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塔卡拉校舍 Takara School

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

Courtesy ofWorld Architecture Community. 感谢WA的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。 项目访谈Project Questions: 问:项目客户或指导方对该项目的概念性设计具体有哪些要求? Q: What was the client&s / instructor&s requirement... 阅读全文

Courtesy of World Architecture Community. 感谢WA的投稿,90degree版权所有,不得转载。

 

 

项目访谈Project Questions:

 

问:项目客户或指导方对该项目的概念性设计具体有哪些要求?

Q: What was the client’s / instructor’s requirement for this project?

答:在西南太平洋岛国瓦努阿图,由于人口的增长,就学人群上升,使得教育需求持续扩大。当前教育基础设施的集中配置已无法满足相应需求。现有的混凝土类型建筑成本相对较高,耗时也相对较长,而且,在频繁遭遇地震和飓风之后,难以修复。当务之急就是要在满足西方建筑标准的同时,提高当地材料及工艺的使用。

A: In Vanuatu the demand for access to education is growing due to population growth and increased school attendance. The current centralised delivery of education infrastructure cannot keep pace with demand. The existing archetype concrete buildings are costly and time consuming to build and difficult to repair following the regular earthquakes and cyclones. The brief was to increase the use of local materials and skills whilst meeting western construction standards.

 

问:请具体谈谈该项目的概念基础。

Q: Kindly describe the conceptual basis of the project.

答:该设计旨在确保建筑结构能够抵御地震与飓风的侵袭基础上,同时提高当地材料及建筑工艺在教室建设过程中的使用。极具西方设计风格的木制门式框架体现了铰接柱及剪刀状门架的本土特色,从而构成了核心结构的完整性。该结构使当地社区得以根据可用资源定制建筑,同时也便于当地人对建筑进行保养并在灾后对非结构性组件进行修复。

A: The design aims to increase the use of local materials and skills in the construction of classrooms whilst ensuring the structure would be earthquake and cyclone resistant. The use of a western engineered timber portal frame, reflecting the local vernacular of articulated posts and scissor trusses, forms the core structural integrity. This is able to be in filled by the community to customise the building depending on available resources. This also facilitates local maintenance and post disaster repair to non structural elements.

 

问:在该项目的设计中,都应用了哪些材料?分别都用在哪里?为什么?

Q: What materials are used in this project, why and where?

答:该建筑所用材料几乎全部就地取材,有助于降低运输成本,并为当地人创造谋生机会,同时还能大大降低施工成本,使同样的成本能够建造两倍的校舍资源。该建筑为木制结构,所用混凝土加入了当地的沙土和砾石,窗户由竹子编成,屋顶由树叶编成,而外墙则由当地已死亡的珊瑚礁建造而成。

A: The building is almost exclusively constructed of local material. This limits the requirement for transportation and creates livelihood opportunities within communities. It also significantly reduces the cost of construction enabling twice as many classrooms to be constructed for the same cost. The building structure is timber, concrete uses local sand and gravel, window hatches are woven bamboo, the roof is woven leaf and the external walls are constructed using locally collected dead coral stones.

 

问:请对建筑内各空间及其功能性布局相关情况进行详尽说明。

Q: Please elaborate on the various spaces, their functions and the space planning involved.

答:该建筑以现行教室布局标准为基础进行建造。通过内凹式走廊可进入两间教室。教室之间设有办公室及储藏间/图书馆。该设计还可通过调整建筑两端的长度改变教室大小。

A: The building is based on the existing standard classroom building layout. Two classrooms are accessed off an inset veranda. Between the classrooms is a staff office and storeroom / library. The design allows for variation in classroom size by adjusting the length of the building in either direction.

 

项目图片 Project Images:


塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

建成后的校舍整体外观

Completed External

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

即将入学的孩子们                                             竹编支窗的制作过程                                       Future Students                                  Construction of Woven Bamboo Window Hatches  

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍入口廊道

Entry veranda

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍外围                                                           山形墙端固定式百叶窗整体外观                       External bay                                                     Completed gable end fixed louvres          

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

竹编支窗

Bamboo window hatches

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

山形墙端固定式百叶窗构建过程

Construction of gable end fixed louvres

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍支柱钢质护脚水平测量与安装

Leveling and instillation of steel post shoes

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

清理从海滩上收集来的沙石建材

Washing sand collected from the beach

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

当地社区建设人员正在搭建树叶屋顶面板

Community weaving leaf roof panels

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍室内布局

Internal Complete

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍地基模架构建过程

Construction of foundation formwork

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍地基模架构建过程

Construction of foundation formwork

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍地基模架构建过程

Construction of foundation formwork

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍地基固定支架构建过程

Construction of foundation reo cages

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

树叶屋顶面板编织步骤1

Weaving leaf roof panels step 1

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

树叶屋顶面板编织步骤2

Weaving leaf roof panels step 2

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

树叶屋顶面板编织步骤3

Weaving leaf roof panels step 3

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School

校舍支柱钢质护脚水平测量

Leveling of steel post shoe

 

 

其他说明 Miscellaneous:

由于瓦努阿图的人口不断增长,需要建造200多间教室才能满足入学需求。教育部每年都会通过集中配送形式建设三四十间教室。塔卡拉地区混合设计的发展及示范建筑的建设提供了另一种满足该需求的方式。该设计几乎全部使用当地材料及人力进行施工,从而形成了一种非集中化的模式。其施工总成本为54 500美元。与之相比,在艾菲特岛建造标准混凝土教室的平均成本需105 000美元。因此,现有设计可节省48%的成本,从而使该教育部项目得以建造更多的教室。此外,该设计还使塔卡拉及邻近社区得以通过使用大量当地人力及材料获益,比如natangkura及竹编窗户等。当地的材料费为4 500美元,仅材料成本的10%。在以后的项目中,木材会就地切割,因此,该费用将增至材料成本的50%。而在塔卡拉,则需另付6 000美元的社区人力费。

 

在该建筑施工期间,混凝土和水的使用量也大大降低。进口木材及土生土长的木材均为可再生资源。混凝土使用量的降低,也使运输需求得以降低。该建筑利用可再生资源棕榈叶建造屋顶,从而节省了近250平方米的波纹钢板。同样,竹制窗户的使用取代了常用的扁形钢板。这些都使建筑的可持续性大大提高。与现有的混凝土设计相比,该项目的施工周期也得以缩短,仅耗时8个月,而未来项目的建设预计只需4至5个月。现有的混凝土教室则需耗时近10个才能建成。也就是说,该设计节省了20%的施工时间。此外,空间质量也得以提升。事实证明,学生在新教室的参与性与学习效率均有所提高。与标准教室设计相比,固定百叶窗的使用使自然通风提高了3倍。自然光源也增加了20%。茅草屋顶的使用大大改善了教室的热舒适度。

 

Population growth in Vanuatu has created a requirement for 200 more classrooms to meet enrolment demand. Currently the Ministry of Education (MoE) constructs 30-40 classrooms per year using a centralized delivery model. The development of the 'hybrid' design and the construction of the demonstration building at Takara presents an alternative model for meeting this demand. By utilizing almost exclusively local materials and labor for its construction the design facilitates a decentralized model. The total expenditure for the construction was $54,500. This compares with the average cost of construction on Efate Island of the standard concrete classroom of $105,000. This is a saving of 48% on a direct comparison of the 2 buildings. This saving increased available expenditure on additional classrooms within the MoE's program.In addition the design enabled the Takara and neighboring communities to benefit from a greater proportion of local labor and materials such as natangkura and the woven bamboo window hatches. The total amount spent on local materials was $4500 which was 10% of the material costs. In future projects where timber will be milled locally this figure will increase to 50% of material costs. In the case of Takara, an additional $6,000 was spent on community labor. 

 

The building uses significantly less concrete and water during construction. Both the imported timber and timber grown locally are a renewable resource. Transportation was also reduced by using less concrete. By using a local palm leaf roof, a renewable resource, the building prevented the use of approximately 250m2 of corrugated steel roof sheeting. Likewise with the bamboo window hatches which replaced the usually used flat steel sheeting. These measures where a significant improvement in terms of sustainability.The time frame for construction was also reduced from the existing concrete design. The project took 8 months to construct, however future projects are expected to take between 4-5 months. The existing concrete classrooms take approximately 10 months to construct. This is a 20% saving in time. The quality of the space has also been improved. There is anecdotal evidence that student engagement and learning has improved in the new building.  Through the use of fixed louvers and other passive ventilation was increased by 3 times over the standard classroom design. Natural light was also increased by 20%. Thermal comfort was drastically improved through the use of thatched roofing. 

 

 

公司信息 Company Information:

建筑师/公司名称:考尼茨·杨建筑设计事务所

国家:澳大利亚

Architect/ Office Name:Kaunitz Yeung Architecture

Country:Australia


 

项目信息 Project Information: 

项目名称:塔卡拉校舍

所在地区:瓦努阿图共和国  埃法特岛  塔卡拉村

设计团队:考尼茨·杨建筑设计事务所

建成/概念:已建成

项目类型:小学校舍

客户/指导方:瓦努阿图共和国教育部

承包商:塔卡拉村社区等机构

占地面积:300平方米 

建筑面积:150平方米 

建筑成本:50 000美元(约合人民币310 000元)

完成日期:2012年6月

文字:大卫·考尼茨

图片:安德鲁·里德、大卫·考尼茨

Project Name: Takara School

Location of Site: Takara Village, Efate Island, Republic of Vanuatu

Design Team: David Kaunitz, Ka Wai Yeung, Bob Nikah, Jackson Tambe

Built / Concept: Built

Project Type:Primary School

Client / Instructor: Ministry of Education, Republic of Vanuatu

Contractor/s: Jean Marc Blueban and Takara Community

Site Area: 300m2

Built-up Area: 150m2

Cost of Construction: $50,000

Date of Completion: June 2012

Text: David Kaunitz

Photographs: Andrew Read & David Kaunitz

 

塔卡拉校舍
Takara School   

 

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