Anton Wilhelm Brøgger)出版古斯塔夫森教授的理论时,他擅自为墓主加上了“阿萨女王”(Åsa Haralddóttir)这个名字。布勒格的灵感来自斯诺里•斯图鲁森(Snorri Sturluson)的《茵格凌萨迦》(Ynglinga Saga);根据斯诺里,挪威有一位被称为“猎人”古德罗德(Guðrǫðr veiðikonungr)的国王,他听说阿格德尔有位美丽的公主名叫阿萨,便派使者找到阿格德尔国王哈拉尔德提亲。遭到拒绝后,古德罗德一怒之下攻陷阿格德尔、杀死哈拉尔德和他的儿子,掳走了阿萨强迫她成为自己的王后。阿萨忍辱负重,终于在两年之后找到机会派人杀死古德罗德,为父亲和兄长报仇雪恨。

 

事后,阿萨带着年仅一岁的儿子、也就是日后被称为“黑国王”的哈尔夫戴恩(Halfdanr Svarti)逃到阿格德尔,自立为女王。成年后,哈尔夫戴恩成为阿格德尔国王并逐渐扩大了自己的国土。在他死后,他的儿子“金发”哈拉尔德(Harald Hårfagre)继续他未完的事业,终于在9世纪后期统一挪威,成为挪威历史上第一位国王,人称哈拉尔德一世。

 

1992年,挪威考古学家安妮-斯蒂娜•英斯塔(Anne-Stine Ingstad)博士挑战了古斯塔夫森和布勒格的理论,但她的重点依旧放在“老年女人”身上,提出她可能是一位侍奉女神芙蕾雅的女祭司。而且她也没有完全否决女王理论:她将死者的身份定为阿尔夫希尔德(Álfhildr)、“猎人”古德罗德的第一任妻子(阿萨女王是古德罗德第二任妻子)。

 

直到2005年,也就是在奥斯伯格长船和墓葬出土了一个世纪之后,佩尔•霍尔克教授才利用古DNA分析、骨骼学分析和同位素分析法为奥斯伯格船葬翻开了新的篇章:通过遗骨检验,他发现二人生前饮食类似,且所食用 的肉类多为陆生动物而非鱼类——这说明二者的身份都很高贵,并非像早期学者认为的那样是主仆关系。此外,“年轻女人”的牙齿上有使用金属牙签后留下的痕迹——这在9世纪也是十分罕见的,再加上主人和仆人不太可能食用相同的食物,我们可以肯定这二人地位相当。第二,“年轻女人”的死因绝非暴力;的确,她的锁骨曾断裂过——她可能因此伤得很重——但同时也有愈合的痕迹,所以她绝非陪葬奴隶。学者们曾猜测这两位死者也许是母女,但由于缺少足够的DNA证据,这项研究只得再次告一段落。


最后,鉴于该咨询文中曾提及维京丧葬中奴隶陪葬习俗,在这里译者将附上三段维京和中世纪时代北欧文献中关于丧葬过程的描写;它们分别是《斯诺里埃达》(Snorri Edda或Prose Edda)中关于巴尔德尔(Baldr)葬礼的描述、《诗体埃达》(Poetic Edda或Elder Edda)中西格鲁德(Sigurd,即《尼伯龙根指环》中的齐格弗里德,Siegfried)的葬礼,和阿巴斯王朝使节、艾哈迈德•伊本•法德兰(Ahmad ibn Fadān)写于10世纪前半叶的东方游记中的伏尔加维京首领的葬礼。


《斯诺里埃达》(Sturluson, Snorri. The Prose Edda, ed. and trans. by Jesse L. Byock. London, England: Penguin Classics 2003)


“巴尔德尔的尸体被抬到船上;看到这番景象,他的妻子、耐普的女儿南娜(Nanna)不堪痛苦,倒地而亡。于是她也被抬到[船中的]柴堆上——点火的时候到了。然后,索尔(Þ órr)走上前来,用雷神之锤Mjollnir祝福了点燃的柴堆。这时有一个名叫里特(Litr)的矮人跑了过来,刚好挡在索尔身前。索尔飞起一脚,将他踢进燃着的火焰当中;里特被活活烧死。”


“……奥丁将金指环‘滴落者’(Draupnir)放在柴堆上——每隔九个夜晚,这戒指便‘滴’出八枚一模一样的金指环。最后巴尔德尔的战马被牵了过来;它披挂齐全,也被带进了柴堆。”


《诗体埃达》(The Elder Edda: a Book of Viking Lore, ed. and trans.by Andrew Orchard. London, England: Penguin Classics 2011)


“在葬火将燃的柴堆上挂满织锦和盾牌,

吊着染色的外国布料和一队外国奴隶;

让那位来自南方的国王[西格鲁德]在我[女武神布伦希尔德(Brynhildr)]身边燃烧。

在国王的另一边,在火焰中,

躺着我的仆人们,穿戴华丽;

他们躺在头侧,再献上两只雄鹰;

然后其他一切请按常规摆放。

……

五个女奴将跟随着他前往[英灵殿?],

还有八个仆人,他们都出身高贵;

他们都是伴我长大的仆从,是我父亲的礼物,

布德利把他们送给自己的女儿。”


伊本•法德兰的描述(Abram, Christopher. Myths of the Pagan North: the Gods of the Norsemen. London, England: Continuum International Publishing Group 2011 另一在线版本来自http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/montgo1.pdf)


“当他们来到坟墓前,他们除去土壤和木头,把他[的尸体]挖了出来;那时他身上依旧套着去世时穿的izār(一种阿拉伯长袍,也许伊本•法德兰只是在用自己熟悉的词汇描述某种伏尔加维京的传统服饰)。我看得出来,因为土壤太冷,他的身体已经开始变黑。早前下葬的时候,他们还在墓里放了酒、水果和一条鲷鱼;挖掘的时候,这些东西也被一并拿出了。”


“他们将他抬到船上的帐篷里,放置在被子上,又用垫子撑住他的身体。然后他们取来酒、水果和药草摆放在他身边。紧接着被拿进来的是面包、肉和洋葱——这些被放在他身前;一只狗被劈成两半扔到船上;他们还将他所有的武器放在他身边。之后,他们牵来两匹马,先让它们奔跑直至出汗,再将它们切成几块扔进船里。他们又牵来两头奶牛,切成几块后扔进船里。然后是一只公鸡和一只母鸡,他们杀了它们后也扔进船里。”


“与此同时,自愿牺牲的女奴隶在各个帐篷中穿行。每个帐篷的主人都会和她性交,并对她说:‘告诉你的主人,我是出于对你的爱才这么做。”


“星期五,在我们通常做晚祷的时间,他们把女奴带到他们搭建的一个类似门框的东西前。她的脚踩在男人们的手上,让他们将她举过‘门框’。他们将她放下来的时候,她说了些什么。然后他们第二次举起、放下她,她做了相同的事。他们第三次举起、放下她,她也做了同样的事情。接着他们交给她一只母鸡;她砍下并扔掉鸡头。人们将死鸡扔到船上。”


“我向翻译询问她的行为;根据翻译的说法,当他们第一次举起她时,她说:‘看呀!我看到了我的父母。’第二次她说:‘看呀!我看到了我死去的亲戚们,他们全都坐在那儿。’第三次她则说:‘看呀!我看到了我的主人;他坐在天堂。那是个常年绿油油的美丽地方。他身边是他的追随者们和男性奴隶。他在叫我,所以让我去找他吧。’然后他们将她带到边;她褪下佩戴在双臂上的手镯,并将它们交给那个被称为‘死亡天使’的女人——也就是即将杀死她的那个人。她还褪下了一对脚链,将它们交给两位服侍她的女奴——她们是‘死亡天使’的女儿。然后他们将她抬到船上,却没让她进入帐篷。男人们带着盾牌和木棍走了过来,他们交给她一杯酒;她先对着酒杯念念有词说了些什么,然后喝了下去。翻译告诉我说,‘这么一来,她就向她的姐妹们道了别。’然后她又接过一杯酒,又念念有词了很久;老女人[即‘死亡天使’]催促她喝下去,然后 进入她主人所在的帐篷。我看到她已经神智不清;她似乎很想进入帐篷,但她仅仅向里探了探头(她的身体仍在帐篷外面)。老女人一把抓住她的头发将她拽了进去,同时她自己也走了进去。周围的男人开始用棍棒敲击盾牌,用以淹没女孩的惨叫,以防其他女奴听到,以后就不敢自愿成为祭品了”


“六个人进入帐篷,他们都同女奴发生性交。他们将她放在死者身边,然后两人按住她的脚,两人按住手;‘死亡天使’在她脖子上放了一条绳子,交叉后又将两头交给另外两个男人让他们拉住。然后她拿着一把扩刃匕首走上前来,一下接一下地捅在女奴的胸前;与此同时那两个男人勒住绳子,直至女奴咽气。”

 

 

原文:

In the Viking era, a number of slaves were beheaded and then buried together with their masters. New methods of skeleton analysis reveal more about the life of the poor a thousand years ago.

In 1975, three intact skeletons from the Iron Age were found on the Tommeide farm in Tomma. Naumann interprets this as a family grave. - Despite possible kinship between them, probably as members of the same household, the child nevertheless had a diet that was different from that of the two adults during the last years of their lives. (Photo: Annica Thomsson)

How was life for common people in Norway during the period 400–1050 AD? Can we learn more? Yes, according to Elise Naumann, research scholar in archaeology.

By using isotope analysis to examine ancient skeletons, she has made several new discoveries. 

The material includes skeletons from a total of ten individuals, found at Flakstad. At least three of these, which were found in double and triple graves, are headless.

The isotope analyses, combined with analyses of ancient DNA, provide grounds to hypothesize that the headless skeletons were slaves who were decapitated before being buried along with their masters.

"This says a lot about the great differences between people in the society of the day. Life was undoubtedly difficult and brutal for the majority of people. Only a very few were privileged," says Naumann.

However, there is nothing new about the fact that slaves in the Viking era were buried along with their masters, and in some cases also beheaded before burial, Elise Naumann points out.

"On the contrary, we build on earlier grave finds of this type which suggest that slaves were sometimes bound hand and foot."

What is new about this, she explains, is how the scientific analytical methods used and the results they produce give fresh insights into the society and people of the past. Isotope analyses in combination with osteological analysis gives us information about people's diet and health. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) yield knowledge about genealogy and genetics.

Differences in diet reveals different lives

In her dissertation work, Naumann has investigated the skeletons from a total of 56 individuals buried in single, double or triple graves. Most of them were found in the three northernmost counties of Norway and date from the period 400-1050 AD. 

"Hardly any isotope analyses of skeletal material from this period have been performed before," says Naumann.

The analytical method, combined with examinations of ancient DNA, has provided information not only about diet, but also about social relations. This is the case for the skeletons from Flakstad.

"The genetic analyses of the Flakstad Vikings show that the people buried there were most likely not related through the maternal line. The isotope analyses show major differences in diet", she says.

The headless skeletons, like certain other poor individuals included in the study, had a diet consisting largely of fish. The other people in the graves had eaten much more land-based foods, including meat.

Elise Naumann investigates the skeletal remains of people who lived during the Iron Age. (Photo: Anne Stalsberg, NTNU Vitenskapsmuseet)

The results of Naumann's research suggest that people of rank ate more meat and other animal products than the poor did. The results are also interpreted based on the knowledge that the meat of animals held a special significance in religious contexts during the Iron Age in Scandinavia.

"Dietary differences is a matter of more than just what was eaten. Food was a matter of life and death at the time. Differing diets therefore reflect differences in social status, different lives."

Surprisingly large differences

One of Naumann's goals has been to shed light on the lives of common people during the Viking era.

"Attention has primarily been paid to the graves of the wealthy, which contained a lot of grave goods for archaeologists to examine. Analyses of skeletal material can also give us insight into the lives of those who didn't leave much behind in the world," she says.

A grave is also the result of the choices made by those who were left behind, Naumann points out. The analyses of skeletons, on the other hand, provide information about the lives that was lived.

"There are no hidden agendas in the results of isotope analysis," says the researcher.

 

Further investigation into the life cycle of the past

The research suggests that distribution of food and meals was a significant structuring factor for Iron Age society in Norway, Naumann concludes.

"I am in the process of writing a new scientific article based on my doctoral work. Double graves is also my point of departure for this article, but in these ones, the people buried together might in some cases have been related to one another."

What's interesting in this case, she says, is that one finds large differences in diet even within the same household. Additionally, the isotope analyses reveal differences in diet both between men and woman, and between adults and children.

"Men travelled more than women, they may therefore have eaten more fish," says Naumann.

"And although we know little about the scope of the practice, it may have been common to put children in foster care with people of lower social status, for example slaves or servants. It is likely that the children's diet would have been affected by this. This may partly explain why the isotope analyses show that many people had different diets as adults than they did when they were children."

"It is possible to use isotope analyses to learn about an individual's life cycle – about their journey through life. This is something I want to study further. I see a great potential in more advanced use of isotope analysis."

 

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考古资讯

视角:秦兵马俑或曾受到希腊艺术启发? Terracotta Warriors Inspired by Ancient Greek Art

视角:秦兵马俑或曾受到希腊艺术启发?  Terracotta Warriors Inspired by Ancient Greek Art

作者:Owen Jarus 来源:Live science 时间:2013.12.10 译者:chenwei 编校:伏维阁主 链接:http://www.livescience.com/41828-terracotta-warriors-inspired-by-greek-art.html 编校按:请带着一颗批判的... 阅读全文

作者:Owen Jarus

来源:Live science

时间:2013.12.10

译者:chenwei

编校:伏维阁主

链接:http://www.livescience.com/41828-terracotta-warriors-inspired-by-greek-art.html

 

编校按:请带着一颗批判的心观赏本文~ 本站译者的进一步解读,请见附在正文之后的“译后记”。本文旨在介绍学界最新思想,欢迎随时推翻!


秦始皇是中国历史上的第一个皇帝。在秦始皇陵东北不到一英里的地方,有三个地下俑坑,埋着8000多个秦兵马俑,造型包括武士、弓弩手、骑兵、驭手和军吏。来自英国的最新研究称,这些兵马俑可能曾受希腊艺术的启发。

 

视角:秦兵马俑或曾受到希腊艺术启发?  Terracotta Warriors Inspired by Ancient Greek Art

 

图片:秦始皇陵兵马俑坑

来源:Lukas Hlavac | Shutterstock

 

最新研究声称,为秦始皇制造的兵马俑和其他真人大小的塑像,都是受到希腊艺术影响的结果。

 

秦始皇在2200多年前凭武力统一中国。在秦始皇陵东北方不到一英里的地方,有三个地下俑坑,埋着8000多个秦兵马俑,造型包括武士、弓弩手、骑兵、驭手和军吏。考古学家还在陵墓附近的其他俑坑中,发现了杂耍艺人、力士、舞者和政府官员的陶俑。

 

伦敦大学亚非研究学院(School of Oriental and African Studies)讲师卢卡斯·尼克尔(Lukas Nickel)在最新一期《亚非研究快报》上写道:“兵马俑极有可能是当时希腊与中国文明交流的结果,”

 

尼克尔的证据之一,是一份译为英文的中国古代文献(译注:此处原文误作“刚刚翻译成英文”,其实根据尼克尔本人在论文中的说法,这些古代文献早已被译作英文,只是一直未受西方学者关注)。其中描述了一个有趣的故事:巨人“现身”于遥远的西方,秦始皇深受触动,决定照着他们的样子铸造人俑,竖立在他的宫殿(阿房宫)之前。尼克尔认为,这个故事证明中国曾与西方发生接触。这次文明接触不仅启发秦始皇铸造金人,还促使他下定决心组建兵马俑军团,并制作其他真人大小的塑像。

 

在此之前,中国(及相邻地区)没有制造真人大小塑像的传统。尼克尔认为,秦始皇大规模制造塑像的想法在中国可称前无古人。他可能曾受中亚诸国启发。而后者又受亚历山大大帝东征(约公元前330年前后)的影响,成为泛希腊文化的一部分(在公共场合及陵墓修建大型写实性雕塑)。

 

视角:秦兵马俑或曾受到希腊艺术启发?  Terracotta Warriors Inspired by Ancient Greek Art

 

图片:2012年在纽约时代广场兵马俑展览中展出的九件兵马俑之一。中国向外国出借的兵马俑数量,同一时间不得超过十件。

来源:Clara Moskowitz/LiveScience

 

巨人见于西方

 

尼克尔引用的故事讲到,在中国(秦)最西边的临洮(译注:《史记·秦始皇本纪》:分天下以为三十六郡... 地东至海暨朝鲜,西至临洮、羌中,南至北向户,北据河为塞,并阴山至辽东。),有十二个身着异族服饰的巨人出现于此。(译注:这个故事译自颜师古注《汉书·五行志》:二十六年有大人长五丈,足履六尺,皆夷狄服,凡十二人见於临洮,故销兵器,铸而象之。

 

古代文献中并没有提及“巨人”是如何出现的,他们是如何来到临洮,或者他们的具体样貌;但确有说到,他们比常人要高大得多,身高达到38英尺(11.55米),足长4.5英尺(1.38米)。始皇帝十分惊异,决定销熔战时所用的铜制兵器,照他们的形貌铸成12个巨大金人,立在宫殿之前。

 

每一个塑像上都刻有铭文,描述了十二巨人现于临洮的传说。生活在1400年前的唐人颜师古(援引早期资料,注释《汉书》)记录下这段铭文:皇帝二十六年,初兼天下,改诸侯为郡县,一法律,同度量。大人来见临洮,其长五丈,足迹六尺。

 

虽然《汉书》记载天戒若曰,勿大为夷狄之行,将授其祸(那些采取蛮族做法的人将会受到上天的惩罚。译注:这句话实际上是颜师古的注,并非出自班固),始皇帝还是决定照着巨人的样子制造等身塑像。汉朝历史学家班固生活在2000多年前。作为秦下一个朝代的官员,他似乎想要给秦始皇抹上一层负面色彩。

 

秦始皇死后数百年,他铸造的巨大金人就不复存在(译注:一说东汉末年,董卓将十二金人中的十个销毁,用来铸造钱币;剩下两个也在后来被苻坚销毁)。尼克尔向LiveScience介绍说,这些复制品曾公开陈列在始皇宫殿之前,所以古代文人留下了相关的记录。与之相反,兵马俑虽然幸存至今,但外界几乎无人得见,所以没有留下任何关于它们的文字记载。

 

虽然材料稀少,但这份中国古代文献确实暗示了古代中国与中亚诸国之间曾发生某种接触(译注:尼克尔在论文中写道,考古学家在甘肃马家塬一处约公元前300年的西戎墓葬中,发现了可能来自中亚的物品,包括玻璃杯和银制酒杯 [Wenwu 2008/9: 4–28.])。这些中亚王国受到希腊文化及其雕塑传统的影响,继而影响了中国。

 

 

杂技俑与舞俑

 

考古学家还在秦始皇陵墓附近的一个俑坑(编号K9901)出土了几十件上半身裸露的杂技俑与舞俑。

 

尼克尔在论文中写道:雕塑家试图表现出人物骨架、肌肉和筋脉,以展现其运动的姿态。这与希腊和泛希腊化地区对人体的理解十分接近。(译注:1号坑中出土的兵马俑则缺乏这些特征。)

 

他认为,雕塑家必须经过大量实践,才能制出如此逼真的塑像。希腊人花了几个世纪才掌握了这一技艺。他写道:一代代希腊雕塑家苦心探索,力求更真实地表现人体。雕塑过程十分复杂,对雕塑家的艺术修为和思维能力都有很高要求。任何人都不可能在朝夕之间掌握雕塑技艺。

 

视角:秦兵马俑或曾受到希腊艺术启发?  Terracotta Warriors Inspired by Ancient Greek Art

 

图片:汉朝小型塑像一例

来源:Owen Jarus

 

 

为什么中国人不再制作大型塑像?

 

尼克尔的研究也引出另一个谜团:秦始皇死后,汉朝统治者就不再制造实际大小的塑像,转而制作小型的人物、动物和其他塑像。尼克尔认为,中国人之所以不再制造等比塑像,原因很多。比如,制造大型塑像需要高超的技艺,但等到汉朝皇帝准备大修陵墓之时,他们已经找不到懂得这些技艺的人了。

 

尼克尔还介绍了另外一种可能,就是班固所说的天戒”——因为秦始皇故意为夷狄之行,所以酿成灾祸。对古代中国人来说,十二个身着异族服饰的巨人和深埋地下的兵马俑都显得十分怪谲。(译注:秦国地处西陲,此时距商鞅变法不过百年,脱离蛮夷状态不久,秦文化与中原夏文化还是有些差异。)

 

尼克尔对LiveScience说:塑像在整个中国历史中的地位微不足道。也许在中国人看来,这样的大型塑像一定十分荒诞。或许汉朝统治者曾想效仿秦始皇的异域风格,为自己制作等比或更大的塑像,但他们终究没有这么做。

 

 

译后记:

 

记者文章开头的“Nickel's evidence includes newly translated ancient records that tell a fantastic tale of giant statues that "appeared" in the far west, inspiring the first emperor of China to duplicate them in front of his palace.”可能带来误导,以为作者仅靠这新翻译出来文本资料得出这个结论。(我一开始就是这样被误导了,以为作为一篇考古学论文怎能如此不严谨。。

 

实际上,在尼克尔的论文中,他通过考古实物证据,用大量篇幅比较秦兵马俑与希腊风格雕塑的相同点,证明中亚国家当时在亚历山大大帝的影响下大量修建希腊风格雕像,证明秦当时与中亚国家发生过接触等等。他只在论文最后几页提及这最新翻译成英文的文本,作为辅证,说明兵马俑不是当时唯一的实物大小的塑像,还有十二铜人,只是没有保留下来。

 

尼克尔在论文中也并不认为秦始皇制造兵马俑是因为“大人见于临洮”的缘故。论文中“希腊雕塑的影响”,指的可能是来自中亚的雕塑或者匠人(对秦始皇陵附近的大型葬坑的遗传学研究发现,修建秦始皇陵的工人中,可能有不少来西人:http://archive.archaeology.org/online/interviews/mair.html),而不是临洮巨人。


 

原文:

 

About 8,000 Terracotta Warriors were buried in three pits less than a mile to the northeast of the mausoleum of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huangdi. They include infantryman, archers, cavalry, charioteers and generals. Now new research, including newly translated ancient records, indicates that the construction of these warriors was inspired by Greek art.

The Terracotta Warriors, along with other life-size sculptures built for the First Emperor of China, were inspired by Greek art, new research indicates.

About 8,000 Terracotta Warriors, which are life-size statues of infantryman, cavalry, archers, charioteers and generals, were buried in three pits less than a mile to the northeast of the mausoleum of Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor.  He unified the country through conquest more than 2,200 years ago. Pits containing sculptures of acrobats, strongmen, dancers and civil servants have also been found near the mausoleum.

Now, new research points to ancient Greek sculpture as the inspiration for the emperor's afterlife army. [See Photos of the Terracotta Warriors & Greek Art]

"It is perfectly possible and actually likely that the sculptures of the First Emperor are the result of early contact between Greece and China," writes Lukas Nickel, a reader with the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, in the most recent edition of the journal Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. (A reader is a position comparable to an associate or full professor in the American system.)

Nickel's evidence includes newly translated ancient records that tell a fantastic tale of giant statues that "appeared" in the far west, inspiring the first emperor of China to duplicate them in front of his palace. This story offers evidence of early contact between China and the West, contacts that Nickel says inspired the First Emperor (which is what Qin Shi Huangdi called himself) to not only duplicate the 12 giant statues but to build the massive Terracotta Army along with other life-size sculptures.

Before the First Emperor's time, life-size sculptures were not built in China, and Nickel argues the idea to build so many of them, so suddenly, came from kingdoms in Asia that had been created and influenced by Alexander the Great's campaigns.

Shown here, one of nine Terracotta Warriors that was on display at the Terracotta Warrior exhibition at New York City's Discovery Times Square in 2012. China lets only 10 of the warriors leave the country at any given time.

Credit: Clara Moskowitz/LiveScience

'Giants' appearing in the west

Nickel translated ancient Chinese records that tell a tale of 12 giant statues, clad in "foreign robes" that "appeared" in Lintao in what was the westernmost part of China. (The word "Lintao" can also mean any place far to the west.)

The records do not say how this appearance happened, who brought them there, or who exactly the statues depicted; they do reveal the statues were larger than life, rising about 38 feet (11.55 meters) high, with feet that were 4.5 feet long (1.38 m). They so impressed the First Emperor that he decided to build 12 duplicates in front of his palace by melting down bronze weapons that had been used for war.

On each duplicate an inscription was created telling of the "giants" (the original statues) that appeared in Lintao. The inscriptions, recorded by Yan Shigu, who lived around 1,400 years ago and used an earlier written source, said that in the "26th Year of the Emperor, when he first brought together all-under-heaven, divided the principalities into provinces and districts, and unified the weights and measures, [these] giants appeared in Lintao …"

The First Emperor duplicated these statues despite a "heavenly taboo" that "he who recklessly follows foreign models will encounter disaster," wrote Ban Gu, a historian who lived almost 2,000 years ago. Ban worked for the dynasty that had overthrown the First Emperor's dynasty and, as such, tried to cast him in a negative light.

These giant duplicates no longer exist, having been destroyed in the centuries after the First Emperor's death. Because the duplicates were displayed publicly in front of the First Emperor's palace ancient writers left records of them behind, Nickel told LiveScience. Meanwhile, the Terracotta Warriors, though they survive to present day, were buried in pits out of sight and, as such, no record of them survives today.

Even so, the newly translated records suggest contact, of some form, occurred between ancient China and kingdoms in Central Asia that had been influenced by Greek culture and its sculpture-building tradition.

Acrobats and dancers

A few dozen statues of half-naked acrobats and dancers were also found in separate pits near the First Emperor's mausoleum.

"Here the sculptors attempted to render a bone structure, muscles and sinews to depict a person in movement," Nickel writes in his paper. "This comes close to an understanding of the human body that was employed at the time only in Hellenistic (Greek influenced) Europe and Asia."

He argues that creating this sort of realistic sculpture is not something that a sculptor could learn without some practice, taking the ancient Greeks centuries to master it.

"The creation of a believable human body preoccupied generations of Greek sculptors. It was a complex artistic and intellectual process that did not happen overnight," Nickel writes.

An example of the miniature figures of people, animals and objects created by the Han Dynasty.

Credit: Photo by Owen Jarus

Why did they stop building the statues?

All this research leaves another mystery in its wake. After the First Emperor's death the rulers that came to power, the Han Dynasty, stopped building life-size sculptures, opting instead for miniature representations of people, animals and objects, Nickel said.

Several reasons could explain why the people stopped building these humanlike statues, Nickel said. For instance, the skills involved in building these sculptures were complicated and, by the time Han rulers started building large tombs again, the people who had these skills could simply have died.

But there is another idea, one hinted at by the "heavenly taboo" recorded by Ban Gu that "disaster" happens when foreign models are followed recklessly. To the ancient Chinese, the 12 giant statues clad in foreign robes, and the Terracotta Warriors buried in pits, would have represented something unusual and foreign, Nickel said.

"Over all of Chinese early history sculpture did play only a minor role," Nickel told LiveScience in the interview. "To the Chinese it must have looked quite alien," he added. The Han rulers, wishing to repudiate the First Emperor and his foreign tastes, may have simply decided not to create life-size or larger sculptures of their own, Nickel said. 

 

 

 

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