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连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

Courtesy ofNevue Ngan Associates. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。 &这条大街干净整洁,令人耳目一新,是前所未见的优秀作品!多数城市的方案都只着眼局部,而该方案则为其他城市树立了标杆,向人们展示了一条远非景观绿化那么简单的街道。& &&2012年ASLA专业奖评语 "C... 阅读全文

Courtesy of Nevue Ngan Associates. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。

 

 

“这条大街干净整洁,令人耳目一新,是前所未见的优秀作品!多数城市的方案都只着眼局部,而该方案则为其他城市树立了标杆,向人们展示了一条远非景观绿化那么简单的街道。”
——2012年ASLA专业奖评语

"Clean, refreshing, crisp, and stellar. Most cities do piecemeal solutions, but this sets the bar for other cities and lets people know this isn't just landscaping."
—2012 Professional Awards Jury

 

 

项目概述

蒙哥马利西南绿街是一项新兴的都市街道规划,使波兰在国内外的知名度不断上升。该规划覆盖多个街区,整合了这条市中心新兴街道的各种环保基础设施及可选交通策略。蒙哥马利西南绿街被认为是波兰迄今为止最大胆且最具创新性的市中心绿色街道项目。

 

项目描述

波兰发展委员会、波兰环境署、波兰州立大学及发展公司通力合作,力求制定一个覆盖五个街区的规划,整合从西南第十一大街经蒙哥马利西南街到东面的柏蒂格罗夫公园一带的各种可持续雨水管理策略。波兰市中心大学校区规划强调校园社区的发展,使之符合波兰市的发展目标,并使蒙哥马利西南街成为一个重要的东/西向人行廊道。蒙哥马利西南街沿路的多街区开发及再开发项目将以波兰市政府、波兰州立大学、私人开发商及各大企业在过去四十几年的长期努力为基础同时开展。这些元素的战略集合将成功激发社区活力,增强步行体验,促进可持续发展,并继续打造社区文化。蒙哥马利西南绿街规划表明,即使是在最城市化的的情况下,市中心街道也能通过规划和改造对雨水径流进行全面管理,打造、整合及保留活跃的步行空间。景观设计师根据要求发挥主要作用,以打造一个高度整合的城市步行街道景观愿景,从而使该廊道沿路的各种环保基础设施策略得以融为一体,包括雨水沼泽、花坛、绿植墙、绿色屋顶、巧妙的雨水引流及至关重要的无路缘街道设计。

项目总体目标

蒙哥马利西南绿街规划旨在实现为项目周围地区所制定的多个目标,其中有不少总体目标早在项目组开展规划工作时就已确定,包括:

· 提升波兰目前作为合作与创新型可持续设计和发展孵化基地的知名度;

· 将可持续雨水管理方法引入场地设计,并凸显都市活力环境的所有元素,从而形成一种可持续实践模式;

· 在大学、喷泉、公园、礼堂、博物馆、剧院及商场等便利设施之间建立主要通行途径,缩短市中心商务区的上下班路程,并通过有轨电车、轻轨电车及转运站的各条汽车路线连接大都市区域;

· 成功将城市中心广场扩展为活力四射的城市广场,并将其成果应用到整个项目廊道中;

· 结合设计愿景,使西山区与蒙哥马利西南街沿路的威拉米特河相连;

· 利用蒙哥马利西南绿街将整个地区与环保区联系起来。

绿街具体目标

除了以上所述总体目标外,景观设计师还需根据委托,为实现蒙哥马利西南项目廊道的具体绿街设计目标提供帮助,该目标包括:

· 建造宽阔的步道及无路缘街道,以方便底层零售区附近的各种景观设施建设。设有机动车道的街区应设有活跃的零售区,且应同时建有行车道及停车道,以便在举办特殊活动时,封闭道路,仅供行人通行;

· 引入能够形成视觉连贯性的景观元素,使之成为主要的雨水渠道或贯穿多个社区的共同主线,同时打造一条东西走向的环保通道,从而使市中心与波兰州立大学校区相连;

· 将拥有道路优先权的绿街设计与附近的开发项目结合,包括已规划的俄勒冈州可持续发展中心。发掘建造可同时吸纳街道及建筑屋顶径流的雨水共享花坛潜力;

· 改造项目廊道沿路的绿街元素,同时凸显南方公园社区、城市中心广场及柏蒂格罗夫公园的特色。

项目分析与实施

为全面实现蒙哥马利西南绿街规划,景观设计师需对该项目的场地特征进行研究,制定雨水管理总体目标,调查并针对该场地的限制因素采取应对措施,确定建设绿色街道的可行性,分析贯穿社区的各种交通模式。项目分析使180万加仑的雨水径流得以通过绿街的雨水主渠道进行管理,使该地区的重要交通模式得以从机动车基础设施向人行基础设施转变,同时使该街道的建设得以促进蒙哥马利西南绿街廊道一带的可持续私人再开发项目。这些分析最终促成了蒙哥马利西南绿街的规划,且经实践证明,该规划在短期及长期内均具有极高的可行性。蒙哥马利西南绿街规划正在进行多期项目的建设。景观设计团队已成功完成规划中的两个街区,即史密斯纪念馆学生会广场及城市中心广场改造项目。预计未来两年还将建造另外两个街区,包括拟定的俄勒冈州可持续发展中心——波兰最先进的绿色建筑,该建筑力求符合最严苛的“生态建筑挑战”标准。通过各方人士的战略合作及持续不断的规划与实施工作,蒙哥马利西南绿街走廊必将成功激发社区活力,在学术、住宅及商业社区之间形成可持续发展关系。该项目的实施将为街道规划树立新的理念,并为波兰及其他地区的市中心街道景观项目提供场地营造模式。

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南绿街被认为是波兰最具创新性的绿色街道项目。该项目表明,即使是在最城市化的的情况下,市中心街道也能通过规划和改造对雨水径流进行综合管理,打造、整合及保留活跃的步行空间

The SW Montgomery Green Street is regarded as Portland's most innovative green street effort. The project demonstrates how, in even the most ultra-urban conditions, downtown streets can be planned and retrofitted not only to fully manage stormwater runoff but to also create, integrate, and preserve vibrant pedestrian spaces.

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南绿街有五处核心区域会对用户模式产生影响:公园街区中心、城市入口、生活/学习中心、市中心以及南部滨水区。这些区域有望成为蒙哥马利西南绿街沿路率先实施的再开发项目

There are five focal points that will influence user patterns on the SW Montgomery Green Street: The Park Blocks Center, City Gateway, Living/Learning Center, Downtown Core, and the South Waterfront District. These areas should be expected to lead early redevelopment efforts along the SW Montgomery Green Street. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

波兰1988年的中心城市规划将蒙哥马利西南街划定为重要的东西向人行廊道。在过去五年里,波兰市政府、波兰州立大学、私人开发商及各大企业集中发力,沿蒙哥马利西南街同时实施多街区开发及再开发项目。这些元素的战略集合将成功激发社区活力,增强步行体验,促进可持续发展,接续打造社区文化,同时着重以各组织机构在过去四十几年的长期努力为基础实施建设

Portland's 1988 Central City Plan designated SW Montgomery Street as a key east/west pedestrian corridor. In the last five years, there has been a concentrated effort by the City of Portland, Portland State University, private developers, and businesses to implement simultaneous multi-block development and redevelopment along SW Montgomery Street. The strategic convergence of these elements will successfully activate the neighborhood, enhance the pedestrian experience, foster sustainability, continue to build a community culture, and dramatically build upon the long-term efforts advanced over the past four decades. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南街具有兼收并蓄的特性。从郁郁葱葱且适合沉思冥想的柏蒂格罗夫公园到俄勒冈州可持续发展中心周围的可持续尖端设计,该廊道连接着诸多与众不同的空间。蒙哥马利西南绿街旨在保护和提升廊道沿途的各种独特空间,并加强与周围便利设施的联系。但是,和多数市中心雨水改造工作所面临的处境一样,设计团队也需要解决城市设计及雨水管理所面临的场地限制问题

The character of SW Montgomery Street is eclectic by nature. The corridor links a diverse collection of spaces from the verdant, contemplative Pettygrove Park to the cutting-edge sustainable design surrounding the Oregon Sustainability Center. The SW Montgomery Green Street seeks to preserve and enhance the unique spaces along the corridor and provide strong connections to surrounding amenities. However, like most downtown stormwater retrofit conditions, there are a variety of urban design and stormwater management site constraints that the design team needed to address. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

这一最高水准的绿街项目不仅具有管理雨水径流的功能,还能促进交通模式的转变,使该街道从以机动车为主要交通工具转变为具有多种交通选择。蒙哥马利西南绿街通过权衡各种交通选择示范了完整的街道规划,同时着重强调增强步行及自行车基础设施的建设

The highest caliber green street looks beyond only managing stormwater runoff. It also promotes a transportation mode switch from primarily auto-centric design to a street that emphasizes alternative transportation. The SW Montgomery Green Street exemplifies complete street planning by providing a balanced set of transportation choices, but also provides a clear emphasis on enhanced pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南绿街的雨水管理设施并非适用廊道内所有的街区。在许多情况下,由于地下设施或结构的存在,绿街的雨水渠道无法渗透雨水径流,因此可能需要使用溢流式雨水设施。当然,这并不排除对雨水管理景观系统的利用。恰恰相反,该设计建议着力实现城市雨水径流管理的非渗透性目标

Stormwater management along the SW Montgomery Green Street is not a one-size-fits-all condition for each block of the corridor. In many cases, the street's"stormwater spine"will not be able to infiltrate stormwater runoff due to underground utilities or structures and may force the use of flow-through stormwater facilities. This of course does not preclude using a landscaped-based system of stormwater management. Instead, it suggests focusing on non-infiltrative goals for managing urban stormwater runoff. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

沿蒙哥马利西南绿街不断延伸的雨水渠道设计为一个极为实用的景观系统,用于收集和管理75 000多平方英尺(约0.7公顷)非渗透区的雨水径流。该渠道是该项目场地进行雨水管理的主力,穿行于廊道内的各个街区。不过,该景观系统的形态大小因地制宜,以适应各个街区的独特状况

The continuous stormwater spine along the SW Montgomery Green Street is planned as a highly functional landscape system used to capture and manage stormwater runoff from over 75,000 square feet of impervious area. The spine is the project site's"workhorse"for stormwater management. Each block along the corridor has the stormwater spine traversing through it, however, the form and size of the landscape system does vary in response to the unique conditions of each block. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南绿街全面建成后,每年可管理上千万加仑的雨水径流。但是,绿街建设并非千篇一律,该街道能达到何种绿色程度取决于多种因素。对于某些绿街而言,尤其是蒙哥马利西南绿街,每个单独的街区均可左右绿街的宏伟蓝图

Once fully implemented, the SW Montgomery Green Street has the potential to manage millions of gallons of runoff each year. However, there is a lot of variability in how"green"a street really is and all green streets are not created equal. Within some streets, and as in the case of SW Montgomery, individual blocks can vary on how aggressive the green street approach is. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

蒙哥马利西南绿街的各个街区可通过多种方式,实现雨水径流的可持续管理。但是,唯独这三个主要用于机动车通行的街区还可对其机动车道进行改造,完善步行设施,使之与项目区域周围的城市和绿化空间相连。此外,该廊道沿途现有的许多建筑已准备好进行再开发或再利用工作。再开发项目的实施可增强这些区域的雨水径流收集,并将雨水引至蒙哥马利西南街的景观绿化系统

Opportunities abound on all of the blocks within the SW Montgomery Green Street to manage stormwater runoff in a more sustainable way. However, the three blocks that currently carry auto traffic hold a special opportunity to transform the auto-based vernacular into an enhanced pedestrian condition that connects to urban and green spaces surrounding the project area. In addition, many of the existing buildings along the corridor are poised for redevelopment or reuse. When redevelopment does occur, there will be the potential to capture stormwater runoff from these areas and redirect it into the SW Montgomery Green Street's landscaped system. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

大学校区内的步行和雨水街景重新焕发新生,显示出蒙哥马利西南绿街的巨大潜力。宽阔的步道及无路缘街道方便了各种场地设施的建设,有利于激发新装上阵的底层零售区活力。可移动的路界护柱可灵活利用,偶尔或永远关闭该街道,以禁止汽车通行。该街道及再开发建筑的雨水径流被引至雨水渠道的景观系统中。除此之外,现有天桥系统还采用了各种绿墙技术,模仿波兰西山森林的多植被层

A revitalized pedestrian and stormwater streetscape at the University Services Block illustrates the enormous potential for the SW Montgomery Green Street. The wider sidewalks and"curbless"street condition allows for various site furnishings and will help activate newly refurbished ground-floor retail. Removable bollards provide the flexibility to occasionally or permanently close the street to automobile use. Stormwater runoff from the street and redeveloped buildings is conveyed to the stormwater spine's landscape system. In addition, various green wall technologies are also applied to the existing skybridge system to mimic the multiple vegetated layers of Portland's West Hill's forests. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

大学服务区的概念规划效果图展示了如何通过重新设计,使该廊道的街道围合结构得以合理平衡各类交通模式,同时为街道及临近建筑的雨水径流管理提供多种可能

This concept plan rendering for the University Services block illustrates an example of how the corridor's street envelope is redesigned to properly balance different modes of transportation and also provide multiple opportunities to capture stormwater runoff from the street and adjacent buildings. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

大学服务区通过一系列景观绿化设施对雨水径流进行收集,而雨水渠道则成为主要的管理工具。该图和表显示了景观区与不渗透区之间的关系。该分析涵盖了整个项目廊道

Stormwater runoff at the University Services block is captured through a series of landscaped facilities with the stormwater spine acting as the primary management tool. The graphic and table illustrates the relationship between landscape area and impervious area. This analyses was completed for the entire project corridor. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

城市中心广场是蒙哥马利西南绿街概念规划实施改造的第二个街区。波兰州立大学重建的广场目前设有三个雨水花坛,巧妙地分布于原有的喷泉旁,从而增强了蒙哥马利西南绿街的雨水渠道元素。从广场及临近步道收集来的近8 000平方英尺(约0.07公顷)的雨水径流通过一系列排水沟流入雨水设施中。雨水通过金属低坝及花岗岩小溪从一个花坛倾泻至另一个花坛,从而构成了一种视觉享受。城市中心广场的改造使水体、植物生命及都市空间得以灵活布局,令人赏心悦目

The Urban Center Plaza was the second block to undergo a retrofit under the SW Montgomery Green Street Concept Plan. Portland State University's rebuilt plaza now features three stormwater planters strategically placed next to the original water fountains to reinforce the stormwater spine element of the SW Montgomery Green Street. Approximately 8,000 square feet of runoff is captured from the plaza and adjacent sidewalks and is conveyed through a series of trench drains into the stormwater facilities. A visual showcase, the stormwater cascades from planter to planter through metal weirs and granite rills. The Urban Center Plaza retrofit provides a delightful display of water, plant life, and urban space. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

波兰州立大学的史密斯纪念馆学生会广场是蒙哥马利西南绿街概念项目九个街景楼群中最先实施建设的楼群。整个广场空间经过重新分类改造,使雨水径流以片流形式流入雨水渠道。该渠道为5英尺(约1.5米)宽,与建筑立面平行,极为醒目。一系列精工细作的金属桥梁使行人得以跨越雨水渠道,见证桥下的潺潺流水。大学天桥系统的雨水径流也被引流至雨水花坛中,并随之渗入地下。该广场为蒙哥马利西南绿街其他街区的建设提供了成功的先例

Portland State University's Smith Memorial Student Union Plaza was the first of nine streetscape blocks to implement the SW Montgomery Green Street Concept Plan. The entire plaza space was re-graded to allow runoff to sheet flow into the prominent 5-foot wide stormwater spine running parallel to the building facades. A series of sleek metal bridges allow pedestrians to cross over the stormwater spine, but also allow water to flow underneath them. Runoff from the university's skybridge system is also directed into stormwater planters where it can infiltrate into the ground. The plaza has set a successful precedent for implementing the remaining blocks of the SW Montgomery Green Street. 

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

俄勒冈州可持续发展中心是该国首个市中心高层建筑,其设计旨在满足卡斯卡迪亚地区环保建筑委员所设生态建筑挑战的苛刻先决条件。蒙哥马利西南绿街及俄勒冈州可持续发展中心已通过景观设计师的规划,成为雨水的综合管理区。第五级绿街状况有效地模糊了公共与私人雨水管理设施之间的界线,并将成为蒙哥马利西南绿街沿路最大胆的可持续场地发展范例。该项目已按计划于2013年开工建设

The Oregon Sustainability Center is the nation's first downtown high-rise building site designed to meet the rigorous prerequisites of the Cascadia Region Green Building Council's Living Building Challenge. The SW Montgomery Green Street and the Oregon Sustainability Center sites have been planned by the Landscape Architect to function as one integrated space for stormwater management. This Level 5 Green Street condition effectively blurs the line between public and private stormwater management and will be the boldest example of sustainable site development along the SW Montgomery Green Street corridor. The project is slated to be built in 2013.

Image by: Nevue Ngan Associates

 

Project Statement

The SW Montgomery Green Street demonstrates an emerging new urban street plan for which Portland is receiving national and international recognition. This multi-block plan incorporates a variety of green infrastructure and alternative transportation strategies throughout this emerging downtown neighborhood. The Southwest Montgomery Green Street is considered to be Portland's boldest and most innovative downtown green street project to date.

 

 

Project Narrative

Through a collaborative effort, the Portland Development Commission (PDC), Portland's Bureau of Environmental Services (BES) Portland State University (PSU), and Gerding Edlen Development, are pursuing a 9-block plan that incorporates a variety of sustainable stormwater management strategies from SW 11th Avenue east to Pettygrove Park via SW Montgomery Street. The Portland Central City University District Plan emphasizes the development of this neighborhood as an area where University uses mesh with City of Portland goals and designates SW Montgomery Street as a key east/west pedestrian corridor. Simultaneous multi-block development and redevelopment along SW Montgomery Street will dramatically build upon the long-term efforts advanced by the City, PSU, private developers, and businesses over the past four decades. The strategic convergence of these elements will successfully activate the neighborhood, enhance the pedestrian experience, foster sustainability, and continue to build a community culture. The SW Montgomery Green Street Plan demonstrates how, in even the most ultra-urban conditions, downtown streets can be planned and retrofitted not only to fully manage stormwater runoff but to also create, integrate, and preserve vibrant pedestrian spaces. The landscape architect was asked to take the primary role creating a highly integrated and pedestrian-oriented urban streetscape vision that incorporates a variety of green infrastructure strategies along the corridor including stormwater swales, planters, green walls, green roofs, artful stormwater conveyance, and a definitive "curbless" street design.

General Project Goals

• The SW Montgomery Green Street Plan aims to achieve many goals for the surrounding project area. Several general goals were identified by the project team early in the planning process, including:

• Enhancing Portland's current reputation as an incubator for collaborative and innovative sustainable design and development,

• Developing a model for sustainable practices by incorporating sustainable stormwater management approaches into the site design and celebrating all the elements of a vibrant urban environment,

• Creating a primary means of connectivity among amenities such as the University, fountains, parks, auditoriums, museums, theaters, and shopping; within walking distance of many central city business district jobs, also connect to the greater metropolitan area via the streetcar, future light rail, and numerous transit mall bus lines,

• Expanding the Urban Center Plaza's success as an active city plaza and let that success extend throughout the entire project corridor,

• Incorporating the vision to connect the West Hills with the Willamette River along SW Montgomery Street, and:

• Using the SW Montgomery Green Street to connect the overall area to an Eco-district.

Specific Green Street Goals

Along with the general goals outline above, the landscape architect was tasked to help achieve specific green street design goals for the SW Montgomery project corridor, including:

• Create wider sidewalks and "curbless" street conditions that allow for various site furnishings adjacent to ground floor retail areas. Blocks that carry auto traffic should have active retail with one lane of traffic and one lane of parking with the option to close for pedestrian-only special events,

• Introduce a visually continuous landscaped element that acts as a "stormwater spine" or common thread through multiple blocks and creates a "green" east/west connection through downtown and the Portland State University district,

• Integrate right-of-way green street design with adjacent developments including the planned Oregon Sustainability Center. Explore the potential of creating shared stormwater planters to accept both street and building rooftop runoff, and:

• Retrofit green street elements along the project corridor, while honoring the character found particularly at the South Park Blocks, Urban Center Plaza, and Pettygrove Park.

Project Analysis and Implementation

To fully realize the plan for the SW Montgomery Green Street, the landscape architect was asked to study the project's site character, determine the project's overall stormwater management goals, investigate and respond to the site's constraints, determine how bold of a green street is possible, and analyze the different modes of circulation throughout the neighborhood. This analysis provided the opportunity for 1.8 million gallons of stormwater runoff to be managed through the street's "stormwater spine," the potential for a significant transportation mode shift from auto-infrastructure to people-infrastructure, and the ability to have the street itself catalyze sustainable private redevelopment along the SW Montgomery Green Street corridor. The final product of these analyses is the creation of the SW Montgomery Green Street Plan which has proven to be highly implementable both in the near and long-term.

The SW Montgomery Green Street Plan is being implemented in multiple phases. Two blocks of the plan, the Smith Memorial Student Union Plaza and the Urban Center Plaza Retrofit, have been successfully completed by the landscape architect's design team. Two additional blocks are targeted for implementation within the next two years, including the proposed Oregon Sustainability Center- Portland's most technologically advanced, state-of-the-art green building site that aims to meet the rigorous criteria of the Living Building Challenge. With the strategic convergence of various partners and continued planning and implementation efforts, the SW Montgomery Green Street corridor will successfully activate the neighborhood and foster sustainability as a relationship between academic, residential, and business communities. This project's implementation will serve as a new concept for street planning and a place-making model for other downtown streetscape projects in Portland and beyond.

 

 

项目信息:

首席设计师:Nevue Ngan Associates: Keving Robert Perry、ASLA、 Ben Ngan、 David Goodyke和Jason Hirst

土木工程支持:Sisul Engineering: Douglas Johnson

建筑设计支持:Michael Riscica、Nancy Merryman

波兰市环境署:Emily Hauth

波兰发展委员会:Lisa Abuaf、Irene Bowers

波兰州立大学:Ernest Tipton、Kate Vance

Project Resources:

Lead Designers: Nevue Ngan Associates: Keving Robert Perry, ASLA, Ben Ngan, David Goodyke and Jason Hirst

Civil Engineering Support: Sisul Engineering: Douglas Johnson

Architecture Support: Michael Riscica and Nancy Merryman

City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services: Emily Hauth

Portland Development Commission: Lisa Abuaf and Irene Bowers

Portland State University: Ernest Tipton and Kate Vance

 

连接西山区与威拉米特河的蒙哥马利西南绿街/Nevue Ngan Associates
SW Montgomery Green Street Connecting the West Hills to the Willamette River by Nevue Ngan Associates

 

网页链接:http://www.90dg.cn/landscape/2015/0324/394.html

 

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加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

Courtesy ofSWA Group. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。 &弹性因素正日渐增多地纳入到了景观规划的考虑范畴,其中包括水体影响与规划设计影响。项目的轴测图绘制十分清晰、明朗,而信息的阐释则具多样性,需要依靠多层次、综合性的思考,并借助于建筑学与自然科学的相应理解进行合理阐释。事实证明,该项目的规划策略相当... 阅读全文

Courtesy of SWA Group. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。

 

 

“弹性因素正日渐增多地纳入到了景观规划的考虑范畴,其中包括水体影响与规划设计影响。项目的轴测图绘制十分清晰、明朗,而信息的阐释则具多样性,需要依靠多层次、综合性的思考,并借助于建筑学与自然科学的相应理解进行合理阐释。事实证明,该项目的规划策略相当奏效。”
——ASLA专业奖评语

“Resiliency is a job type that we’re increasingly being asked to consider more and more, including water and how planning affects that. The axonometric drawings are compelling and the message is that there is no one solution, it has to be layered and multi-pronged, with both architectural and natural solutions. They lay out their case quite effectively.”
—Professional Awards Jury

 

 

项目概述

世界各地的沿海居民都必须面对暴风雨的威胁,这是一个人类无法逃避而又急待思索与解决的问题。该项目位于加尔维斯顿湾,是一个创新型沿海规划项目,为积极解决沿海规划的诸多挑战树立了典范。下文中将简要说明规划设计团队如何将原有的重要景观区重新进行有效连接,进而为沿海居民提供有效的防风暴保护,并促进沿海的经济发展和环境效益,创建一系列的可持续性沿海社区。

 

项目描述

2008年9月13日,艾克飓风骤然袭卷德克萨斯州海岸上游,所有沿岸居住区及相应的城市基础设施损毁殆尽。与先前要飓风灾难相较而言,艾克的洪泛破坏力超越了所有预测,其所造成的严重灾害后果前所未有,洪水冲破海堤,袭向加尔维斯顿湾西岸的人口聚集区和休斯顿航道的重工业区,改变了该地区数百万民众的生活。

 

纵观历史上的同类自然灾害,沿海风暴的缓解往往介入结构性解决方案——设计出专用性工程屏障,以预防经常性的非常规风暴来袭。而一旦这些工程盛大竣工,以坚不可催的形象呈现于公众面前,公众便会因依赖于这些所有的牢固工程,而从心理上对风暴灾害疏于防范,将这些工程视为“坚强后盾”。然而,该项目规划设计团队则把这一现象视作一种“道德危机”,对于风暴灾害的错误预估,将导致更多错误性的大规模沿海开发,欠佳的建设标准,不恰当的政策支持,造成公众对于灾害风险的过分低估。

 

正如上述所言,应对艾克飓风的方法依然如故:飓风灾害过后不久,相关部门便着手在加尔维斯顿湾沿岸修建比以往更具规模的长达100英里(约161公里)长的堤坝工程。这样的做法切断了墨西哥湾与人类日常生活的互动,人文景观并非被自然灾害所破坏,而是人类自身施行的破坏。

 

加尔维斯顿湾进程

项目的规划设计团队与水文学家、生态学家、地质学家,以及某大学的建筑系取得合作,以建立集环境、社会、经济于一体的规划设计智囊团,对相关沿海区域进行现场分析,拟定规划建议及具体的场地设计措施。

 

项目伊始,水文专家们便凭借先进的工程技术提供了经过改进的风暴模型,并根据相应海拔定义了洪泛区的各种参数频度,进而将这些参数与2010年的人口普查数据相叠加,并在地区、国家以及国际生态专家的共同努力下,预估出未来25年的人口增长、目前土地价值、紧急服务设施、有限疏散路线、疾病传播潜能、天然屏障岛屿的迁徙模式、公共开放空间、主体生态系统区发展等方面的状态,并对未来28个州级、国家级以及国际级的重要公园做出相应的生态研究报告,内容涉及经济可持续性、人口增长以及年游客量等。

 

建议1:结构性与非结构性整合

需要采取多种方法和措施,而并非仅仅依靠建造堤坝的单一方式。其中就包括项目团队所建议的结构性与非结构性相结合策略。结构性相关措施主要指依靠修建堤坝、墙体、屏障以及门阀的设施以有效阻截洪水侵袭。而非结构性措施则是指规范洪泛高发区的相应设施建设,并阻止高发区的进一步经济或工作发展,尽可能维持现状,以便恢复其生态系统。这些自然系统在灾害过后的迅速恢复,已能充分证明其是长期可持续发展的重要经济资源。

 

拟建的结构设施建于原堤坝之上,能够有效保护现有地形。例如,该项目规划利用休斯顿航道道口的狭窄地形建造一个简单的栅极结构以确保美国第二大港口的安全。此外,还建立了一系列应急防洪系统,并在其周边设置稳固而具实用性的结构设施,以多重小范围泄洪的方式取代传统冗长的而不实用的堤坝结构。这些多重小范围泄洪设施以防御性保护为主,确保沿海经济区域、人口密集区、应急服务设施及历史性区域的安全。

 

非结构性相应措施将有力引导当前及今后的城市发展,以减轻“道德危机”所导致的隐患。加尔维斯顿海湾是美国国家生物多样性最为丰富的生态系统之一,这一点是得到公认的,而对其保护也显得尤为重要,建筑法规的修订对目前的风暴模型做出了有力回应,且现行的滨海堤坝资源法案(COBRA)的管辖范围也相应扩展到了洪泛频发区,以限制联邦政府对于高风险区发展的庇护。相应的公众教育也是必不可少的,应以联邦应急管理局的百年洪泛区地图为蓝本,创建网上洪泛数据库,以便公众更为直观地了解相关信息。

 

建议2:充分利用沿海公共区域

对现在沿海公共用地的充分利用,建立保护设施,将有效节约成本。与其耗费巨资购买私有用地,不如充分利用公共用地建立相应的结构设施,以迎合基础设施改善需求,维护公共财产安全。例如,设计团队将146沿海高速公路的某个路段进行挑高处理,建立起大规模的结构性干预设施,建造西部海湾堤坝,以确保人口密集区的生命财产安全,同时也有助于潮汐沼泽生态环境的恢复。

 

南部海湾海拔0至5米区域内存在着大面积的公共沼泽地。该区域具用着独特的生物多样性,是国内外著名的生态旅游区。因此,该项目的主旨是在该区域内建立一个国家级的休闲旅游区。该项目所在区域距离全美第四大都市区仅一小时车程,客观地理条件优越,且发展潜力巨大。目前,这一区域规划设想已得到某行动委员会的认可,并正继续争取获得加尔维斯顿湾当地民众的广泛支持。

 

建议3:经济可持续发展

建立国家级休闲旅游区将极大促进当地经济的有效发展。这一设想可能将以国会法案的形式提请国会商讨,以期免征建设税,且希望项目所有建设均为义务参与形式。据相关咨询机构预估,十年后,这处国家级休闲旅游区的年游客量将达150万,并创造5260个就业机会,并产生1.92亿美元的经济价值,经济将形成翻番增长,旅游业收入也将呈三倍增长。该国家级休闲旅游区的协作管理结构也可确保现有沿海城区在其带动下的良好发展。

 

项目施行

严峻的风暴灾害是一个无法回避的现实。近期在加尔维斯顿湾所进行的铺垫建设,为该地区的未来防灾工作奠定了良好的基础。该项目提供了一系列多样化的务实解决方案,得到了地区政府和公众的大力支持。

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

项目区域范围从德克萨斯州的自由港一直延伸至火山岛

The project area extends from Freeport, TX to High Island, TX

Image by: Aerials: Google Earth Map: SWA Group

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

飓风艾克所引发洪泛灾害几乎淹没了整个玻利瓦尔半岛。人造排水管道系统与人工草坪也均毁损殆尽,原生植被所剩无几

Hurricane Ike’s rising waters stripped the Bolivar Peninsula of the majority of its structures. Man made drainage channels and nonnative lawns created vast “scour zones” where little native vegetation remained.

Image by: Bryan Carlile, Beck Geodetix

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

面对飓风灾害,现行的建筑法规可能会令房产业主陷入危机境地

Current building regulations leave property owners playing a dangerous financial game of Russian roulette with hurricane inundation.

Image by: SWA Group

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

百年一遇的风暴灾害所引发的灾难性后果,通过历史激增深度和模拟洪泛演示,清晰可见。居住于风暴水位警戒线25英尺(约8米)范围内的35万民众,他们切身体验着狂风大浪的袭卷,生命岌岌可危

Risks within the 100 year storm surge are clear and easily measured through both historic surge depth and modeled inundation. 350,000 people live within 25' of sea level and experience a gradient of storm surge.

Image by: SWA Group

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

加尔维斯顿湾的漏斗地形将西部海湾的生活区域置于十分危险的境地中;而在风暴水位警戒线25英尺(约8米)范围内,生存着244 500人以及81 500个工作岗位

Galveston Bay's funneling geometry places the communities of West Bay in harm's way; 244,500 people and 81,500 jobs exist within the 25' contour.

Image by: SWA Group, Aerial: Google Earth

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

人口稠密区和重要历史性区域将采纳结构性解决方案进行有效保护。国家级休闲旅游区的建立将形成厚海绵效应,以减缓洪泛灾害,对内陆生活区域进行有效保护

Densely populated and historically important communities are protected with structural solutions. A National Recreation area would create a thick sponge to dissipate and protect inland communities.

Image by: Map: SWA Group, Aerial image of Galveston Bay: gurdonark on Flickr.com, Marsh photo: bruceberrien on Flickr.com, Image of ranch: laurenprofeta on Flickr.com, Image of houses: smart_growth on Flickr.com

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

该项目沿海区域的层状景观建设旨在保护大量人口,挽救风暴灾害中的损毁产业,重新建立起被损坏的生态环境。国家级休闲旅游区的建立将在洪泛险区内创造出全新商机

Layered landscapes along the project's coast aim to protect large populations, bolster industry from storms, and reestablish lost ecologies. A National Recreation Area would create new economic opportunities within the riskiest areas.

Image by: SWA Group, University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

多重沿海保护将持续进行。图中右侧为加尔维斯顿岛现有海堤的设计策略,该策略通过标志性木质栈道的建立,为加尔维斯顿湾沿岸地区增添了无尽活力

Layered coastal protections continue. At the right, design strategies for Galveston Island's existing Seawall create new opportunities along the Galveston coastline by selectively thickening its iconic boardwalk.

Image by: SWA Group, University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

加尔维斯顿岛在一系列结构性解决方案的施行中得以有效保护,其独特的历史文化脉络与现有基础设施也得到了很好的保存。受损岛屿以北的疏浚处理为区域性未来发展创造了机会

Galveston Island is protected with intensive structural solutions to preserve its unique historical fabric and existing infrastructure. A dredge spoils island to the north is included within the wall to provide opportunities for future development.

Image by: SWA Group, University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

之所以要在最易引发洪泛的区域内建立国家级休闲旅游区,是因为德克萨斯州十分匮乏联邦公园和海岸公园设施资源

Establishing a National Recreation Area within the most flood prone areas because Texas is under served by federal parks and coastal parks in general.

Image by: SWA Group, University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

项目团队相应出版物对海滨公园的“人口动态统计”数据进行了相应的评估。加尔维斯顿湾地区显然具备建立海滨公园的诸多优势。其中,评估与调查的内容包括:28个同类公园的案例研究、通过区域公园的城市道路状况、原先公园的规模与形态,以及公园的周遭环境与经济影响

Planning team publications have evaluated the 'vital statistics' of successful coastal parks. The Galveston Bay area is a prime candidate for a significant coastal park. Investigations include: 28 park case studies, urban access to regional parks, precedent parks sizes and shape, and park proximity and economic impact.

Image by: SWA Group, University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

前瞻性经济预测。据相关咨询机构的独家调研表明:国家级休闲旅游区对外开放后,第一年将吸引50万人前来观光,并创造1 200个就业机会和4 600美元的本地化经济价值;而到了第十年,游客量将上升至150万人,所创造的就业机会将达5 260个,产生的本地化经济价值将达1.92亿美元

Economic Gateways. An independent study by the Harbinger Consulting Group projects that the LSCNRA will attract 500,000 visitors in its first year , create 1,200 jobs and $46 million in local sales. By its tenth year, this will rise to 1,500,000 visitors, 5,260 jobs and $192 million in local sales per year. 

Image by: University of Houston College of Architecture

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

园区规划与相应的现场调研表明:孤星海岸国家级休闲旅游区将为周边民众创造均等利益。除了休闲娱乐,该旅游区也将洪泛风险转化为沿海地区的经济引擎

Park programming and site research show that the Lone Star Coastal National Recreation Area would have opportunities for everyone. In addition to recreation, the park is an economic engine for at risk coastal areas.

Image by: Maps: University of Houston College of Architecture, Marsh photo: bruceberrien on Flickr.com

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

项目团队凭借有效的应对方法为加尔维斯顿湾的洪泛区域创建出一个极具活力的公共生态滨水区,这将造福于子孙万代,并可有力应对未来的风暴灾害

Another storm will strike. We have the tools to reduce its effects and create a more resilient, ecologic, and public coastline for future generations. Let's get to work!

Image by: USGS

 

Project Statement

Coastal populations worldwide are playing a dangerous game. Frequent hazardous storms along coastlines are a given, and yet we continue to place our heads in the sand when considering the future. This submission focuses on an innovative project in Galveston Bay serving as a model for proactively solving coastal planning challenges. The summary below demonstrates how we can reconnect to these valued landscapes while providing storm protection, economic stimulus, environmental benefits, and sustainable coastal communities.

 

Project Narrative

On September 13, 2008 Hurricane Ike struck the Upper Texas Coast, wreaking havoc on infrastructure and washing away entire communities. Labeled as a category two storm by wind speed, Ike surpassed all inundation damage predictions and changed the lives of millions of people in the region. While devastating, the storm was a considerably smaller version of the modeled “worst case scenario” in which bay surge tracks up the densely populated west shore of Galveston Bay and into the heavily industrialized Houston Ship Channel.

 

Historically, the mitigation of coastal storms has focused on the use of intensive structural solutions — single-purpose engineered barriers designed to protect against often inadequately modeled storms. Once these engineering feats realize their massive physical form, the public develops an attitude of complacency and invincibility against storm events. They are “behind the wall”. The submitting team references this phenomenon as the “moral hazard” where a false sense of security results in more coastal development, subpar construction standards, inadequate policy, and greater public risk.

 

As expected, shortly after Ike a proposal for a much longer, higher, wider, 100 mile long dike surfaced that would span and isolate all of Galveston Bay. Life defining interactions with the Gulf of Mexico would be severed and the cultural landscape destroyed not by nature, but ourselves.

 

Galveston Bay Process

The submitting team was engaged with local hydrologists, ecologists, geologists, and a university architecture department to create environmental/social/economic inventories, regional site analysis, proposed planning recommendations, and site specific design interventions.

 

Team hydrologists initially provided revised storm models derived from advanced engineering technologies. The 25 ft. elevation was defined as the limit of the 1% storm event and elevations 0 to 5 ft. were found to be susceptible to frequent inundation. These parameters were used to create a layered approach that responded to 2010 census data, a projected doubling of regional population in 25 years, current land values, emergency service facilities, limited evacuation routes, toxic dispersal potential, natural barrier island migration patterns, public open spaces, primary ecosystems identified by regional, national, and international ecologists, and a published team research report analyzing 28 significant state, national, and international parks relative to their economic sustainability, population proximity, and annual visitorship.

 

Recommendation 1: Structural and Non-structural Integration

Diverse tools are needed rather than the standard application of monolithic levees. Included in the team’s approach are both structural and non-structural solutions. Structural methods utilize constructed levees, walls, barriers and gates to block floodwaters. Non-structural methods regulate and discourage development in high risk areas and rely on existing and restored ecosystems. These natural systems rebound quickly after inundation and have proven to be significant economic resources for long-term sustainability.

 

Proposed structures occur where levees exist and protections can tie into existing topography. For example, the plan utilizes narrowing topography at the mouth of the Houston Ship Channel to create a simple gate structure to secure America’s second largest port. Shelters of last resort are identified and surrounded by robust, cost effective structural measures that create small pockets of defense rather than highly vulnerable linear barriers. These pockets all have existing economic bases, significant population centers, emergency service facilities, or historic relevance.

 

Non-structural elements guide current and future development to mitigate moral hazard concerns. Natural processes that make Galveston Bay one of the nation’s most biologically diverse ecosystems are identified and protected, building codes revised to respond to current storm models, and the existing Coastal Barrier Resource Act (COBRA) is expanded to frequent inundation areas to limit federal protections for high risk development. Public education is also essential and would be best accomplished by creating an online inundation database modeled after FEMA’s 100 year floodplain maps.

 

Recommendation 2: Utilizing the Public Domain

Existing public lands can be used as a cost effective means for implementation. Rather than purchasing private property, structural solutions are designed to seamlessly occur within public rights of way already in need of infrastructure improvements. For example, the team’s largest structural intervention calls for elevating a portion of coastal Highway 146 to create a West Bay levee protecting large population centers and providing tidal marsh restoration opportunities.

 

South bay elevations from 0 to 5 ft. contain broad marshlands with considerable parcels under public ownership. This area’s unique biodiversity defines the bay’s established national and international ecotourism reputation. As a result, a major component of the project is the creation of a National Recreation Area (NRA) in this zone. Located within an hour drive of the nation’s fourth largest metropolitan area, an organized framework plan with a sensitive footprint has immense potential. To date, this proposal has been adopted by an organized action committee and has and continues to gain the support with local Galveston Bay communities.

 

Recommendation 3: Economic Sustainability

Establishing an NRA will have considerable economic impact. Its designation would be an act of congress, require no tax money to create, and all participation would be voluntary. Harbinger Consulting Group estimates that after a decade the NRA would attract 1.5 million annual visitors, create 5,260 jobs, and generate $192 million. Its economic impact would quadruple after 10 yrs. and tourism would triple. The collaborative management structure of the NRA ensures that existing communities will be involved in its development and can profit from its formation.

 

Implementation

Severe storms are a reality. Recent foreshadowing in Galveston Bay has resulted in a new discourse on its future. This project provides a diversity of pragmatic solutions that are gaining both political and community support in the region. Risk taking? The odds are not favorable.

 

 

Project Credits: 

SWA Group: Matt Baumgarten, ASLA; Alex Lahti; and Fangyi Lu

College of Architecture at the University of HoustonProf.: Thomas Colbert, AIA with Jason Honeycutt and Rose Lee as Research Assistants

SSPEED Center at Rice University: Phil Bedient and Jim Blackburn

 

加尔维斯顿湾罗利特海岸沿边弹性社区规划/SWA Group
Coastal Roulette: Planning Resilient Communities for Galveston Bay by SWA Group

 

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花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间 The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

Courtesy ofMikyoung Kim Design. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。 &这是一处极富童趣与艺术感的温馨医疗空间环境,深受儿童病患的喜爱,而这对于儿童医疗机构尤显重要。在该项目环境建设的材料选择中,健康环保材料的应用是关键性因素之一,同时,这也能够折射出景观设计师的设计专业性。创新性的材料应用与色... 阅读全文

Courtesy of Mikyoung Kim Design. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。

 

 

“这是一处极富童趣与艺术感的温馨医疗空间环境,深受儿童病患的喜爱,而这对于儿童医疗机构尤显重要。在该项目环境建设的材料选择中,健康环保材料的应用是关键性因素之一,同时,这也能够折射出景观设计师的设计专业性。创新性的材料应用与色彩搭配,令整个室内景观空间趣味十足,吸引着儿童病患们在此游乐。”——ASLA专业奖评语

“This is a happy and artistic space—a space for all. Kids love it and that's what’s important. The health concerns inherent with a hospital governed the choice of materials and the result shows that this landscape architect really knows how to design. It's very playful with innovative use of materials and colors that would appeal to children.”
—Professional Awards Jury

 

 

项目概述

 

安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院坐落于芝加哥市中心,医院大楼高达23层,花冠空中花园是大楼中的高层室内治愈性景观空间,它为儿童病患、家属、医生以及医院的其他医护、管理人员创造出理想的休憩与游乐空间。该空中花园的设计与建造以相应的科学研究为基础,将景观设计中的自然光照和冥思环境等元素与病患的治疗相结合,以缩短其治疗时间,利于早日康复。这一可再生性室内景观项目将疗愈花园设计元素和谐融入公共医疗保健机构的室内环境建设中,为同类医疗保健空间环境设计树立了全新典范。

 

项目描述

 

鲁利儿童医院位于芝加哥繁华的华丽大道上,是芝加哥市中心全新的儿科治疗中心。院方与病患家属顾问委员会联合将医院大楼11层中一处占地5 000平方英尺(约465平方米)的室内空间改造成为舒适、温馨的疗愈花园,其创新性景观设计思维,为这一以儿童为核心治疗对象的医疗保健机构营造出极具童趣与活力的室内治愈景观环境,因此,该院近年来时常得到社会各界的好评,并被冠以“花园医院”的美称。凭借着花冠空中花园优质的治愈性景观环境,医院还与健康设计中心取得合作,在园中进行相关的医学心理测试,测定医院的环境设计对于住院儿童和其父母的心理压力减缓所具有的积极影响。

 

该室内空中花园内设由定制式可再造树脂嵌板围合而成的若干竹林植栽槽,槽中散置着许多天然小石块作为装饰,还有当地可再生木材制成的休憩坐椅和雕饰性儿童玩具,这些元素共同构筑出一处拥有丰富视觉体验的景观空间。儿童病患们时常在这里玩耍、嬉戏,纯真的欢声笑语遍及整个花园空间,为这处室内景观区平添了许多活力。在玻璃幕墙温室环境的映衬中,在光、声、五彩树脂嵌板、当地可再生木材等一系列生动元素装点下,花园景致展现出别样的生机。蜿蜒的竹林间是线状大理石喷泉,加之整个景观空间的玻璃幕墙结构,与芝加哥市中心的繁华景象交相辉映。此外,花园中还设有一系列的个体和群体活动空间,为有免疫缺陷的儿童病患提供了适宜的活动环境,也可适当培养孩子们的求知欲与创新能力。作为由全球50家医院共同组成的“佩布工程”医疗保健团体其中一员,鲁利儿童医院目前正利用花冠空中花园作为案例研究基地,以求进一步深入解析这些花园环境的治愈疗效。

 

空中花园的地表景观主体位于医院大楼第11层,而竹林树屋则位于第12层,这一室内景观区的总体规划设计迎合了许多实用性需求:为儿童病患们了解芝加哥的城市历史风貌与自然环境提供了理想的俯瞰视角;遵循传染病控制委员会的相关要求,为患免疫缺陷的孩子们营造一个安全的活动环境;创造一系列互动机会以有效缓解治疗期间的心理压力;让孩子们可以充分享受自然界与自然光的呵护。花冠空中花园景观空间主要承担着心理与生理的双重医疗研究工作,而其相关研究表明自然环境与冥想空间的营造的确有利于病患的康复:通过相应电子仪器的测定,置身园内五分钟后,儿童病患的血压、心跳、大脑活动以及肌肉张力就会明显缓解而逐渐驱于正常。实质上,该园在设计之初,其目的就是为有效减缓病患心理压力而营造一系列水、竹相宜的宁静冥想环境与屏幕空间。社会性资助与物理治疗工作也被纳入到该项目综合设计的考量范畴。花园中央成为最为活跃的活动区域,在这里,隔周都会定期举办相应的公益演出和社区活动。花园的最终设计呈现出合理而灵活的空间布局,为儿童病患创造出锻炼身体的良佳环境,同时也提供了多样化的个人冥想体验与充满活力的群体互动体验。

 

为迎合项目整体设计的可持续性需求,花冠空中花园中大量采用了可回收性与可再生性材料。竹林植栽槽墙体由可再造树脂嵌板构筑而成,墙面上还安有相应的景观照明设施,形成光之墙,而这些材料中至少含有40%的可回收性物质。竹林树屋中的木质休憩坐椅与木地板也均采用当地可再生木材制成,并以天然无毒漆料饰面。而园中其余区域的水磨石地板也都采用回收性玻璃合成材料铺筑而成。

 

光之墙与竹林

光之墙的彩色树脂墙体是由一系列连环折叠式定制生态树脂嵌板构筑而成的,墙体在色彩的设计上形成由浅绿色到橙黄色的渐变。这些逐渐变换着色彩的彩色嵌板是一种能够有效抗菌的面板材料,其内安装的感应性照明设备使得儿童病患接近墙体时便形成一股迷人的色彩流。花园中央,安于挡土墙核心部位的LED灯,经过精心灯光布局与感应设计,在儿童病患们接近时,便会呈现形式多样的水景,从平静的潮水到活跃跳动的无数彩色气泡,不断变换着,这些视觉乐趣将孩子们的病痛压力悄悄带走。

 

水景:玻璃弹珠与气泡

由冻蓝莓色、金鱼色等各色玻璃弹珠徒手堆砌而成的弹珠堆,实质上是一个气泡式水景喷泉装置,这无疑为花园增添了一份色彩时尚,呈现出动态化的色彩设计,在夜晚灯光的映衬中生气十足。蜿蜒的光之墙墙面上流动着气泡水景,穿梭于竹林间,由于水有清洁作用,因而这样的墙体设计能够有效迎合对于控制传染的相应治疗需求。这种流动的气泡水景为花园中的两大主体冥想空间创建出良好的隔音屏障,以形成世外桃源般宁谧的疗愈环境。

 

可再生木材:环保原木:扑通作响!充满生趣!

可再生木材制成的休憩坐椅和儿童玩具雕饰分布于花园各处。这些木材都是芝加哥当地具有历史意义的木种,其中包括美国景观设计界鼻祖弗雷德里克·劳·奥姆斯特德为1893年的芝加哥世博会和芝加哥儿童动物园种植的树种。这些坚固的原木经过层层烘干处理,将内含腐蚀物和昆虫微生物的树脂层彻底煅烧,每块原木中的树脂层被由内而外进行煅烧、烘干,形成良好的光泽度,因此,这些休憩坐椅和儿童玩具雕饰在夜晚灯光的照射下显得格外醒目。从医院儿童病患中采集而来的手印样本,用于浇铸制作青铜手印感应器,可通过手印主人说话声进行感应传播,进而在景观水体中产生回声,让孩子们在快乐中忘却病痛的折磨。

 

缔造性树屋

位于医院大楼第12层的竹林树屋空间是整个空中花园的景观亮点,为患有严重免疫缺陷的患儿辟出理想的私密活动空间,这些患儿不宜在花园的公共空间中进行活动。这一受保护的特殊活动空间由一系列纵向交错的可再生山核桃端头木纹材料嵌板组成,与花园墙体和地面相连。木材的品种十分多样化,分别源自樱桃树、枫树、白蜡树和黑胡桃树等。木质嵌板上装点着的天空、小鸟、树叶等饰画元素,与树屋相互映衬,在玻璃幕墙内掩映出逼真的天然竹林世界。

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

11层景观结构透视图

Perspective View of Floor 11

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

空中花园各要素轴索图

Axon Diagram of Garden Elements

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

花园入口处餐饮区景致

View at Entry to Garden for Food Court

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

普伦蒂斯女子医院屋顶视角中的空中花园景致

View of Garden from Roof of Prentice Women's Hospital

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

由可再生木材制成的浇铸式儿童手印感应互动雕塑

View of Reclaimed Wood Interactive Sculpture with Cast Children's Hand Sensors

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

12层树屋中的可再生木质地板、墙面以及可再生原木

View at Tree House (Floor 12) with Reclaimed Wood Floors, Walls, and Reclaimed Founders Log

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

花园西侧的大理石喷泉走道

View at West Garden Corridor with Marble Fountain

Image: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

城市景观视角中的空中花园

City View Garden

Image by: George Heinrich Photography

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

安置着LED灯板与运动传感器的互动式光之墙

View at Interactive Light Wall with LED Panels and Motion Sensor.

Image by: George Heinrich Photography


 

Project Statement

 

Situated in the heart of downtown Chicago, the Crown Sky Garden is a sanctuary for patients, families, doctors and administrators within this 23 story Children's Hospital. The commitment to this sky garden was built upon a growing body of scientific research which links access to natural light and contemplative spaces to reduced patient recovery time. This regenerative project offers a new paradigm for healthcare design that integrates healing gardens as part of the health care regiment within these institutional environments.

 

Project Narrative

 

The Family Advisory Board and Lurie pediatric hospital transformed this five thousand square foot area on the 11th floor into an inspiring healing garden. The resulting design creates a vibrant sense of place and demonstrates innovative thinking for child centered healthcare and healing environments. Recently described as a hospital within a garden, this new pediatric center in Chicago, along the Magnificent Mile, is partnering with the Center for Health Design to examine the impact of hospital design on stress levels in hospitalized children and their parents in the Crown Sky Garden.

 

The Sky Garden is a rich experience of bamboo groves, custom recycled resin panels, natural stone and reclaimed wood from the region. Children activate the garden through direct engagement and orchestrate sounds of nature throughout this greenhouse space. Situated within a glass green house, this garden is defined by a series of interactive elements of light, and sound within the colored resin walls and the locally reclaimed wood elements. Meandering groves of bamboos frame linear marble fountains adjacent to contemplative views of downtown Chicago through floor to ceiling glass windows. The garden incorporates a range of individual and collective spaces that meet the needs of children with immune deficiencies, while offering a place for discovery and innovative engagement. As a member of the Pebble Project, a group of 50 hospitals worldwide, the Lurie Children's Hospital is currently utilizing the Crown Sky Garden as a case study to further understand the healing benefits of these garden environments.

 

This comprehensive plan of the main garden (11th floor) and tree house on the 12th floor was designed to meet several programmatic goals; to give inpatient children an opportunity to engage Chicago's storied historical and natural environment, to meet the stringent requirements of the infectious disease control board to create a safe environment for children with immune deficiencies, to create a range of interactive opportunities that mitigates stress, and to provide access to natural materials and light. The commitment for the Crown Sky Garden was based on psychological and physiological research which found significant restorative properties from nature and contemplative gardens. Within five minutes of engagement, studies have shown that there is a significant lowering of blood pressure, heart activity, electrical brain activity and muscle tension. Design of the Crown Sky Garden began with contemplative spaces for stress reduction, screening spaces with sounds of water and bamboo. Social support and physical therapy work was also designed into the programmatic design. The most active area was located in the center of the garden with bi-weekly performances and community engagement activities. The final design allows for programmatic flexibility, creating opportunities for physical movement and exercise, as well as a variety of contemplative individual and vibrant collective social experiences.

 

In order to contribute to the overall projects sustainability efforts, the Crown Sky Garden incorporates a significant amount of recycled and renewable material. The Light Walls are constructed with resin panels that are created with a minimum of 40% recycled content. The wood log seating elements and wood flooring in the tree house are locally reclaimed materials and utilize natural non-toxic finishes. The terrazzo flooring utilizes recycled glass aggregate.

 

Light Wall + Bamboo Groves

The colored resin wall is comprised of a series of folded and interlocking custom eco- resin panels that transform in color from aqua to saffron colors. These gradated colored panels are an effective anti-microbial surface and create a chromatic color flow as participants move around the walls. In the center of the garden, LED lights within the core of the retaining walls are choreographed to transform images of water as children activate the sensors; from calm tidal movements to intensely colorful bubbles.

 

Water: Marbles and Bubbles!

Hand stacked glass marbles organized in a chromatic fashion (with colors such as blueberry freeze and goldfish) contain a bubbler fountain that emerges from the planters and creates a dynamic color scheme that is animated with light in the evenings. Two sinuous walls of fluid effervescence weave through the bamboo groves and meet the stringent requirements of infectious control by containing all water. The bubbling experience creates a sound barrier for these two contemplative spaces that frame the main garden.

 

Reclaimed Wood: Sound Logs: Fizz Plop! Slosh

Reclaimed wood sculptures are located in the garden rooms and act as play elements and benches. The local material, repurposed from salvaged wood from Chicago's storied history, includes wood planted by Frederick Law Olmsted for the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and the Chicago Children's Zoo. These solid logs were kiln dried in layers and annealed with layers of resin that contain and preserve areas of rot and insect life. Within each of the logs, the resin layers are lit from within to create luminous benches in the evening. Bronze hands were cast from pediatric patients in the Children's Hospital and are the sensors that activate the sounds of water that emanate from the speakers carved into the reclaimed logs.

 

Founders Tree House

Located on the 12th floor above the main Sky Garden and framed by the bamboo canopy from the garden below, this intimate space is designed for inpatient children with serious immune deficiency conditions that prevent them from engaging the main garden. This protected space has a series of longitudinal cross sections of reclaimed wood that connect wall to floor surfaces and have an infill of hickory end grain panels. The sections of wood are a selection various species, from Cherry, Maple, Ash and Black Walnut varieties. As the wood wraps up the glass walls, printed surfaces of sky, birds, and leaves emerge through the wood panels.

 

 

项目信息:

设计与施工团队

首席设计师:米克阳·金,美国景观设计师协会会员

景观设计师(团队):瑞安·舒宾(项目经理);威廉·马登,美国景观设计师协会会员;马修·吉伦、史蒂夫·康斯托克、莎伦·斯科韦尔、维伦·高,安迪·科恩斯

总承包商:Mortenson Power Construction:马特·沙伦、布莱恩·查普曼、马塞拉·巴里奥斯、拜伦·诺尔

建筑设计:Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects

景观承包商/园艺顾问/灌溉顾问:Foliage Design Systems

主要树脂顾问:Creative Teknologies Corporation

次要树脂顾问:3Form

互交设计技术顾问:Tellart

水景顾问:Midwest Tropical

木饰/坐椅制造商:迈克·贾维尔 - Contemporary Furniture

木材供应商/城市护林机构:Horigan Urban Forest Products:布鲁斯·霍瑞根、埃里卡霍瑞根

木饰/承包商:Mr. David's Flooring International: PJ Nagic;The Bahr Company

青铜制造商:True Form Productions

特色材料

植栽供应:Georgia Bamboo

硬质景观/水磨石:John Caretti & Company

照明材料:Traxon LED Lighting Systems、iLight Technologies

景观街具:Knoll Studio Diamond Chair、Adult and Kid Size、Vitra Eames Elephants in Dark line、Classic Red and Ice Grey

木材供应:Horigan Urban Forest Products

灌溉材料:John Deere Landscapes, Hunter

卵石护根槽:Seaside Beach Pebbles

根茎生长区:American Hydrotech, Inc.

系统过滤:American Hydrotech, Inc.

防潮垫:American Hydrotech, Inc.

排水瓦管:Kieft Brothers

 

Project Credits: 

Design & Construction Team

Lead Designer: Mikyoung Kim, ASLA

Landscape Architect (Team): Ryan Shubin (Project Manager); William Madden, ASLA; Matthew Gillen, Steve Comstock, Shannon Scovell, Wileen Kao, Andy Kerns

General Contractor: Mortenson Power Construction: Matt Shannon, Brian Chapman, Marcela Barrios, Byron Noll

Architect: Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Architects

Landscape Contractor/ Horticultural Consultant/ Irrigation Consultant: Foliage Design Systems

Primary Resin Consultant: Creative Teknologies Corporation

Secondary Resin Consultant: 3Form

Interactive Technology Consultant: Tellart

Fountain Consultant: Midwest Tropical

Woodworker/ Bench Fabricator: Mike Jarvi - Contemporary Furniture

Wood Supplier/ Urban Forester: Horigan Urban Forest Products: Bruce Horigan, Erika Horigan

Wood Finisher / Contractor: Mr. David's Flooring International: PJ Nagic; The Bahr Company

Bronze Fabricator: True Form Productions

Featured Products

Plants: Georgia Bamboo

Hardscape/ Terrazzo: John Caretti & Company

Lighting: Traxon LED Lighting Systems; iLight Technologies

Furniture: Knoll Studio Diamond Chair, Adult and Kid Size, Vitra Eames Elephants in Dark line, Classic Red and Ice Grey

Lumber: Horigan Urban Forest Products

Irrigation: John Deere Landscapes, Hunter

Stone Pebble Mulch: Seaside Beach Pebbles

Root Stop: American Hydrotech, Inc.

System Filter: American Hydrotech, Inc.

Moisture Mat: American Hydrotech, Inc.

Drain Tile: Kieft Brothers

 

花冠空中花园:芝加哥安与罗伯特·H·鲁利儿童医院高层室内治愈景观空间
The Crown Sky Garden: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago by Mikyoung Kim Design

 

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朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

Courtesy ofAndrea Cochran Landscape Architecture. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。 &该项目成本投入较低,却传递出设计的独特魅力。雅致与简约相互映衬间,和谐地融于一体。这是一处能够真正迎合众多人口居住需求的宜居公寓景观空间。&&&2012ASLA专业奖评语 &This... 阅读全文

Courtesy of Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。

 

 

“该项目成本投入较低,却传递出设计的独特魅力。雅致与简约相互映衬间,和谐地融于一体。这是一处能够真正迎合众多人口居住需求的宜居公寓景观空间。”——2012ASLA专业奖评语

“This project conveys the power of design on a meager budget. It is elegant in its simplicity, yet resonates very strongly. It’s one of those projects that is really benefiting a much larger population. ”—2012 Professional Awards Jury

 

 

项目概述

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓为许多社会流浪人群提供了一处理想的稳定居所,内设120间设施齐全的单元住房,并提供心理咨询、医疗保健、职业培训和就业中介等相应的辅助性服务。公寓的景观设计包含街道景观、中央庭园及屋顶露台等公共区域的设计,并配备有一系列定制式户外景观陈设。项目材料均源于当地,且采用透水性碎石地面铺装材料,并进行雨水花园和绿色屋顶的设计,以便有效进行雨洪管理。

 

项目描述

 

项目背景

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓占地0.5英亩(约0.2公顷),位于旧金山一处极具开发潜质的居住区内,为许多社会流浪人群提供了全新的稳定居所。公寓内设120间单元住房,拥有雅致、舒适的绿化环境,并提供心理咨询、医疗保健和职业培训等相应的辅助性服务,还充分利用公寓楼内的面包房、咖啡馆等服务性场所为这些流浪人群创造适当的就业机会。此外,在每个单元住房中都配备有独立卫生间及厨房设施,户外也设有大型庭园、屋顶露台等公共景观空间,以及洗衣间、休息室、社区活动室等公共生活空间,这些场所内都设有相应的残疾人通道,为残疾人的户外活动提供了便利。

 

项目场地曾经是旧金山中央高速公路所在地,1989年的洛马普雷塔地震将高速公路摧毁,这里成了一片废墟,后经适当清理与改造形成一处停车场设施。在多个公共机构的资助下,由社区住房福利署和慈善住房之家这两个非盈利性住房组织联合对该项目进行开发与维护,新建起这幢五层楼高的公益性住房建筑。此地毗邻巴士公交及轨道交通站点,且周边设有各类服务设施,生活极为便利。

 

该公寓以朱利安及雷伊·理查森命名,他们曾在美国建成首个非裔美国人书店,罗莎·帕克斯、安吉拉·戴维斯、马尔科姆·艾克斯、康奈尔·韦斯特、比比·金以及休伊·牛顿等数百名极具声望的黑人运动领袖人物都造访过这家书店,在那里,店主朱利安与雷伊二人曾为非裔美国人竭力争取言论自由权、受教育权和参政权。

 

疗愈性景观空间

 

中央庭园是整个公寓景观区的核心,园中绿树成荫,曾是许多街头浪人的休憩之所。庭园内的原始空间形式虽显单一,其设计却具备多功能性。大型建筑中庭空间中设有定制式桌具、长椅和烧烤设施,可为大规模的团体聚会提供理想的活动空间,此外,一系列的微型私密坐歇区域也迎合了小型聚会的需求,同时也营造出静谧的个人冥思环境。遍植满园的蒲葵,与狭长、垂直的建筑中庭结构相互映衬;从公寓高层俯瞰中庭景致,绿意盎然,令人赏心悦目; 叶状贴纸壁饰为园中的南墙平添了几分生趣。大面积种植的狗脊蕨、日本蹄盖蕨、刺羽耳蕨、酢浆草等各式绿植将整个中央庭园装点成一片绿洲;这些植栽都具有生命力强、低维护性等优点,且耐阴、耐晒,不娇贵,易于养护。

 

中央庭园的上方是五层楼高的公寓建筑,顶层的屋顶露台上也设有相应的坐歇区、多汁植物园区、若干蔬菜园艺高位栽培床和景天属植栽区,为公寓住户们营造出又一处良佳的心理疗愈空间。

 

透过玻璃建筑外墙和玻璃窗,这些户外绿色空间清晰地映入眼帘,为住户和公寓管理人员创造出良好的绿化生活与工作环境。进入公寓建筑的大型窗口过道连接着入口大厅与中央庭园,底层空间布局合理,且从楼上四层的单元住房中均可清晰俯瞰庭园绿植。用于聚餐、聚会及开展相应就职培训课程的底层大型社区活动室也正对中央庭园,并设有两大扇滑行拉门,形成室内外空间的灵活互动。底层的心理咨询室内,巨型落地窗在透明亚麻窗帘的装点中,与中央庭园景观形成朦胧的视觉连接,同时又确保了室内的私密性,维护了咨询住户的个人隐私。楼中一处通往中央庭园的户外楼梯间,在本土葡萄藤架的掩映中,形成半封闭式的空间格局,为住户们提供了又一处相互沟通的空间环境。上述这些可圈可点的公共空间设计都有利于促进住户间的互动与交流,对流浪人群的心理康复具有积极的推动作用。

 

本土材质定制式户外景观陈设

 

户外桌具、嵌入式烧烤台、长椅、木凳等定制式庭园景观陈设的设计,都一致秉持雅致、舒适、耐用的设计理念。由于考虑到公寓住户中约有三分之一使用轮椅,景观设计师在各户外公共空间的设计中都充分满足这种需要,在底层各种活动场所的入口处以及悬壁式桌具与长椅之间的间隔空间中,都设置了相应的轮椅通道,并使其和谐地融于庭园景观中。户外长椅由蒙特利柏树原木制成,而木凳的制作材料则源自旧金山城市森林中的回收木材。这些当地木材材质较干,有利于减少挥发性密封胶的使用。底层户外景观区的排水通道由本土加工的当地黑色玄武岩碎石铺砌于长椅下方、建筑主体周边以及中央庭园各地面铺砖的缝隙间。

 

雨洪管理

 

该项目景观区的整体地面铺装以砂石土壤材料为主,雨水可有效渗透,避免产生积水;此外,还设置了相应的合流污水道和雨水处理系统,无论是对建筑景观区本身还是城市的整体发展而言,雨洪管理都是关键性要素。透水性铺装和雨水花园等创新性街道景观雨水处理设施的合理应用,既提升了城市公共区域的整体美感,又有效减缓了雨水径流,也对地下水资源形成了有力的补给。原有树种与全新树种交替植栽于公寓所在街道两旁,有利于地面上的多余水分进一步渗入泥土中,以防止道路积水。此外,全新树种都设有相应的定制式防护设施,以避免人为破坏或遭机动车撞伤。

 

公寓庭园中,各块地面铺砖之间都有一定的间隔,易于雨水渗入到地下砾石池中,进行有效的水雨收集。公寓其余景观空间中的地面雨水可通过相应的地面高差,倾流入雨水花园中,以作为绿化植栽的浇灌用水。公寓建筑主体周边也设有排水设施,以便公寓内生活用水可有效排入砾石池中。屋顶绿化植栽区中种植着各类观赏性与食用性兼具的植物,这些植栽区也有利于雨水的收集,形成自给自足的水资源系统,以免其外流入城市雨水处理系统中。

 

项目整体的高度设计性

 

尽管该项目的成本预算十分有限,但设计团队依然全心投入,高品质的细节设计与工艺处理始终贯穿项目的全过程,凭借着对于各个细节的创新性、低成本设计,为社会流浪人群创建出一处舒适的温馨家园。

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

左图:总平面图    Site Plan

Image by: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
 

右图:项目场地内的雨水都保持阶式渗流,以减缓水流冲击,从而确保排入地下蓄水池中的水体质量

Stormwater is retained below grade to reduce peak flow, improving the quality of water released into the bay.

Image by: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

左图:夜色中的中央庭园景致,模糊了公寓建筑与户外公共空间之间的视觉界限,二者相互映衬,融于一体。透过网格护栏,屋顶花园依稀可见

An overview of the central courtyard in the evening, illustrating the permeability between the architecture and exterior gathering spaces. The Roof Garden is visible through scrim at center. 

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

右图:从高层单元住房、公共活动场所和心理咨询室俯瞰底层中央庭园。由景观设计师设计的定制式户外景观陈设营造出一处促进住户相互交流的理想公共空间环境。各块地面铺砖之间都有一定的间隔,易于雨水渗入到地下砾石池中,进行有效的水雨收集

Living units, public areas, and counseling offices overlook the courtyard. Custom furniture designed by the landscape architects promote communal gathering. Spacers are installed between unit pavers, allowing stormwater to permeate into the gravel retention basin below.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

左图:从公寓建筑入口大厅视角观赏蕨类植物雨水花园,墨西哥蒲葵长势繁茂,与叶状贴纸壁饰共同构筑出庭园南面景致

Entry lobby overlooks a fern rain garden. Mexican Fan Palms provide scale and frame the existing mural beyond.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

右图:定制式坐椅由回收性柏树原木凿成。底层的心理咨询室内,巨型落地窗在透明亚麻窗帘的装点中,确保了室内的私密性,维护了咨询住户的个人隐私,同时又为室内空间提供了良好自然采光,亦可在朦胧中观赏户外的庭园景致

Custom seats hewn from reclaimed cypress. Architectural scrim offers privacy to the counseling spaces beyond, while allowing for natural light and glimpses of the garden from within.

Image by: Ryan Hughes

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

建筑设计师和景观设计师的通力协作,造就了室内外空间的和谐统一。由景观设计师设计的定制式烧烤台位于庭园的左侧,充满着生活化的温馨气息

Architect and landscape architect worked closely to create a seamless connection between interior and exterior public spaces. Custom barbeque designed by landscape architects at left.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

由景观设计师设计的户外坐椅设施,由回收性柏树原木定制而成,坚固实用且舒适雅致

Landscape architects designed custom furniture from reclaimed cypress logs to create comfortable seating that will withstand heavy use.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

左图:屋顶露台沿边的定制式耐腐钢质植栽槽中种植着成排的龙舌兰。由于在此居住的流浪人群大都患有相应的心理疾病,常常会在此发泄,因此在屋顶边缘特别设置了高耸的防护栏,以免发生不测

Agaves line the Roof Deck in custom Cor-ten steel planters. Due to the complex psychological issues some residents grapple with, tall screens provide safe enclosure at the edge of the roof.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

右图:公寓所在的福尔顿街,其街景改造包括对雨鸢尾雨水花园的建设和道路沿边透水铺装的铺设

Streetscape improvements along Fulton Street include a rain garden with Fortnight Lily and new permeable paving at the curb.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

屋顶露台的通风设施由复合板材与再生木材以及塑料质品构筑而成,各通风设施之间还设有一系列的公共活动空间、可供住户自行植栽的小型菜圃,以及可供雨洪管理的景天属植物绿化植栽区

The Roof Deck offers gathering spaces among roof vents screened with composite boards of recycled wood and plastic, vegetable gardens for residents, and a green roof planted with sedums for stormwater management.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

由景观设计师设计的定制式混凝土户外桌具,由镀锌金属支架支撑而起,与再生柏树原木长椅共同形成中央庭园的坐歇区

Custom concrete tables designed by the landscape architects, with galvanized metal supports, and reclaimed cypress benches.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

绿化植栽分布图

Planting Plan

Image by: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

街道上,崭新自行车停放架安装于全新的透水地面铺装上,新近种植的树种都设有相应的定制式防护设施,以避免人为破坏

On Gough Street, new bike racks are installed in new permeable paving. Custom tree guards withstand vandalism and protect new street trees.

Image by: Bruce Damonte

 

 

Project Statement

 

The Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments provide a dignified home for formerly homeless residents with 120 fully-equipped studios and supportive services, including counseling, medical care, job-training, and employment opportunities. The landscape design encompasses a streetscape, a central courtyard, and a roof deck – all fully-accessible with custom furnishings. The project uses local materials and offers a multi-faceted stormwater management with permeable paving over a gravel infiltration system, rain gardens, and a green roof.

 

Project Narrative

 

Project Background

 

On a half-acre site in an up-and-coming San Francisco neighborhood, the Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments provide a dignified new home for formerly homeless adults. The 120-unit, GreenPoint-Rated building offers supportive services such as a counseling center, an on-site medical suite, a job training program, and employment opportunities through the building’s bakery and cafés. In addition to their individual studios, each with a full bathroom and kitchenette, residents enjoy common amenities such as a large courtyard garden, a roof deck, laundry facilities, a lounge, and a large community room — all fully accessible to people with disabilities.

 

Financed by multiple public agencies, two non-profit housing organizations, Community Housing Partnership and Mercy Housing, partnered to develop and maintain this five-story building on a former parking lot, a site that had initially been cleared by the collapse of the Central Freeway in the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. The urban site is well-situated near bus lines, train lines, and services within walking distance.

 

The apartments are named for Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson, who founded the first, African American-owned bookstore in the United States. Rosa Parks, Angela Davis, Malcolm X, Cornel West, B.B. King, and Huey P. Newton are among the hundreds of esteemed figures to visit the Richardsons’ bookstore, Marcus Books, where Drs. Julian and Raye strove to empower African Americans through critical discussion, education, and politics.

 

Restorative Gardens

 

A lush, central courtyard forms the heart of the building, providing a respite from the tough streets on which residents once lived. The courtyard accommodates multiple types of uses within a single space. A large patio with custom tables, benches and barbeque, allows for flexible, communal gatherings, while more private areas provide seating for smaller groups or individual contemplation. The fan palms interspersed throughout the courtyard complement the narrow, vertical nature of the space and playfully engage with the residences on the floors above and the existing mural that forms the south face of the courtyard. Giant chain ferns, Japanese painted ferns, western sword fern, and wood sorrel help to create the atmosphere of a verdant oasis; they are durable, low-maintenance, and adaptable to the extreme solar conditions of full sun and deep shade.

 

Five stories above the courtyard, a roof deck offers another healing space for residents with seating areas, succulent gardens, raised beds for vegetable gardening, and a green roof with sedums.

 

The experience of these outdoor gardens permeates the daily life of the residents and staff through various layers of transparency. The entrance lobby connects to the courtyard through a large window that one encounters upon entering the building. Four floors of studios look down onto the courtyard below. A large community room, where meals are sometimes served and classes and gatherings may occur, opens directly onto the large patio space with two large sliding NanaWalls, doubling the program area. Large windows at the counseling rooms are treated with a translucent scrim which creates a visual link with the courtyard while maintaining privacy for the residents. An exterior stairwell, semi-enclosed by native grapevine trellises, exits into the courtyard and fosters chance encounters between residents. These design features help to connect the residents to one another in a healing environment.

 

Custom Furniture with Local Materials

 

The custom courtyard furnishings, which include the tables, a built-in barbeque with counter, benches and woodblock seats, are designed to be elegant, comfortable, and extremely durable. With roughly one-third of the building's residents in wheelchairs, the landscape architects also took care to provide full accessibility in their design. Wheelchair access is thoughtfully incorporated in the courtyard through cantilevered tables and spaces adjacent to and across from benches. The Monterey cypress logs used to fabricate the benches and block seats are reclaimed from urban forests throughout San Francisco. The wood was dried and fabricated locally and finished with a low VOC sealant. Locally sourced, black basalt gravel lines drainage areas under the benches, at perimeter of the building, and between the joints of the courtyard unit pavers, which are also fabricated in California.

 

Stormwater Management

 

An overall site strategy was developed to contain and maximize the infiltration of rainwater into the sandy site soils, which is critical for a city with a combined sewer and stormwater system. The innovative streetscape includes permeable pavers and rain gardens, which improve the aesthetics of the public realm while reducing site runoff and allowing for groundwater recharge. Existing and newly planted trees along Gough Street benefit from additional water draining into the site soils. New trees here are also protected by custom tree guards, designed to withstand vandalism and damage from cars.

 

Within the courtyard, spacers are installed between standard unit pavers to allow stormwater to permeate into the gravel retention basin below. Overflow and other paving areas are sloped into rain gardens, planted with palm trees and ferns. A perimeter drain also routes water away from the building and into the gravel retention system. On the roof, green roofs and planters, both ornamental and edible, also help to capture water that would otherwise enter the city storm system.

 

High Design for All

 

Despite the project’s limited budget, the design team remained committed to high quality detailing and craftsmanship throughout the process, donating time and creating innovative low-cost details, to ensure that the new residents would finally feel at home. 

 

 

项目信息:

社区住房福利署负责人:大卫·斯克诺

景观设计:Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture, Inc.:安德烈·科克伦,美国景观设计师协会理事;伊莱恩·肖,美国景观设计师协会会员;苏珊·休斯、阿米尔·库宁、莎拉·科泽尔、朱利安·西梅奥尼

设计与施工团队:

建筑设计:David Baker + Partners Architects

辅助性建筑设计:Baker Vilar Architects

土木工程:Sandis

电气工程:FW Associates

总承包商:Cahill Contractors

岩土工程:Treadwell & Rollo

灌溉顾问:Russell D. Mitchell and Associates, Inc.

景观承包商:Eggli Landscape Contractors Inc.

照明设计:Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design

业主代表:Design Studios Gonzalo Castro

结构工程:Structural Design Engineers

特色材料:

曲状LED:B-K Lighting

Duraedge品牌钢质边饰:The J.D. Russell Company

砾石供给:Crushed Black Basalt and Import Planting Soils Amended with Wondergrow

重型镀锌储罐:Behlen Manufacturing Co.

照明材料:Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design

长椅下方照明材料、微型LED灯条:NSL Architectural and Decorative Lighting

地面铺砖干砌材料:Paverhelp.com

狭小模块化地面铺砖:Stepstone, Inc.

棕榈植栽:Ellis Farms

桌面及烧烤台:Concreteworks Studio

木材供应:Green Waste Recycle Yard

 

Project Credits:

Community Housing Partnership: David Schnur

Landscape Architect: Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture, Inc.: Andrea Cochran, FASLA; Elaine Shaw, ASLA; Susan Hughes; Amir Kunin; Sarah Keizer; and Julian Simeoni

Design & Construction Team:

Architect: David Baker + Partners Architects

Associate Architect: Baker Vilar Architects

Civil Engineer: Sandis

Electrical Engineer: FW Associates

General Contractor: Cahill Contractors

Geotechnical Engineer: Treadwell & Rollo

Irrigation Consultant: Russell D. Mitchell and Associates, Inc.

Landscape Contractor: Eggli Landscape Contractors Inc.

Lighting: Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design

Owner's Representative: Design Studios Gonzalo Castro

Structural Engineer: Structural Design Engineers

Featured Products: 

Aristar LED: B-K Lighting

Duraedge Steel Edging: The J.D. Russell Company

Gravel: Crushed Black Basalt and Import Planting Soils Amended with Wondergrow Organic Compost: American Soil & Stone

Heavy Duty Galvanized Stock Tanks: Behlen Manufacturing Co.

Lighting: Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design

Lighting Below Benches; Micro LED Light Strip: NSL Architectural and Decorative Lighting

Mortarless Spacer: Paverhelp.com

Narrow Modular Pavers: Stepstone, Inc.

Palm Trees: Ellis Farms

Tabletops and Barbecue counter: Concreteworks Studio

Wood Supplier: Green Waste Recycle Yard

 

朱利安及雷伊·理查森疗愈公寓/Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture

 

网页链接:http://www.90dg.cn/landscape/2015/0130/359.html

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洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

Courtesy ofMia Lehrer + Associates. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。 &这是一个具有地标意义的城市改造工程,其改造意图简单、工程规模庞大,且相应举措大胆而显突破性。设计理念富于创意,将创造出一处可与曼哈顿景致相媲美的河道景观带。&&&ASLA分析与规划专业奖评语 &Iconic. ... 阅读全文

Courtesy of Mia Lehrer + Associates. Via ASLA. 90degree编译,未经许可,不得转载。

 

 

“这是一个具有地标意义的城市改造工程,其改造意图简单、工程规模庞大,且相应举措大胆而显突破性。设计理念富于创意,将创造出一处可与曼哈顿景致相媲美的河道景观带。”——ASLA分析与规划专业奖评语

“Iconic. A simple, big, bold move. And it’s a cool idea to have a promontory overlooking Manhattan.”—ASLA Professional Awards Jury

 

 

项目概述

该项目旨在将洛杉矶一处占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场改造成为全新的滨水生境,并为民众营造一系列宜人的滨水公共空间,同时也可在城市中央河道洪峰来临时,确保其常规水力性能。为使项目场地能够更加顺利地完成从了无生趣的工业景观向充满生机的滨水景观带的华美蜕变,项目研究报告中概括性地阐述了地块开发与水文工程相关举措,力求打造出规模宏大且具革新意义的河岸景致,为洛杉矶河河道的整体治理奠定良好基础,并带动城市重建的全面启动。

 

项目描述

对城市中心工业用地进行改造,是21世纪现代城市变革的一种必然手段,有助于注入更多的城市活力,适应大都市不断发展的需求。城市核心区及其所发挥的作用,对于一座城市的发展具有重大意义,土地修复与历史性工业区的有效改造,也有利于缓解市区人口负担。在对工业区进行适当改造的同时,洛杉矶市政部门清醒地意识到,废弃荒地的有效利用十分重要。该市力图通过诸如城市河道清理等技术手段,有效修复工业区景观,进而形成环境清新、经济繁荣的全新宜居景观带,以迎合城市居住人口日益增长的相应需求,也为当地的科学技术发展和可持续性再生能源的研发提供更为良好的客观环境。

 

该项目的施行标志着固有城市规划思维模式的一种转变,象征着该区域自此摒弃20世纪以短期利益为优先考虑的腐朽城市规划理念,同时也展示了城市基础设施建设大规模变革的重要性,这样的变革将有利于社会环境与生态环境长远的良好发展。该项目的可行性研究,其目的在于对项目的发展潜质做更为深入的前期了解,以便项目概念性总体规划的顺利开展。研究活动着重围绕“水文环境对于项目场地和河流的影响,以及项目场地现阶段市场价值与其收购策略”这两方面的调研展开,以协助项目团队更好地理解整个项目规划的相关愿景。

 

可行性研究遵循项目概念性总体规划布局,渐进式开展,以为洛杉矶河河道修复工程与洛杉矶市区景观改造工程征得最大力度的资金投入。作为大规模城市改造的典范,该项目对城市的未来发展起到了积极的推动作用,以绿色基础设施各分支系统建设为主体改造方式,力求将绿化生态环境植入到城市的每一个角落,最大程度地让民众在如此规模的城市改造中获益。针对城市化对自然环境带来的诸多不利影响,该可行性研究中提出了多元化的解决方案,并详尽阐释了这一多元化方案在河道修复工程中的具体体现及其与城市未来发展之间的密切关系。

 

该项目概念性规划以四大原则为基础:对位于市区中心的洛杉矶河进行治理和改造;创建对城市发展具有深远意义的一系列公共开放空间;实现各邻近住区间的相互连通;为市民营造适于居住、工作、学习和游乐的多样化宜居城市环境。铁路站场项目场地的合理改造有助于加强洛杉矶城市东部地区与市中心的连接与沟通,为东部发展创造了良好的机遇。项目场地周边完善的街道设施系统建设,为行人与骑自行车人群提供了相应便利,弥补了河道间桥梁连接设施匮乏的缺憾。随着项目场地与河流的有效改造,在河岸边缘地带及对岸相应区域也将建立起全新的连接设施。作为一个综合性城市改造工程,该项目规划具有着举足轻重的意义,将显著增强城市人口的流动性,并将为城市区域的导向性发展创造许多机会。

 

可行性研究的主体还在于区域开发和相应的水文研究,进而将项目场地从毫无生趣的工业景观,向以洛杉矶河为主导且充满生机的滨水景观成功转型。就其地块规模与地理位置而言,洛杉矶河沿岸这处工业场地的合理改造可为河流的自然生态系统修复创造难得的机遇,同时亦可增强各城市区域间的相互连通,并通过城市的再发展带动经济的全面繁荣发展。

 

项目场地的潜在改造十分有利于洛杉矶河市区河段的生态修复,进而带动整条河流的生态系统恢复。因而,对于流经项目场地的相应河段,其修复性设计理念应适当权衡水文、生态、文化、经济等各方面的利弊。该项目的相关水文规划方案中还增设了合理的蓄洪设施,以有效确保城市洪泛区域及其周边民众的人生财产安全。水文规划方案包括水质改善系列措施:例如,建立雨水径流及水处理设施系统、创建环境良好的动植物生境、适当增加滨水植被量、改善软土土质等。蓄洪设施加强、水体质量提升以及动植物栖息生境改善等措施有利于增强项目场地与洛杉矶河之间的相互连通,进而提升河流生态性能,同时减少项目场地的环境隐患,为沿河民众营造可供居住、工作和游乐的全新宜居空间。

 

可行性研究中的土地收购及开发相关内容主要涉及两大关键性问题:首先,应对该项目的长期性规划效应保持清醒认识,准确评估当前的相应市场状况,并寻求合理的支撑点;其次,寻求有效收购策略,以掌控土地资产。通过咨询房地产开发商专家组,得出科学、合理的市场分析,以便项目团队对项目场地概念性规划中所预期的收购与开发可行性有更为深入的了解。可开发区域环绕于项目场地北部、东部及南部的边缘地带,需最大限度挖掘场地滨河区域的开发潜力,同时,确保场地内大部分区域内大型滨水多功能开放空间的系列功用。此外,该项目还需对洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)的相应地产进行并购,其中包括项目场地本身,以及场地主体地块东南角与西南角中的其他七座额外建筑。

 

以规划开发多功能型地块为主,该项目将开发出诸如南加州大学健康科学院、啤酒艺术区等一系列校园式环境设施,并对它们的功用进行进一步提升,其中的轻净科技廊道,将会时常吸引各类新兴企业前往举办各种创业宣传活动,以鼓励大学生自主创业。项目场地距离联合车站近1英里(约1.6公里),交通便利,适宜鼓励人们多采用步行与公交等出行方式,以创造更为健康、舒适的生活环境。全新的高速铁路站点将拟建于原铁路站场轨道区与滨河带之间,这里将成为整个项目场地中开发力度最大、未来最为繁华的区域,因此,相关项目开发团队还将在这里兴建一座高层综合商贸大楼,以带动区域性经济发展。全新的“滨河公园景观区”标志着洛杉矶创新经济时代的到来,同时,绿化及休闲公共空间的建造也有力地改善了河岸的生态环境。

 

为推进该项目可行性研究及收购策略的进一步施行,联合太平洋铁路公司所属的洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)需要进行相应迁移。然而,铁路设施的迁移势必对整个铁路系统及联合太平洋铁路公司的日常物流运输活动造成巨大影响。因此,经由相关部门推荐,一名交通及物流运输专家参与到该项目中,专门针对该项目的实际情况,制定了一份补充性综合策略方案。除了洛杉矶运输中心迁移的策略性方案,项目场地的环境评估报告也显得尤为重要,在场地重新开发乃至投入使用之前,项目团队需要根据这份报告,对项目整体进行大规模的修复与治理。此外,项目后期还需要一名土地顾问的介入,以便在项目场地重新开发及洛杉矶运输中心迁移过程中,协助项目团队对区域划分及相关权益的进行专业分析。

 

综上所述,该项目为诸如城市基础设施建设、城市地块开发以及开放空间建设等类似项目树立了典范,提供了良好的借鉴,也为未来的城市重建起到了有力的推动作用。

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

铁路站场与洛杉矶河

总平面图

Piggyback and the Los Angeles River

Site Plan 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

铁路站场与洛杉矶河

就其地块规模与地理位置而言,洛杉矶河沿岸这处工业场地的合理改造可为河流的自然生态系统修复创造难得的机遇,同时亦可增强各城市区域间的相互连通,并通过城市的再发展带动经济的全面繁荣发展

Piggyback and the Los Angeles River

The size and location of the Piggyback Yard site along the Los Angeles River offers a unique opportunity to allow the river to regain some of its natural character, create neighborhood enhancement opportunities and increase economic prosperity through redevelopment. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

铁路站场改造

项目场地总面积为177英亩(约72公顷),其中包括占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场主体,就学术定义而言,还包含洛杉矶运输中心(LATC)和主要位于项目场地边缘地带上一些零星小型轻工业用地

Transforming a Railyard

The project area includes the 125-acre Piggyback Rail Yard, technically referred to as the Los Angeles Transportation Center (LATC) and an assortment of adjoining smaller parcels of predominantly marginalized light industrial uses, comprising a total of 177 acres. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

沿河休闲区

营造一处适合于各类不同人群休闲、观光的独特城市滨河景观带,同时为洛杉矶的东部与西部地区建立起有效连接,并进行相应的湿地修复、绿地创建、滞洪设施建设以及住区开发等措施,以呈现洛杉矶河两岸的宜居景象

A River Destination

Offering genuine access and connectivity to a unique urban riparian landscape for a diverse population, bridging a gap between east and west L.A, combining wetlands restoration, parkland creation, flood detention and community development that supports a livable Los Angeles River. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

设计理念研究

项目团队创建了“河流搁浅法”与“河道拓宽法”这两种不同的水文策略以达到缓解洪泛灾害、创建滨水生境的目的,然而,通过对这两种策略的概念性总体规划方案进行初步评估与对比分析,项目团队又拟定了第三种策略——“岛屿溢流法”,也制定出相应的概念性总体规划方案,对前两个方案进行了整合与优化

Exploring Design Concepts

After an initial assessment of two conceptual master plans – River Strand and Broadened River – each employing different approaches to managing flood attenuation and creating areas for habitat, third strategy Island Overflow was developed maximizing benefits from the two previous plans.

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

开放空间开发策略

相应的开放空间开发研究策略旨在建立起全新开放空间与现有街道及毗邻城市设施之间的最大化连接

Open Space Development Balance

Studying strategies for maximizing connections and adjacencies to existing streets and neighboring uses.

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

多元化解决方案

该项目在城市河道改造的可行性研究中,提出了一个多元化解决方案,以解决城市化对自然环境所形成的种种不良影响,并有力推动整体城市改造的进程

A Multibenefit Solution

Presenting a multi-benefit solution to resolve the compounding effects of urbanization on the environment, this river revitalization project acts as catalyst for future urban regeneration. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

城市活力与复苏

项目团队意识到洛杉矶河流经众多城市区域、住区及自然自然保护区,沿岸景致各具特色,而该项目的滨水景观带中拥有独特的洛杉矶工业廊道景观,于是,项目团队便以此作为该河段沿岸的特色景致进行规划与开发

Urban Vitality and Resilience

Recognizing that the LA River navigates through many conditions of urban places, neighborhoods, and naturalized areas, the Piggyback vision embraces the industrial corridor of Los Angeles a as unique to itself. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

暴雨天气应对

充分利用占地125英亩(约51公顷)的铁路站场地块,进行大范围的河道改造,以有效确保洪峰来临时的水力性能,进而创建出一处有利于滨河自然生境健康发展的全新公共空间地带

Storm Event Management

Utilizing the full extent of the rail yard property, the 125-acre parcel allows for the unique opportunity to significantly alter the river channel creating a new terrain that supports riparian habitat and provides public access while maintaining hydraulic performance during peak flows. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

水质的提高

该项目的场地设计,通过土地使用性质转变、洛杉矶河生态功能提升,以及雨水处理技术应用等一系列的改进措施,将有效提高河流水质

Improved Water Quality

The design of the Piggyback Yard site will improve water quality through a number of enhancements, including land use conversion of the site, improved ecological functioning of the LA River, and stormwater treatment technologies. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

连接与沟通

铁路站场项目场地的合理改造有助于加强洛杉矶城市东部地区与市中心的连接与沟通,为东部发展创造了良好的机遇,同时也弥补了河道间桥梁连接设施匮乏的缺憾

Connectivity

With respect to the lack of connections across the river, the Piggyback Yard site is an incredible opportunity to improve connectivity mending the neighborhoods of East LA together with downtown

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

场地规划

项目场地以地势与河流的高差和距离进行相应规划:利用率较低的建筑设施规划于地势较低区域,建筑密度将随地势的升高和人口密度的增加而增加,确保自然生境的健康发展,并最大限度地降低项目场地的养护成本,大力兴建公众活动空间,促进场地与河流相互间的积极影响

Site Programming

Organized by elevation and proximity to the river; passive uses are located in the lower plateaus increasing in intensity as the elevation increases orienting people, ensuring the sanctity of habitat areas, minimizing maintenance, providing access, and heightening awareness of the sites relationship to the river.

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

洛杉矶河河道改造

城市基础设施系统必须进行合理、有效的改造,以应对20世纪以来因城市化而愈加频繁的暴风雨极端天气

Recalibrating the Los Angeles River

Our cities must plan to recalibrate its infrastructural systems to handle the compounding effects of 20th Century urbanization combined with more frequent and severe storms as a result climate change.

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

促进城市互动

洛杉矶的城市改造,有利于城市住区与生态环境的同步改善,为人类与自然界和谐互动创造了良机

Supporting Interactions

Transforming Los Angeles for the symbiotic betterment of its community and its ecology, creating a significant opportunity for meaningful interaction between people and nature.

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

建立全新工业景观

洛杉矶市正在有效修复其工业区景观,进而形成系列环境清新、经济繁荣的全新宜居景观带,以迎合城市居住人口日益增长的相应需求,也为当地的科学技术发展和可持续性再生能源的研发提供更为良好的客观环境

A New Industrial Landscape

The city is in process of fostering a new industrial landscape compatible for urban residential growth and fosters an industrial sector that is cleaner, non-harmful, denser and more economically robust; sponsoring centers for technological advancement and sustainable/regenerative research. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

思维模式转变

该项目的成功施行标志着固有城市规划思维模式的一种转变,象征着该区域自此摒弃20世纪腐朽的城市规划理念,同时也展示了城市基础设施建设大规模变革的重要性,这样的变革将有利于社会环境与生态环境长远的良好发展

Shifting the Paradigm

The Piggyback Yard represents the paradigm shift, signaling a departure from the region’s 20th Century process of development and signals the importance of large infrastructural change that provide long-lasting benefits for both the community and environment. 

Image by: Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

 

Project Statement

This project examines converting a 125-acre rail yard into a new terrain supporting riparian habitat and providing public access while maintaining hydraulic performance during peak flows within the central corridor of Los Angeles. Outlining the development and hydrological programs that will transform Piggyback Yard from a concrete industrial landscape to a “River Destination”, an ambitious, transformative vision forms the cornerstone of the revitalization of the LA River corridor acting as a catalyst for urban regeneration.

 

Project Narrative

As a means to make our urban centers more vital, the transformation of central city industrial lands to accommodate metropolitan growth is simply a process of 21st century change. The significance of the nucleus of city’s central space and ability to host significant populations within our cities urban centers will outweigh the burden of remediation of land and processes for unlocking historically controlled industrial properties. Los Angeles is actively recognizing the importance of the ability to accommodate for higher and better uses of derelict lands while preserving the industrial zoning. Through efforts like the Clean-tech corridor the city is in process of fostering a new industrial landscape compatible for urban residential growth and fosters an industrial sector that is cleaner, non-harmful, denser and more economically robust; sponsoring centers for technological advancement and sustainable/regenerative research.

 

The Piggyback Yard represents the paradigm shift, signaling a departure from the region’s 20th Century process of development (compromising land for the sake of ease of implementation and short-sighted planning) and signals the importance of large infrastructural change that provide long-lasting benefits for both the community and environment. The purpose of the Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study is to further understand the project’s scope and extent based upon the extensive work developed from the pro-bono Piggyback Yard Conceptual Master Plan. The study focuses on two topics critical to understanding the project’s aspirations: 1) the effects of hydrology on the site and river, and 2) understanding the site’s current market value and strategy for acquisition.

 

The vision for the Feasibility Study follows the path laid out by the Piggyback Conceptual Master Plan – one that seeks to maximize investment for the revitalization of the LA River and creation of a new place within the landscape of Downtown Los Angeles. The Piggyback Yard exemplifies the notion of urban regeneration, serving as a catalytic type of project that employs a systems-based form of green infrastructure that maximizes the benefits of ecology for people and place. Presenting a multi-benefit solution to resolve the compounding effects of urbanization on the environment, the Feasibility Study provides a description of the layering of benefits as a river revitalization project and its relevance to the city’s future.

 

The conceptual plan for the Piggyback Yard is founded on four key principles – to revitalize the Los Angeles River at the heart of the city; create significant public open space; connect adjacent neighborhoods; and build a diverse, vibrant community where people live, work, learn and play. The Piggyback Yard site is an incredible opportunity to improve connectivity mending the neighborhoods of East LA together with downtown. With respect to the lack of connections across the river, the streets that surround the site will serve a more vital role to connect pedestrians and cyclists. The site and river will afford new connections along and across the river’s banks. As a combined vision the plan plays a significant role in continued improvements for mobility and opportunities for community-oriented development.

 

Outlined in the Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study, is the development and hydrological programs that will transform Piggyback Yard from a concrete industrial landscape to a “River Destination” with the LA River featured as its primary asset. The size and location of the Piggyback Yard site along the Los Angeles River offers a unique opportunity to allow the river to regain some of its natural character, create neighborhood enhancement opportunities and increase economic prosperity through redevelopment.

 

The Piggyback Yard’s potential redevelopment will allow the LA River to become revitalized in a way that is unique to the downtown stretch of the river. To this end, design concepts were developed that allow for the river flows to access the Piggyback Yard in a manner that balances hydrologic, ecological, cultural and economic benefits. The hydrological program of the project provides additional flood storage to offset the risks of adjacent properties that are currently within the limits of the floodplain. The hydrological program includes water quality improvement elements, such as runoff and water treatment, and habitat creation, such as enhanced vegetation along the River and soft-bottom conversion. The flood storage, water quality and habitat enhancement components would establish a strong connection between Piggyback Yard and the LA River that enhances the ecological performance of the river, mitigates the site’s environmental risks, and creates a new destination on the LA River for people to live, work, and play.

 

The land acquisition and development portion of the Feasibility Study focused on two key analyses: firstly, assessing the current market, what can be reasonably supported today, recognizing that this is a long term planning effort; and secondly, what is the acquisition strategy for controlling the property. A market analysis was conducted along with consultation from wan expert panel of real estate developers to understand the feasibility of acquiring and developing the Piggyback Yard site as envisioned in the Conceptual Master Plan. The developable area rings the site’s northern, eastern and southern edges maximizing the site’s potential for riverfront edge development while maintaining most of the site as a multipurpose open space that engages the river. The project would require acquisition of the Los Angeles Transportation Center (LATC), also known as the Piggyback Yard, as well as seven additional properties at the southwest and southeast corners of the main parcel.

 

The development program envisions mixed-use development, a series of campus-like settings that further promote adjoining uses that include the USC Health Sciences Campus and the Brewery Arts District, as well as spur on the entrepreneurial activity emanating from start-ups within the Cleantech Corridor. Situated within a mile from Union Station, the Piggyback Yard is positioned to foster a walkable, transit served community prompting a more active population on the river. With the potential for the new High Speed Rail Station to be located somewhere between the existing tracks and the river, the eventual transformation of the area could spark a dramatic development transformation bringing on a 24-7 level of activity. This new “River Park Campus” will signal the arrival of Los Angeles’ innovation economy, while simultaneously providing green and recreational space to support the River’s environmental revitalization efforts.

 

To move forward with the Feasibility Analysis and Acquisition Strategy of the Piggyback Yard, a relocation strategy for Union Pacific’s LATC must be developed. The potential relocation of the rail facilities will have dramatic effects on the rail network and goods movement activities of Union Pacific. It is recommended that a Transportation and Goods Movement Expert would make an integral addition to the project. In addition to the relocation strategy of the LATC, an environmental assessment of the Piggy- back Yard site is recommended as it is likely that it will require significant remediation before it can be redeveloped and made ready for public use. At a later phase, it is recommended that a Land Consultant be hired to assist in the zoning and entitlements analysis required for the redevelopment of the Piggyback Yard site and for the relocation of the LATC.

 

Ultimately, the Piggyback Yard as described in this report offers the most significant opportunity to spur on similar projects that approach infrastructure, development and open space holistically and act as catalyst for future urban regeneration.

 

 

项目信息:

项目首席设计及景观设计:Mia Lehrer + Associates

其余项目团队:Friends of the Los Angeles River, LA River Revitalization Corporation, Geosyntec Consultants, ELP Advisors LLC and Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy

项目总体规划团队:Friends of the Los Angeles River, Chee Salette Architecture Office, Michael Maltzan Architecture and Perkins+Will

 

Project Credits:

Lead Designer and Landscape Architect: Mia Lehrer + Associates

Additional Teams: Friends of the Los Angeles River, LA River Revitalization Corporation, Geosyntec Consultants, ELP Advisors LLC and Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy

Piggyback Master Plan Group: Friends of the Los Angeles River, Chee Salette Architecture Office, Michael Maltzan Architecture and Perkins+Will

 

洛杉矶铁路运输站场及城市河道改造可行性研究/Mia Lehrer + Associates
Piggyback Yard Feasibility Study by Mia Lehrer + Associates

 

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张唐景观设计的位于广东省东莞市的万科建研中心生态园区荣获ASLA(美国景观设计师协会)2014年综合设计类荣誉奖。本文详述了这个项目的背景和设计思路,表达了张唐景观对于生态景观的技术与艺术如何结合的深入思考和探索。

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

项目背景

 

万科建筑研究中心,其研究重点在于住宅产业化研究,将成为主要进行建筑材料、低能耗,以及生态景观相关方面的研究基地。在景观方面将重点研发生态材料,例如如何将预制混凝土模块应用在将来的地产项目中、探索不同类型的透水材料、植物配植等。此外这个项目最重要的是要探索如何将景观的艺术与生态结合起来,使生态景观成为可供欣赏、教育和参与的场所。因此,该项目是动态的,并可进行观察、修改的。

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

项目构成

 

1预制混凝土模块的研发与应用

 

预制混凝土(precast concrete,以下简称PC)技术在欧美国家已非常成熟,应用普遍。从外观上,预制混凝土模块的尺寸、颜色、质感,与花岗岩相差无几。同时,它有着显著的低能耗意义:首先,采用PC替代石材,可以避免大面积矿石的开采。其次,在中国,大部分硬质景观铺装都会采用混凝土垫层,因此,只要采用硬质铺装——无论是用于车行还是人行——都无法实现雨水渗透。而PC的厚度很大,可以省去混凝土的垫层,从而加强了雨水向地面的渗透。同时,PC还可以进行异形加工,使得嵌草铺装成为可能。停车场、消防车道这些规范所要求的大面积硬质铺装,其视觉效果和生态意义都能得到提升。


【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

 

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

 

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

 

 

2)景观生态水循环处理系统的展示

 

张唐的设计就是让暴雨季节的大量雨水持续循环、流动起来,以保持水质。首先,32m高的风车提供了动力,将最初收集的雨水提升到建筑屋顶上,通过屋顶的雨水花园进行曝氧处理,直至跌落到地面的水池,实现初级净化;然后,雨水将流经地面上的植物净化系列水池,组织了参观、维护的通道和功能;得到再次净化的水,将通过一个检测阀,达到净化标准的水可以进入一个镜面水池,成为儿童嬉戏活动的场所,未达到标准的水,将会重新回到水循环系统,再次进行净化。

 

以风能为动力,让雨季储存的雨水流动循环,不断净化,直至下一个雨季的到来。这样的雨水花园,尊重地域特点,以节能为根本,同时提供了教育、欣赏、娱乐的可能。

 

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

3)景观生态材料与手法的实验与应用

 

自然界的雨水通过降雨、渗透、蒸腾等作用而循环往复。但随着城市的建设,大自然最基本的循环被粗鲁地打断,雨水不再下渗而是被收集在地下雨水管网中,河湖得不到补充,地下水日趋减少,往往城市大涝,乡村大旱。

 

在本项目的两处地块中,张唐尝试去了解:哪些植被/材料可以最大程度地使雨水渗入地下?什么方式可以帮助雨水的下渗?在一处三角形的地块中,我们采取了植物实验,与低矮的灌木和草坪相比较,乔木因为可以延长雨水落地的时间,是雨洪管理中最有效的元素。因此,在这个地块中我们将乔木种植在三角形坡地的高点,与低矮植被形成对比和参照;由于坡地草坪会使雨水迅速流走,因此我们采用了波浪形的草坪,不仅从形式上提供了不一样的空间感受,在功能上也增加雨水下渗的时间。草坪的坡度及波浪的坡度可以调整,从而实现最佳的渗透效果,而不会引起积水亦或流速过快。

 

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

 

 

 

在无法种植植被的区域,哪些硬质可以最大程度帮助雨水下渗?在半环形的地块中,我们对不同硬质材料进行了考察。半环形的波浪之间使用了不同的渗水材料(树皮、陶粒、碎石、细沙等),波浪的边界采用溢水设计,可供观察、比较不同材料的溢水量大小。

 

【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

 

本文源自“风景园林新青年”,仅供学习与交流之用。



 

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【就是任性】张唐景观——万科建研中心生态园区

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